Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Aluminium Related Abstracts

12 The Effect of Vanadium Addition on the Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of A319 Aluminum Alloy

Authors: Musbah Mahfoud, Ibtisam Mustafa


The present work highlights some of our up-to-date findings on the effect of vanadium addition on the mechanical properties and microstructure of one of the most versatile aluminum-silicon alloys, i.e., A319. In terms of microstructure, it was found that in addition to its ability to refine some of the constituent phases, vanadium also helps in retarding the formation of some of the detrimental intermetallic compounds, such as those involving Al-Fe-Si. Preliminary studies of the effect of vanadium on the mechanical properties of A319 have shown that vanadium additions up to 0.4% cause slight increase in the yield and tensile strength. However, the vanadium addition did not show a significant effect on the hardness of the alloy.

Keywords: Microstructure, Mechanical Properties, Aluminium, vanadium, intermetallic

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11 Treatment of Interferograms Image of Perturbation Processes in Metallic Samples by Optical Method

Authors: Daira Radouane, Naim Boudmagh, Hamada Adel


The but of this handling is to use the technique of the shearing with a mechanism lapping machine of image: a prism of Wollaston. We want to characterize this prism in order to be able to employ it later on in an analysis by shearing. A prism of Wollaston is a prism produced in a birefringent material i.e. having two indexes of refraction. This prism is cleaved so as to present the directions associated with these indices in its face with entry. It should be noted that these directions are perpendicular between them.

Keywords: Interferometry, Aluminium, non destructive control, treatment of image

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10 Sandwich Structure Composites: Effect of Kenaf on Mechanical Properties

Authors: Maizatulnisa Othman, Mohamad Bukhari, Zahurin Halim, Souad A. Muhammad, Khalisani Khalid


Sandwich structure composites produced by epoxy core and aluminium skin were developed as potential building materials. Interface bonding between core and skin was controlled by varying kenaf content. Five different weight percentage of kenaf loading ranging from 10 wt% to 50 wt% were employed in the core manufacturing in order to study the mechanical properties of the sandwich composite. Properties of skin aluminium with epoxy were found to be affected by drying time of the adhesive. Mechanical behavior of manufactured sandwich composites in relation with properties of constituent materials was studied. It was found that 30 wt% of kenaf loading contributed to increase the flexural strength and flexural modulus up to 102 MPa and 32 Gpa, respectively. Analysis were done on the flatwise and edgewise compression test. For flatwise test, it was found that 30 wt% of fiber loading could withstand maximum force until 250 kN, with compressive strength results at 96.94 MPa. However, at edgewise compression test, the sandwich composite with same fiber loading only can withstand 31 kN of the maximum load with 62 MPa of compressive strength results.

Keywords: Aluminium, epoxy, kenaf fiber, sandwich structure composite

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9 New Findings on the Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) of Aluminium

Authors: J. Martin, A. Nominé, T. Czerwiec, G. Henrion, T. Belmonte


The plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) is a particular electrochemical process to produce protective oxide ceramic coatings on light-weight metals (Al, Mg, Ti). When applied to aluminum alloys, the resulting PEO coating exhibit improved wear and corrosion resistance because thick, hard, compact and adherent crystalline alumina layers can be achieved. Several investigations have been carried out to improve the efficiency of the PEO process and one particular way consists in tuning the suitable electrical regime. Despite the considerable interest in this process, there is still no clear understanding of the underlying discharge mechanisms that make possible metal oxidation up to hundreds of µm through the ceramic layer. A key parameter that governs the PEO process is the numerous short-lived micro-discharges (micro-plasma in liquid) that occur continuously over the processed surface when the high applied voltage exceeds the critical dielectric breakdown value of the growing ceramic layer. By using a bipolar pulsed current to supply the electrodes, we previously observed that micro-discharges are delayed with respect to the rising edge of the anodic current. Nevertheless, explanation of the origin of such phenomena is still not clear and needs more systematic investigations. The aim of the present communication is to identify the relationship that exists between this delay and the mechanisms responsible of the oxide growth. For this purpose, the delay of micro-discharges ignition is investigated as the function of various electrical parameters such as the current density (J), the current pulse frequency (F) and the anodic to cathodic charge quantity ratio (R = Qp/Qn) delivered to the electrodes. The PEO process was conducted on Al2214 aluminum alloy substrates in a solution containing potassium hydroxide [KOH] and sodium silicate diluted in deionized water. The light emitted from micro-discharges was detected by a photomultiplier and the micro-discharge parameters (number, size, life-time) were measured during the process by means of ultra-fast video imaging (125 kfr./s). SEM observations and roughness measurements were performed to characterize the morphology of the elaborated oxide coatings while XRD was carried out to evaluate the amount of corundum -Al203 phase. Results show that whatever the applied current waveform, the delay of micro-discharge appearance increases as the process goes on. Moreover, the delay is shorter when the current density J (A/dm2), the current pulse frequency F (Hz) and the ratio of charge quantity R are high. It also appears that shorter delays are associated to stronger micro-discharges (localized, long and large micro-discharges) which have a detrimental effect on the elaborated oxide layers (thin and porous). On the basis of the results, a model for the growth of the PEO oxide layers will be presented and discussed. Experimental results support that a mechanism of electrical charge accumulation at the oxide surface / electrolyte interface takes place until the dielectric breakdown occurs and thus until micro-discharges appear.

