Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

alternative fuel Related Abstracts

6 Water-in-Diesel Fuel Nanoemulsions Prepared by Modified Low Energy: Emulsion Drop Size and Stability, Physical Properties, and Emission Characteristics

Authors: M. R. Noor El-Din, Marwa R. Mishrif, R. E. Morsi, E. A. El-Sharaky, M. E. Haseeb, Rania T. M. Ghanem


This paper studies the physical and rheological behaviours of water/in/diesel fuel nanoemulsions prepared by modified low energy method. Twenty of water/in/diesel fuel nanoemulsions were prepared using mixed nonionic surfactants of sorbitan monooleate and polyoxyethylene sorbitan trioleate (MTS) at Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Balance (HLB) value of 10 and a working temperature of 20°C. The influence of the prepared nanoemulsions on the physical properties such as kinematic viscosity, density, and calorific value was studied. Also, nanoemulsion systems were subjected to rheological evaluation. The effect of water loading percentage (5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 wt.%) on rheology was assessed at temperatures range from 20 to 60°C with temperature interval of 10 for time lapse 0, 1, 2 and 3 months, respectively. Results show that all of the sets nanoemulsions exhibited a Newtonian flow character of low-shear viscosity in the range of 132 up to 191 1/s, and followed by a shear-thinning region with yield value (Non-Newtonian behaviour) at high shear rate for all water ratios (5 to 10 wt.%) and at all test temperatures (20 to 60°C) for time ageing up to 3 months. Also, the viscosity/temperature relationship of all nanoemulsions fitted well Arrhenius equation with high correlation coefficients that ascertain their Newtonian behavior.

Keywords: Nanoemulsion, surfactant, diesel fuel, alternative fuel

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5 By-Product Alcohol: Fusel Oil as an Alternative Fuel in Spark Ignition Engine

Authors: M. M. Noor, Omar Awad, R. Mamat, F. Yusop, I. M. Yusri


Fusel oil is a by-product obtained through the fermentation of some agricultural products. The fusel oil properties are closer to other alternative combustible types and the limited number of studies on the use of fusel oil as an alcohol derivative in SI engines constitutes to the base of this study. This paper experimentally examined the impacts of a by-product of alcohol, which is fusel oil by blending it with gasoline, on engine performance, combustion characteristics, and emissions in a 4-cylinder SI engine. The test was achieved at different engine speeds and a 60 % throttle valve (load). As results, brake power, BTE, and BSFC of F10 are higher at all engine speeds. Maximum engine BTE was 33.9%, at the lowest BSFC with F10. Moreover, it is worth seeing that the F10 under rich air-fuel ratio has less variation of COVIMEP compared to the F20 and gasoline. F10 represents shorter combustion duration, thereby, the engine power increased. NOx emission for F10 at 4500 rpm was lower than gasoline. The highest value of HC emission is obtained with F10 compared to gasoline and F20 with an average increase of 11% over the engine speed range. CO and CO2 emissions increased when using fusel oil blends.

Keywords: combustion characteristics, alternative fuel, fusel oil, spark ignition engine, by-product alcohol, engine emissions

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4 Combustion Improvements by C4/C5 Bio-Alcohol Isomer Blended Fuels Combined with Supercharging and EGR in a Diesel Engine

Authors: Yasufumi Yoshimoto, Enkhjargal Tserenochir, Eiji Kinoshita, Takeshi Otaka


Next generation bio-alcohols produced from non-food based sources like cellulosic biomass are promising renewable energy sources. The present study investigates engine performance, combustion characteristics, and emissions of a small single cylinder direct injection diesel engine fueled by four kinds of next generation bio-alcohol isomer and diesel fuel blends with a constant blending ratio of 3:7 (mass). The tested bio-alcohol isomers here are n-butanol and iso-butanol (C4 alcohol), and n-pentanol and iso-pentanol (C5 alcohol). To obtain simultaneous reductions in NOx and smoke emissions, the experiments employed supercharging combined with EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation). The boost pressures were fixed at two conditions, 100 kPa (naturally aspirated operation) and 120 kPa (supercharged operation) provided with a roots blower type supercharger. The EGR rates were varied from 0 to 25% using a cooled EGR technique. The results showed that both with and without supercharging, all the bio-alcohol blended diesel fuels improved the trade-off relation between NOx and smoke emissions at all EGR rates while maintaining good engine performance, when compared with diesel fuel operation. It was also found that regardless of boost pressure and EGR rate, the ignition delays of the tested bio-alcohol isomer blends are in the order of iso-butanol > n-butanol > iso-pentanol > n-pentanol. Overall, it was concluded that, except for the changes in the ignition delays the influence of bio-alcohol isomer blends on the engine performance, combustion characteristics, and emissions are relatively small.

