Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Altruism Related Abstracts

8 Capuchin Monkeys Sharing Their Food at a Cost of Themselves

Authors: Benoît Bucher, Hika Kuroshima, Kazuo Fujita

Abstract:

Although altruism is commonly observed in humans and is considered one of the most important factors in the survival of our species, its cognitive mechanisms and evolutionary roots are yet to be explained. This study is based on the previous findings that bonobos (Pan Paniscus) preferred to share a limited amount of food with others regardless of their relationships with the others. Findings such as this suggest that humans’ propensity for altruistic food-sharing may be shared among apes and may have evolved much longer ago than previously considered. We thus adapted the previous experimental design using tufted capuchins (Cebus apella), New World monkeys separating from humans about 40 million years ago. In order to achieve this, 12 pairs of capuchins (consisting of a benefactors and a partner) were tested in a row of two adjacent cages separated by a swinging door locked by a key (Fig.1). We observed whether the monkeys in possession of food (the benefactors) would allow their partner to enter their cage by unlocking the door between them. Results showed that the monkeys clearly preferred to monopolize the food for themselves, even though they in a few cases unlocked the door after eating the preferred food. This suggests that this species, which has been shown to be sensitive to the others’ welfare, would not actively share food at a cost of their own. Although further studies are needed, our results suggest the existence of significant differences in the evolutionary development of the pro social tendencies between bonobos and capuchin monkeys.

Keywords: Altruism, capuchin monkeys, food sharing, pro social behaviors

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7 Corporate Social Responsibility in an Experimental Market

Authors: Nikolaos Georgantzis, Efi Vasileiou

Abstract:

We present results from experimental price-setting oligopolies in which green firms undertake different levels of energy-saving investments motivated by public subsidies and demand-side advantages. We find that consumers reveal higher willingness to pay for greener sellers’ products. This observation in conjunction to the fact that greener sellers set higher prices is compatible with the use and interpretation of energy-saving behaviour as a differentiation strategy. However, sellers do not exploit the resulting advantage through sufficiently high price-cost margins, because they seem trapped into “run to stay still” competition. Regarding the use of public subsidies to energy-saving sellers we uncover an undesirable crowding-out effect of consumers’ intrinsic tendency to support green manufacturers. Namely, consumers may be less willing to support a green seller whose energy-saving strategy entails a direct financial benefit. Finally, we disentangle two alternative motivations for consumer’s attractions to pro-social firms; first, the self-interested recognition of the firm’s contribution to the public and private welfare and, second, the need to compensate a firm for the cost entailed in each pro-social action. Our results show the prevalence of the former over the latter.

Keywords: Experiments, Corporate Social Responsibility, Altruism, Energy Savings, public good, vertical differentiation

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6 Patterns of Private Transfers in the Philippines: An Analysis of Who Gives and Receives More

Authors: Rutcher M. Lacaza, Stephen Jun V. Villejo

Abstract:

This paper investigated the patterns of private transfers in the Philippines using the Family Income Expenditure Survey (FIES) 2009, conducted by the Philippine government’s National Statistics Office (NSO) every three years. The paper performed bivariate analysis on net transfers, using the identified determinants for a household to be either a net receiver or a net giver. The household characteristics considered are the following: age, sex, marital status, employment status and educational attainment of the household head, and also size, location, pre-transfer income and the number of employed members of the household. The variables net receiver and net giver are determined by computing the net transfer, subtracting total gifts from total receipts. The receipts are defined as the sum of cash received from abroad, cash received from domestic sources, total gifts received and inheritance. While gifts are defined as the sum of contributions and donations to church and other religious institutions, contributions and donations to other institutions, gifts and contributions to others, and gifts and assistance to private individuals outside the family. Both in kind and in cash transfers are considered in the analysis. It also performed a multiple regression analysis on transfers received and income including other household characteristics to examine the motives for giving transfers – whether altruism or exchanged. It also used the binary logistic regression to estimate the probability of being a net receiver or net giver given the household characteristics. The study revealed that receiving tends to be universal – both the non-poor and the poor benefit although the poor receive substantially less than the non-poor. Regardless of whether households are net receivers or net givers, households in the upper deciles generally give and receive more than those in the lower deciles. It also appears that private transfers may just flow within economic groups. Big amounts of transfers are, therefore, directed to the non-poor and the small amounts go to the poor. This was also supported by the increasing function of gross transfers received and the income of households – the poor receiving less and the non-poor receiving more. This is contrary to the theory that private transfers can help equalize the distribution of income. This suggested that private transfers in the Philippines are not altruistically motivated but exchanged. However, bilateral data on transfers received or given is needed to test this theory directly. The results showed that transfers are much needed by the poor and it is important to understand the nature of private transfers, to ensure that government transfer programs are properly designed and targeted so as to prevent the duplication of private safety nets already present among the non-poor.

