Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 41

Algorithm Related Abstracts

41 Angular-Coordinate Driven Radial Tree Drawing

Authors: Farshad Ghassemi Toosi, Nikola S. Nikolov

Abstract:

We present a visualization technique for radial drawing of trees consisting of two slightly different algorithms. Both of them make use of node-link diagrams for visual encoding. This visualization creates clear drawings without edge crossing. One of the algorithms is suitable for real-time visualization of large trees, as it requires minimal recalculation of the layout if leaves are inserted or removed from the tree; while the other algorithm makes better utilization of the drawing space. The algorithms are very similar and follow almost the same procedure but with different parameters. Both algorithms assign angular coordinates for all nodes which are then converted into 2D Cartesian coordinates for visualization. We present both algorithms and discuss how they compare to each other.

Keywords: Algorithm, Visualization, Radial drawing, Use of node-link diagrams

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
40 A Study of the Performance Parameter for Recommendation Algorithm Evaluation

Authors: C. Rana, S. K. Jain

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The enormous amount of Web data has challenged its usage in efficient manner in the past few years. As such, a range of techniques are applied to tackle this problem; prominent among them is personalization and recommender system. In fact, these are the tools that assist user in finding relevant information of web. Most of the e-commerce websites are applying such tools in one way or the other. In the past decade, a large number of recommendation algorithms have been proposed to tackle such problems. However, there have not been much research in the evaluation criteria for these algorithms. As such, the traditional accuracy and classification metrics are still used for the evaluation purpose that provides a static view. This paper studies how the evolution of user preference over a period of time can be mapped in a recommender system using a new evaluation methodology that explicitly using time dimension. We have also presented different types of experimental set up that are generally used for recommender system evaluation. Furthermore, an overview of major accuracy metrics and metrics that go beyond the scope of accuracy as researched in the past few years is also discussed in detail.

Keywords: Data Mining, Algorithm, Clustering, Evolutionary, Collaborative Filtering, Recommender systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
39 Minimizing Total Completion Time in No-Wait Flowshops with Setup Times

Authors: Ali Allahverdi

Abstract:

The m-machine no-wait flowshop scheduling problem is addressed in this paper. The objective is to minimize total completion time subject to the constraint that the makespan value is not greater than a certain value. Setup times are treated as separate from processing times. Several recent algorithms are adapted and proposed for the problem. An extensive computational analysis has been conducted for the evaluation of the proposed algorithms. The computational analysis indicates that the best proposed algorithm performs significantly better than the earlier existing best algorithm.

Keywords: Scheduling, Algorithm, no-wait flowshop, setup times, total completion time, makespan

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
38 Refining Scheme Using Amphibious Epistemologies

Authors: David Blaine, George Raschbaum

Abstract:

The evaluation of DHCP has synthesized SCSI disks, and current trends suggest that the exploration of e-business that would allow for further study into robots will soon emerge. Given the current status of embedded algorithms, hackers worldwide obviously desire the exploration of replication, which embodies the confusing principles of programming languages. In our research we concentrate our efforts on arguing that erasure coding can be made "fuzzy", encrypted, and game-theoretic.

Keywords: Algorithm, Programming Language, Robot, Hacking, SCHI disks

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
37 The Load Balancing Algorithm for the Star Interconnection Network

Authors: Ahmad M. Awwad, Jehad Al-Sadi

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The star network is one of the promising interconnection networks for future high speed parallel computers, it is expected to be one of the future-generation networks. The star network is both edge and vertex symmetry, it was shown to have many gorgeous topological proprieties also it is owns hierarchical structure framework. Although much of the research work has been done on this promising network in literature, it still suffers from having enough algorithms for load balancing problem. In this paper we try to work on this issue by investigating and proposing an efficient algorithm for load balancing problem for the star network. The proposed algorithm is called Star Clustered Dimension Exchange Method SCDEM to be implemented on the star network. The proposed algorithm is based on the Clustered Dimension Exchange Method (CDEM). The SCDEM algorithm is shown to be efficient in redistributing the load balancing as evenly as possible among all nodes of different factor networks.