Keywords: Diesel Engine, butanol, alternative fuel, EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation), next generation bio-alcohol isomer blended fuel, pentanol, supercharging

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3 Analysis of Performance-Emission Characteristics of a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Fueled with Coconut Oil

Authors: Sumit Roy, Purna Singh, Vaibhav Tripathi, Vinayak Kalluri


The present experimental work was carried out to investigate performance and emission characteristics of single cylinder diesel engine operating under dual-fuel mode with coconut oil blended with diesel. Coconut oil is one of the edible oil which is abundant in tropical countries and has properties like diesel. To this end, performance and emission parameters of diesel-coconut oil blends were reported in the current study. The results were drawn at different load steps of engine operation with 10% and 20% of coconut oil linearly blended with diesel. From the results, it was evident that coconut oil can be successfully replaced up to 20% of diesel without hampering the performance-emission characteristics of the existing diesel engine.

Keywords: Emissions, coconut oil, dual-fuel, alternative fuel

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2 Alternative Fuel Production from Sewage Sludge

Authors: Jaroslav Knapek, Kamila Vavrova, Tomas Kralik, Tereza Humesova


The treatment and disposal of sewage sludge is one of the most important and critical problems of waste water treatment plants. Currently, 180 thousand tonnes of sludge dry matter are produced in the Czech Republic, which corresponds to approximately 17.8 kg of stabilized sludge dry matter / year per inhabitant of the Czech Republic. Due to the fact that sewage sludge contains a large amount of substances that are not beneficial for human health, the conditions for sludge management will be significantly tightened in the Czech Republic since 2023. One of the tested methods of sludge liquidation is the production of alternative fuel from sludge from sewage treatment plants and paper production. The paper presents an analysis of economic efficiency of alternative fuel production from sludge and its use for fluidized bed boiler with nominal consumption of 5 t of fuel per hour. The evaluation methodology includes the entire logistics chain from sludge extraction, through mechanical moisture reduction to about 40%, transport to the pelletizing line, moisture drying for pelleting and pelleting itself. For economic analysis of sludge pellet production, a time horizon of 10 years corresponding to the expected lifetime of the critical components of the pelletizing line is chosen. The economic analysis of pelleting projects is based on a detailed analysis of reference pelleting technologies suitable for sludge pelleting. The analysis of the economic efficiency of pellet is based on the simulation of cash flows associated with the implementation of the project over the life of the project. For the entered value of return on the invested capital, the price of the resulting product (in EUR / GJ or in EUR / t) is searched to ensure that the net present value of the project is zero over the project lifetime. The investor then realizes the return on the investment in the amount of the discount used to calculate the net present value. The calculations take place in a real business environment (taxes, tax depreciation, inflation, etc.) and the inputs work with market prices. At the same time, the opportunity cost principle is respected; waste disposal for alternative fuels includes the saved costs of waste disposal. The methodology also respects the emission allowances saved due to the displacement of coal by alternative (bio) fuel. Preliminary results of testing of pellet production from sludge show that after suitable modifications of the pelletizer it is possible to produce sufficiently high quality pellets from sludge. A mixture of sludge and paper waste has proved to be a more suitable material for pelleting. At the same time, preliminary results of the analysis of the economic efficiency of this sludge disposal method show that, despite the relatively low calorific value of the fuel produced (about 10-11 MJ / kg), this sludge disposal method is economically competitive. This work has been supported by the Czech Technology Agency within the project TN01000048 Biorefining as circulation technology.

Keywords: Economic analysis, Sewage Sludge, alternative fuel, Pelleting

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1 The Effect of Hydrogen on Performance and Emissions of a Methanol Si-Engine at Part Load

Authors: Junaid Bin Aamir, Ma Fanhua


Methanol and hydrogen are the most suitable alternative fuel resources for the existing and future internal combustion engines. This paper experimentally examined the effects of hydrogen addition on the performance and emission characteristics of a spark-ignition engine fueled with methanol at part load conditions. The experiments were carried out for various engine speeds and loads. Hydrogen-rich syngas was used to enhance the performance of the test engine. It was formed by catalytic dissociation of methanol itself, and volumetric hydrogen fraction in syngas was about 67%. A certain amount of syngas dissociated from methanol was injected into the intake manifold in each engine cycle, and the low heating value (LHV) of hydrogen-rich syngas used was 4% of methanol in each cycle. Both the fuels were injected separately using port fuel injectors. The results showed that brake thermal efficiency of the engine was enhanced by 3-5% with hydrogen addition, while brake specific fuel consumption and exhaust gas temperature were reduced. There was a significant reduction (90-95%) in THC and (35-50%) in CO emissions at the exhaust. NOx emissions from hydrogen blended methanol increased slightly (10-15%), but they can be reduced by using lean fuel-air mixture to keep the cylinder temperature low.

Keywords: Hydrogen, Emissions, methanol, alternative fuel, spark ignition engines

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