Keywords: Aluminium, Oxidation Mechanisms, plasma electrolytic oxidation, micro-discharges

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8 Design and Analysis of Enhanced Heat Transfer Kit for Plate Type Heat Exchanger

Authors: Shafiq Ur Rehman, Muhammad Shahrukh Saeed, Syed Ahmad Nameer, Aisha Jillani


Heat exchangers play a critical role in industrial applications of thermal systems. Its physical size and performance are vital parameters; therefore enhancement of heat transfer through different techniques remained a major research area for both academia and industry. This research reports the main purpose of heat exchanger with better kit design which plays a vital role during the process of heat transfer. Plate type heat exchanger mainly requires a design in which the plates can be easily be installed and removed without having any problem with the plates. For the flow of the fluid within the heat exchanger, it requires a flow should be fully developed. As natural laws allows the driving energy of the system to flow until equilibrium is achieved. As with a plate type heat exchanger heat the heat penetrates the surface which separates the hot medium with the cold one very easily. As some of the precautions should be considered while taking the heat exchanger accountable like heat should transfer from hot medium to cold, there should always be difference in temperature present and heat loss from hot body should be equal to the heat gained by the cold body regardless of the losses present to the surroundings. Aluminum plates of same grade are used in all experiments to ensure similarity. Size of all plates was 254 mm X 100 mm and thickness was taken as 5 mm.

Keywords: Design, Aluminium, heat transfer coefficient, entry length

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7 Comparative Study of Tensile Properties of Cast and Hot Forged Alumina Nanoparticle Reinforced Composites

Authors: S. K. Nath, Subrata Ray, S. Ghanaraja


Particle reinforced Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) succeeds in synergizing the metallic matrix with ceramic particle reinforcements to result in improved strength, particularly at elevated temperatures, but adversely it affects the ductility of the matrix because of agglomeration and porosity. The present study investigates the outcome of tensile properties in a cast and hot forged composite reinforced simultaneously with coarse and fine particles. Nano-sized alumina particles have been generated by milling mixture of aluminum and manganese dioxide powders. Milled particles after drying are added to molten metal and the resulting slurry is cast. The microstructure of the composites shows good distribution of both the size categories of particles without significant clustering. The presence of nanoparticles along with coarser particles in a composite improves both strength and ductility considerably. Delay in debonding of coarser particles to higher stress is due to reduced mismatch in extension caused by increased strain hardening in presence of the nanoparticles. However, higher addition of powder mix beyond a limit results in deterioration of mechanical properties, possibly due to clustering of nanoparticles. The porosity in cast composite generally increases with the increasing addition of powder mix as observed during process and on forging it has got reduced. The base alloy and nanocomposites show improvement in flow stress which could be attributed to lowering of porosity and grain refinement as a consequence of forging.