Keywords: Algorithm, Interconnection Networks, Load Balancing, star network

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
36 Utilization of Secure Wireless Networks as Environment for Learning and Teaching in Higher Education

Authors: Mohammed A. M. Ibrahim

Abstract:

This paper investigate the utilization of wire and wireless networks to be platform for distributed educational monitoring system. Universities in developing countries suffer from a lot of shortages(staff, equipment, and finical budget) and optimal utilization of the wire and wireless network, so universities can mitigate some of the mentioned problems and avoid the problems that maybe humble the education processes in many universities by using our implementation of the examinations system as a test-bed to utilize the network as a solution to the shortages for academic staff in Taiz University. This paper selects a two areas first one quizzes activities is only a test bed application for wireless network learning environment system to be distributed among students. Second area is the features and the security of wireless, our tested application implemented in a promising area which is the use of WLAN in higher education for leering environment.

Keywords: Distributed Computing, Algorithm, Wireless Network Security, networking wire and wireless technology, encryption and decryption

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35 The Algorithm of Semi-Automatic Thai Spoonerism Words for Bi-Syllable

Authors: Nutthapat Kaewrattanapat, Wannarat Bunchongkien

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The purposes of this research are to study and develop the algorithm of Thai spoonerism words by semi-automatic computer programs, that is to say, in part of data input, syllables are already separated and in part of spoonerism, the developed algorithm is utilized, which can establish rules and mechanisms in Thai spoonerism words for bi-syllables by utilizing analysis in elements of the syllables, namely cluster consonant, vowel, intonation mark and final consonant. From the study, it is found that bi-syllable Thai spoonerism has 1 case of spoonerism mechanism, namely transposition in value of vowel, intonation mark and consonant of both 2 syllables but keeping consonant value and cluster word (if any). From the study, the rules and mechanisms in Thai spoonerism word were applied to develop as Thai spoonerism word software, utilizing PHP program. the software was brought to conduct a performance test on software execution; it is found that the program performs bi-syllable Thai spoonerism correctly or 99% of all words used in the test and found faults on the program at 1% as the words obtained from spoonerism may not be spelling in conformity with Thai grammar and the answer in Thai spoonerism could be more than 1 answer.

Keywords: Algorithm, computational linguistics, spoonerism, Thai spoonerism

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
34 Event Extraction, Analysis, and Event Linking

Authors: Anam Alam, Rahim Jamaluddin Kanji

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With the rapid growth of event in everywhere, event extraction has now become an important matter to retrieve the information from the unstructured data. One of the challenging problems is to extract the event from it. An event is an observable occurrence of interaction among entities. The paper investigates the effectiveness of event extraction capabilities of three software tools that are Wandora, Nitro and SPSS. We performed standard text mining techniques of these tools on the data sets of (i) Afghan War Diaries (AWD collection), (ii) MUC4 and (iii) WebKB. Information retrieval measures such as precision and recall which are computed under extensive set of experiments for Event Extraction. The experimental study analyzes the difference between events extracted by the software and human. This approach helps to construct an algorithm that will be applied for different machine learning methods.

Keywords: Precision, Algorithm, Evaluation, dataset, SPSS, event extraction, Wandora, nitro, event analysis, extraction method, AFG, Afghan War Diaries, MUC4, recall

Procedia PDF Downloads 422
33 Text Analysis to Support Structuring and Modelling a Public Policy Problem-Outline of an Algorithm to Extract Inferences from Textual Data

Authors: Osama Ibrahim, Claudia Ehrentraut, Hercules Dalianis

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Policy making situations are real-world problems that exhibit complexity in that they are composed of many interrelated problems and issues. To be effective, policies must holistically address the complexity of the situation rather than propose solutions to single problems. Formulating and understanding the situation and its complex dynamics, therefore, is a key to finding holistic solutions. Analysis of text based information on the policy problem, using Natural Language Processing (NLP) and Text analysis techniques, can support modelling of public policy problem situations in a more objective way based on domain experts knowledge and scientific evidence. The objective behind this study is to support modelling of public policy problem situations, using text analysis of verbal descriptions of the problem. We propose a formal methodology for analysis of qualitative data from multiple information sources on a policy problem to construct a causal diagram of the problem. The analysis process aims at identifying key variables, linking them by cause-effect relationships and mapping that structure into a graphical representation that is adequate for designing action alternatives, i.e., policy options. This study describes the outline of an algorithm used to automate the initial step of a larger methodological approach, which is so far done manually. In this initial step, inferences about key variables and their interrelationships are extracted from textual data to support a better problem structuring. A small prototype for this step is also presented.