Keywords: Altruism, private transfers, net receiver, net giver, exchanged

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5 Genome Sequencing and Analysis of the Spontaneous Nanosilver Resistant Bacterium Proteus mirabilis Strain scdr1

Authors: Amr Saeb, Khalid Al-Rubeaan, Mohamed Abouelhoda, Manojkumar Selvaraju, Hamsa Tayeb

Abstract:

Background: P. mirabilis is a common uropathogenic bacterium that can cause major complications in patients with long-standing indwelling catheters or patients with urinary tract anomalies. In addition, P. mirabilis is a common cause of chronic osteomyelitis in diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) patients. Methodology: P. mirabilis SCDR1 was isolated from a diabetic ulcer patient. We examined P. mirabilis SCDR1 levels of resistance against nano-silver colloids, the commercial nano-silver and silver containing bandages and commonly used antibiotics. We utilized next generation sequencing techniques (NGS), bioinformatics, phylogenetic analysis and pathogenomics in the identification and characterization of the infectious pathogen. Results: P. mirabilis SCDR1 is a multi-drug resistant isolate that also showed high levels of resistance against nano-silver colloids, nano-silver chitosan composite and the commercially available nano-silver and silver bandages. The P. mirabilis-SCDR1 genome size is 3,815,621 bp with G+C content of 38.44%. P. mirabilis-SCDR1 genome contains a total of 3,533 genes, 3,414 coding DNA sequence genes, 11, 10, 18 rRNAs (5S, 16S, and 23S), and 76 tRNAs. Our isolate contains all the required pathogenicity and virulence factors to establish a successful infection. P. mirabilis SCDR1 isolate is a potential virulent pathogen that despite its original isolation site, wound, it can establish kidney infection and its associated complications. P. mirabilis SCDR1 contains several mechanisms for antibiotics and metals resistance including, biofilm formation, swarming mobility, efflux systems, and enzymatic detoxification. Conclusion: P. mirabilis SCDR1 is the spontaneous nano-silver resistant bacterial strain. P. mirabilis SCDR1 strain contains all reported pathogenic and virulence factors characteristic for the species. In addition, it possesses several mechanisms that may lead to the observed nano-silver resistance.

Keywords: Bioinformatics, Resistance, phylogeny, Altruism, Genome Analysis, Biofilm Formation, Silver Nanoparticles, Xenobiotics, Resistome, Multi-Drug Resistance, diabetic foot ulcer, proteus mirabilis, next generation sequencing techniques, pathogenomics, multidrug resistance efflux, swarming mobility, glutathione S-transferase, copper/silver efflux system

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4 Reciprocity and Empathy in Motivating Altruism among Sixth Grade Students

Authors: Rylle Evan Gabriel Zamora, Micah Dennise Malia, Abygail Deniese Villabona

Abstract:

The primary motivators of altruism are usually viewed as mutually exclusive. In this study, we wanted to know if the two primary motivators, reciprocity and empathy, can work together in motivating altruism. Therefore, we wanted to find out if there is a significant interaction of effects between reciprocity and empathy. To show how this may occur, we devised the combined altruism model, which is based on Batson’s empathy altruism hypothesis. A sample of 120, 6th-grade students were randomly selected and then randomly assigned to four treatment groups. A 2x2 between subjects’ design was used, which had empathy and reciprocity as independent variables, and altruism as the dependent variable. The study made use of materials that were effort based, where subjects were required to complete a task or a puzzle to help a person in a given scenario, two videos, one to prime empathy were also used. This along with Witt & Boleman’s adapted Self-Reported Altruism Scale was used to determine an individual’s altruism. It was found that both variables were significant in motivating altruism, with empathy being the greater of the two. However, there was no significant interaction of effects between the two variables. To explain why this occurred, we turned to the combined altruism model, where it was found that when empathically primed, we tend to not think of ourselves when helping others. Future studies could focus on other variables, especially age which is said to be one of the greatest factors that influenced the results of the experiment.