Keywords: Aluminium, porosity, alumina, nano-particle reinforced composites

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6 Effect of Cr2O3 on Mechanical Properties of Aluminum Produced Powder Metallurgy

Authors: Fazil Husem, Yasin Akgül, Memis Isik


In this study, effect of content of chromium (III) oxide on production of Al/Cr203 alloys were investigated. Experimental procedure was started with mixturing of powders in the presence of absolute ethanol, vacuum distillation technique was used for evaporation, by ultrasonic bath and mechanic stirrer. Pressing procedure was achieved by hydrolic press that has 100 tons forcing for production of 25 mm diameter compact green billets. Green bodies were sintered at 600 °C in argon atmosphere. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis for characterization of microstructure, compression test for determination of strength and Vickers test for measuring of hardness of sintered billets were done. End of the study is concluded that, enhancement of physical and mechanical properties is observed by increasing content of chromium (III) oxide.

Keywords: powder metallurgy, sintering, Aluminium, chromium (III) oxide

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5 An Innovative Green Cooling Approach Using Peltier Chip in Milling Operation for Surface Roughness Improvement

Authors: Md. Anayet U. Patwari, Mohammad Ahsan Habib, Md. Tanzib Ehsan, Md Golam Ahnaf, Md. S. I. Chowdhury


Surface roughness is one of the key quality parameters of the finished product. During any machining operation, high temperatures are generated at the tool-chip interface impairing surface quality and dimensional accuracy of products. Cutting fluids are generally applied during machining to reduce temperature at the tool-chip interface. However, usages of cutting fluids give rise to problems such as waste disposal, pollution, high cost, and human health hazard. Researchers, now-a-days, are opting towards dry machining and other cooling techniques to minimize use of coolants during machining while keeping surface roughness of products within desirable limits. In this paper, a concept of using peltier cooling effects during aluminium milling operation has been presented and adopted with an aim to improve surface roughness of the machined surface. Experimental evidence shows that peltier cooling effect provides better surface roughness of the machined surface compared to dry machining.

Keywords: Aluminium, milling operation, surface roughness, peltier cooling effect

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4 Production of Metal Matrix Composites with Diamond for Abrasive Cutting Resistance by Gas Infiltration Casting

Authors: M. Marshall, Haydar S. Al Shabbani, R. Goodall


Metal matrix composites (MMCs) have been explored for many applications for many decades. Recently, this includes investigations for thermal applications associated with electronics, such as in heat sinks. Here, to promote thermal conductivity, composites of a metal matrix with diamond particles are used. However, this class of composites has not yet been extensively examined for mechanical and tribological behavior, especially for applications that require extreme mechanical and tribological strength, such as the resistance to abrasive cutting. Therefore, this research seeks to develop a composite material with metal matrix and diamond particles which resist abrasive and cutting forces. The development progresses through a series of steps, exploring methods to process the material, understanding the mechanics of abrasive behavior and optimizing the composite structure to resist abrasive cutting. In processing, infiltration casting under gas pressure has been applied to molten aluminum to obtain a significant penetration of the metal into a preform of diamond particles. Different diamond particle sizes were used with different surface modifications (coated/uncoated), and to compare resulting composites with the same particle sizes. Al-1 wt.% Mg as a matrix alloy was utilised to investigate the possible effect of Mg on bonding phases during the infiltration process. The mechanical behavior and microstructure of the materials produced have been characterised. These tests showed that the surface modification of the diamond particles with a reactive material (Ti-coating) has an important role for enhancing the bonding between the aluminium matrix and diamond reinforcement as apparent under SEM observation. The effect of this improved bond is seen in the cutting resistance of the material.

Keywords: Composites, Diamond, Tribology, Aluminium, Ti-coated

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3 Influence of Aluminium on Grain Refinement in As-Rolled Vanadium-Microalloyed Steels