Keywords: Public Policy, Algorithm, natural language processing, Qualitative Analysis, Problem Structuring, inference extraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 450
32 Automated Parking System

Authors: N. Arunraj, C. P. V. Paul, D. M. D. Jayawardena, W. N. D. Fernando

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Traffic congestion with increased numbers of vehicles is already a serious issue for many countries. The absence of sufficient parking spaces adds to the issue. Motorists are forced to wait in long queues to park their vehicles. This adds to the inconvenience faced by a motorist, kept waiting for a slot allocation, manually done along with the parking payment calculation. In Sri Lanka, nowadays, parking systems use barcode technology to identify the vehicles at both the entrance and the exit points. Customer management is handled by the use of man power. A parking space is, generally permanently sub divided according to the vehicle type. Here, again, is an issue. Parking spaces are not utilized to the maximum. The current arrangement leaves room for unutilized parking spaces. Accordingly, there is a need to manage the parking space dynamically. As a vehicle enters the parking area, available space has to be assigned for the vehicle according to the vehicle type. The system, Automated Parking System (APS), provides an automated solution using RFID Technology to identify the vehicles. Simultaneously, an algorithm manages the space allocation dynamically. With this system, there is no permanent parking slot allocation for a vehicle type. A desktop application manages the customer. A Web application is used to manage the external users with their reservations. The system also has an android application to view the nearest parking area from the current location. APS is built using java and php. It uses LED panels to guide the user inside the parking area to find the allocated parking slot accurately. The system ensures efficient performance, saving precious time for a customer. Compared with the current parking systems, APS interacts with users and increases customer satisfaction as well.

Keywords: Algorithm, RFID, android, web based system, barcode, LED panels

Procedia PDF Downloads 475
31 Face Recognition Using Eigen Faces Algorithm

Authors: Shweta Pinjarkar, Shrutika Yawale, Mayuri Patil, Reshma Adagale

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Face recognition is the technique which can be applied to the wide variety of problems like image and film processing, human computer interaction, criminal identification etc. This has motivated researchers to develop computational models to identify the faces, which are easy and simple to implement. In this, demonstrates the face recognition system in android device using eigenface. The system can be used as the base for the development of the recognition of human identity. Test images and training images are taken directly with the camera in android device.The test results showed that the system produces high accuracy. The goal is to implement model for particular face and distinguish it with large number of stored faces. face recognition system detects the faces in picture taken by web camera or digital camera and these images then checked with training images dataset based on descriptive features. Further this algorithm can be extended to recognize the facial expressions of a person.recognition could be carried out under widely varying conditions like frontal view,scaled frontal view subjects with spectacles. The algorithm models the real time varying lightning conditions. The implemented system is able to perform real-time face detection, face recognition and can give feedback giving a window with the subject's info from database and sending an e-mail notification to interested institutions using android application. Face recognition is the technique which can be applied to the wide variety of problems like image and film processing, human computer interaction, criminal identification etc. This has motivated researchers to develop computational models to identify the faces, which are easy and simple to implement. In this , demonstrates the face recognition system in android device using eigenface. The system can be used as the base for the development of the recognition of human identity. Test images and training images are taken directly with the camera in android device.The test results showed that the system produces high accuracy. The goal is to implement model for particular face and distinguish it with large number of stored faces. face recognition system detects the faces in picture taken by web camera or digital camera and these images then checked with training images dataset based on descriptive features. Further this algorithm can be extended to recognize the facial expressions of a person.recognition could be carried out under widely varying conditions like frontal view,scaled frontal view subjects with spectacles. The algorithm models the real time varying lightning conditions. The implemented system is able to perform real-time face detection, face recognition and can give feedback giving a window with the subject's info from database and sending an e-mail notification to interested institutions using android application.