Keywords: Social Psychology, Experimental psychology, Empathy, Altruism, reciprocity

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3 Impact of Organizational Citizenship Behavior on Employee Performance: Mediating Role of Counterproductive Work Behavior in Hotel Industry of Pakistan

Authors: Tehreem Fatima, Kashif Mahmood, Adeel Hassan

Abstract:

Firms are always concerned with their performance which is directly linked to employees’ performance. In the thrive of this goal, number of researches have been conducted where Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) and Counterproductive Work Behavior (CPWB) is among those studies. This study is aimed at investigating the role OCB by considering altruism and conscientiousness in an employee’s job performance with the mediating role of CPWB by considering sabotage and withdraw among the employees of hotel industry in Pakistan. A quantitative method was used by following deductive approach in positivist paradigm where survey was conducted through self-administered questionnaires and data was collected from the employees working in hotel industry of Pakistan. Top 10 hotels from the region of Lahore, Punjab was selected as population, and 500 questionnaires were distributed among their employees by using stratified random sampling technique. There is a positive impact of OCB is found on job performance of an employee whereas full mediation of CPWB is also found between OCB and job performance. The study is important for the practitioners in a way that hotel industry is growing at an enormous rate where employee behavior is always a concern specifically in emerging markets due to the exploitation of employees at the workplace, so the findings of the study can be helpful for practitioners and policy makers.

Keywords: Altruism, Hotel Industry, employee performance, organizational citizenship behavior, counterproductive work behavior, conscientiousness, sabotage, withdraw

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2 Children's Media Skepticism and the Prospective Moral Self: A Pilot Study

Authors: A. Maftei, A. C. Holman

Abstract:

The emergence of self-knowledge and personal representations of self in children has been subject to a variety of studies. The complex process of developing the moral self in childhood is one of the most interesting interplays of biological tendencies and socialization contexts. We were interested in exploring the potential interaction between children’s media skepticism, altruism, self and others' moral representations in a series of tasks related to potential prospective moral licensing mechanisms. In our pilot study, the answers of 67 children aged 8 to 10 years (50 % females) to a series of moral perspectives and altruism tasks were subject to mixed analysis (both qualitative and quantitative). Results suggested no significant association between the moral valence of media information and children’s altruism, self and others’ moral future perspective. Results are discussed within the Construal Level, Assimilation and Contrast theories, and moral licensing mechanisms.

Keywords: Children, Altruism, moral licensing, moral valence, media skepticism

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1 Estimating Interdependence of Social Statuses in a Cooperative Breeding Birds through Mathematical Modelling

Authors: Santanu Ray, Sinchan Ghosh, Fahad Al Basir, Sabyasachi Bhattacharya

Abstract:

The cooperatively breeding birds have two major ranks for the sexually mature birds. The breeders mate and produce offspring while the non-breeding helpers increase the chick production rate through help in mate-finding and allo-parenting. However, the chicks also cooperate to raise their younger siblings through warming, defending and food sharing. Although, the existing literatures describes the evolution of allo-parenting in birds but do not differentiate the significance of allo-parenting in sexually immature and mature helpers separately. This study addresses the significance of both immature and mature helpers’ contribution to the total sustainable bird population in a breeding site using Blue-tailed bee-eater as a test-bed species. To serve this purpose, a mathematical model has been built considering each social status and chicks as separate but interactive compartments. Also, to observe the dynamics of each social status with changing prey abundance, a prey population has been introduced as an additional compartment. The model was analyzed for stability condition and was validated using field-data. A simulation experiment was then performed to observe the change in equilibria with a varying helping rate from both the helpers. The result from the simulation experiment suggest that the cooperative breeding population changes its population sizes significantly with a change in helping rate from the sexually immature helpers. On the other hand, the mature helpers do not contribute to the stability of the population equilibrium as much as the immature helpers.

Keywords: Behavioural Modelling, Altruism, Blue-tailed bee eater, Mathematical Ethology

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