Authors: Kevin Mark Banks, Dannis Rorisang Nkarapa Maubane, Carel Coetzee


The influence of aluminium content, reheating temperature, and sizing (final) strain on the as-rolled microstructure was systematically investigated in vanadium-microalloyed and C-Mn plate steels. Reheating, followed by hot rolling and air cooling simulations were performed on steels containing a range of aluminium and nitrogen contents. Natural air cooling profiles, corresponding to 6 and 20mm thick plates, were applied. The austenite and ferrite/pearlite microstructures were examined using light optical microscopy. Precipitate species and volume fraction were determined on selected specimens. No influence of aluminium content was found below 0.08% on the as-rolled grain size in all steels studied. A low Al-V-steel produced the coarsest initial austenite grain size due to AlN dissolution at low temperatures leading to abnormal grain growth. An Al-free V-N steel had the finest initial microstructure. Although the as-rolled grain size for 20mm plate was similar in all steels tested, the grain distribution was relatively mixed. The final grain size in 6mm plate was similar for most compositions; the exception was an as-cast V low N steel, where the size of the second phase was inversely proportional to the sizing strain. This was attributed to both segregation and a low VN volume fraction available for effective pinning of austenite grain boundaries during cooling. Increasing the sizing strain refined the microstructure significantly in all steels.

Keywords: Nitrogen, steel, Aluminium, reheating, grain size, vanadium, sizing strain

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2 Tensile Properties of Aluminum Silicon Nickel Iron Vanadium High Entropy Alloys

Authors: Sefiu A. Bello, Nasirudeen K. Raji, Jeleel A. Adebisi, Sadiq A. Raji


Pure metals are not used in most cases for structural applications because of their limited properties. Presently, high entropy alloys (HEAs) are emerging by mixing comparative proportions of metals with the aim of maximizing the entropy leading to enhancement in structural and mechanical properties. Aluminum Silicon Nickel Iron Vanadium (AlSiNiFeV) alloy was developed using stir cast technique and analysed. Results obtained show that the alloy grade G0 contains 44 percentage by weight (wt%) Al, 32 wt% Si, 9 wt% Ni, 4 wt% Fe, 3 wt% V and 8 wt% for minor elements with tensile strength and elongation of 106 Nmm-2 and 2.68%, respectively. X-ray diffraction confirmed intermetallic compounds having hexagonal closed packed (HCP), orthorhombic and cubic structures in cubic dendritic matrix. This affirmed transformation from the cubic structures of elemental constituents of the HEAs to the precipitated structures of the intermetallic compounds. A maximum tensile strength of 188 Nmm-2 with 4% elongation was noticed at 10wt% of silica addition to the G0. An increase in tensile strength with an increment in silica content could be attributed to different phases and crystal geometries characterizing each HEA.

Keywords: model, Tensile Strength, Aluminium, Silicon, HEAs, phases model

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1 Effects of Different Thermal Processing Routes and Their Parameters on the Formation of Voids in PA6 Bonded Aluminum Joints

Authors: Muhammad Irfan, Guillermo Requena, Jan Haubrich


Adhesively bonded aluminum joints are common in automotive and aircraft industries and are one of the enablers of lightweight construction to minimize the carbon emissions during transportation for a sustainable life. This study is focused on the effects of two thermal processing routes, i.e., by direct and induction heating, and their parameters on void formation in PA6 bonded aluminum EN-AW6082 joints. The joints were characterized microanalytically as well as by lap shear experiments. The aging resistance of the joints was studied by accelerated aging tests at 80°C hot water. It was found that the processing of single lap joints by direct heating in a convection oven causes the formation of a large number of voids in the bond line. The formation of voids in the convection oven was due to longer processing times and was independent of any surface pretreatments of the metal as well as the processing temperature. However, when processing at low temperatures, a large number of small-sized voids were observed under the optical microscope, and they were larger in size but reduced in numbers at higher temperatures. An induction heating process was developed, which not only successfully reduced or eliminated the voids in PA6 bonded joints but also reduced the processing times for joining significantly. Consistent with the trend in direct heating, longer processing times and higher temperatures in induction heating also led to an increased formation of voids in the bond line. Subsequent single lap shear tests revealed that the increasing void contents led to a 21% reduction in lap shear strengths (i.e., from ~47 MPa for induction heating to ~37 MPa for direct heating). Also, there was a 17% reduction in lap shear strengths when the consolidation temperature was raised from 220˚C to 300˚C during induction heating. However, below a certain threshold of void contents, there was no observable effect on the lap shear strengths as well as on hydrothermal aging resistance of the joints consolidated by the induction heating process.

Keywords: Mechanical Properties, Induction Heating, Aluminium, Pretreatment, adhesive, void, convection oven, nylon6 (PA6)

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