Keywords: Algorithm, Face Recognition, Face Detection, eigen faces

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
30 Auto Surgical-Emissive Hand

Authors: Abhit Kumar

Abstract:

The world is full of master slave Telemanipulator where the doctor’s masters the console and the surgical arm perform the operations, i.e. these robots are passive robots, what the world needs to focus is that in use of these passive robots we are acquiring doctors for operating these console hence the utilization of the concept of robotics is still not fully utilized ,hence the focus should be on active robots, Auto Surgical-Emissive Hand use the similar concept of active robotics where this anthropomorphic hand focuses on the autonomous surgical, emissive and scanning operation, enabled with the vision of 3 way emission of Laser Beam/-5°C < ICY Steam < 5°C/ TIC embedded in palm of the anthropomorphic hand and structured in a form of 3 way disc. Fingers of AS-EH (Auto Surgical-Emissive Hand) as called, will have tactile, force, pressure sensor rooted to it so that the mechanical mechanism of force, pressure and physical presence on the external subject can be maintained, conversely our main focus is on the concept of “emission” the question arises how all the 3 non related methods will work together that to merged in a single programmed hand, all the 3 methods will be utilized according to the need of the external subject, the laser if considered will be emitted via a pin sized outlet, this radiation is channelized via a thin channel which further connect to the palm of the surgical hand internally leading to the pin sized outlet, here the laser is used to emit radiation enough to cut open the skin for removal of metal scrap or any other foreign material while the patient is in under anesthesia, keeping the complexity of the operation very low, at the same time the TIC fitted with accurate temperature compensator will be providing us the real time feed of the surgery in the form of heat image, this gives us the chance to analyze the level, also ATC will help us to determine the elevated body temperature while the operation is being proceeded, the thermal imaging camera in rooted internally in the AS-EH while also being connected to the real time software externally to provide us live feedback. The ICY steam will provide the cooling effect before and after the operation, however for more utilization of this concept we can understand the working of simple procedure in which If a finger remain in icy water for a long time it freezes the blood flow stops and the portion become numb and isolated hence even if you try to pinch it will not provide any sensation as the nerve impulse did not coordinated with the brain hence sensory receptor did not got active which means no sense of touch was observed utilizing the same concept we can use the icy stem to be emitted via a pin sized hole on the area of concern ,temperature below 273K which will frost the area after which operation can be done, this steam can also be use to desensitized the pain while the operation in under process. The mathematical calculation, algorithm, programming of working and movement of this hand will be installed in the system prior to the procedure, since this AS-EH is a programmable hand it comes with the limitation hence this AS-EH robot will perform surgical process of low complexity only.

Keywords: laser, Algorithm, Emission, active robots, icy steam, TIC

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
29 Developing Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) for Falls Detection

Authors: Nantakrit Yodpijit, Teppakorn Sittiwanchai

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The number of older adults is rising rapidly. The world’s population becomes aging. Falls is one of common and major health problems in the elderly. Falls may lead to acute and chronic injuries and deaths. The fall-prone individuals are at greater risk for decreased quality of life, lowered productivity and poverty, social problems, and additional health problems. A number of studies on falls prevention using fall detection system have been conducted. Many available technologies for fall detection system are laboratory-based and can incur substantial costs for falls prevention. The utilization of alternative technologies can potentially reduce costs. This paper presents the new design and development of a wearable-based fall detection system using an Accelerometer and Gyroscope as motion sensors for the detection of body orientation and movement. Algorithms are developed to differentiate between Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and falls by comparing Threshold-based values with Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). Results indicate the possibility of using the new threshold-based method with neural network algorithm to reduce the number of false positive (false alarm) and improve the accuracy of fall detection system.

Keywords: Aging, Algorithm, artificial neural networks (ANN), fall detection system, motion sensorsthreshold

Procedia PDF Downloads 368
28 Algorithms Minimizing Total Tardiness

Authors: Ali Allahverdi, Harun Aydilek, Asiye Aydilek

Abstract:

The total tardiness is a widely used performance measure in the scheduling literature. This performance measure is particularly important in situations where there is a cost to complete a job beyond its due date. The cost of scheduling increases as the gap between a job's due date and its completion time increases. Such costs may also be penalty costs in contracts, loss of goodwill. This performance measure is important as the fulfillment of due dates of customers has to be taken into account while making scheduling decisions. The problem is addressed in the literature, however, it has been assumed zero setup times. Even though this assumption may be valid for some environments, it is not valid for some other scheduling environments. When setup times are treated as separate from processing times, it is possible to increase machine utilization and to reduce total tardiness. Therefore, non-zero setup times need to be considered as separate. A dominance relation is developed and several algorithms are proposed. The developed dominance relation is utilized in the proposed algorithms. Extensive computational experiments are conducted for the evaluation of the algorithms. The experiments indicated that the developed algorithms perform much better than the existing algorithms in the literature. More specifically, one of the newly proposed algorithms reduces the error of the best existing algorithm in the literature by 40 percent.

Keywords: Algorithm, assembly flowshop, dominance relation, total tardiness

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
27 Imaging of Underground Targets with an Improved Back-Projection Algorithm

Authors: Alireza Akbari, Gelareh Babaee Khou

Abstract:

Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is an important nondestructive remote sensing tool that has been used in both military and civilian fields. Recently, GPR imaging has attracted lots of attention in detection of subsurface shallow small targets such as landmines and unexploded ordnance and also imaging behind the wall for security applications. For the monostatic arrangement in the space-time GPR image, a single point target appears as a hyperbolic curve because of the different trip times of the EM wave when the radar moves along a synthetic aperture and collects reflectivity of the subsurface targets. With this hyperbolic curve, the resolution along the synthetic aperture direction shows undesired low resolution features owing to the tails of hyperbola. However, highly accurate information about the size, electromagnetic (EM) reflectivity, and depth of the buried objects is essential in most GPR applications. Therefore hyperbolic curve behavior in the space-time GPR image is often willing to be transformed to a focused pattern showing the object's true location and size together with its EM scattering. The common goal in a typical GPR image is to display the information of the spatial location and the reflectivity of an underground object. Therefore, the main challenge of GPR imaging technique is to devise an image reconstruction algorithm that provides high resolution and good suppression of strong artifacts and noise. In this paper, at first, the standard back-projection (BP) algorithm that was adapted to GPR imaging applications used for the image reconstruction. The standard BP algorithm was limited with against strong noise and a lot of artifacts, which have adverse effects on the following work like detection targets. Thus, an improved BP is based on cross-correlation between the receiving signals proposed for decreasing noises and suppression artifacts. To improve the quality of the results of proposed BP imaging algorithm, a weight factor was designed for each point in region imaging. Compared to a standard BP algorithm scheme, the improved algorithm produces images of higher quality and resolution. This proposed improved BP algorithm was applied on the simulation and the real GPR data and the results showed that the proposed improved BP imaging algorithm has a superior suppression artifacts and produces images with high quality and resolution. In order to quantitatively describe the imaging results on the effect of artifact suppression, focusing parameter was evaluated.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, Algorithm, GPR, back-projection

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26 A Kruskal Based Heuxistic for the Application of Spanning Tree

Authors: Anjan Naidu

Abstract:

In this paper we first discuss the minimum spanning tree, then we use the Kruskal algorithm to obtain minimum spanning tree. Based on Kruskal algorithm we propose Kruskal algorithm to apply an application to find minimum cost applying the concept of spanning tree.

Keywords: Algorithm, Application, minimum spanning tree, Heuxistic, classification of Sub 97K90

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
25 Comparative Study of Universities’ Web Structure Mining

Authors: Z. Abdullah, A. R. Hamdan

Abstract:

This paper is meant to analyze the ranking of University of Malaysia Terengganu, UMT’s website in the World Wide Web. There are only few researches have been done on comparing the ranking of universities’ websites so this research will be able to determine whether the existing UMT’s website is serving its purpose which is to introduce UMT to the world. The ranking is based on hub and authority values which are accordance to the structure of the website. These values are computed using two web-searching algorithms, HITS and SALSA. Three other universities’ websites are used as the benchmarks which are UM, Harvard and Stanford. The result is clearly showing that more work has to be done on the existing UMT’s website where important pages according to the benchmarks, do not exist in UMT’s pages. The ranking of UMT’s website will act as a guideline for the web-developer to develop a more efficient website.

Keywords: Algorithm, Web Structure Mining, ranking, website

Procedia PDF Downloads 365
24 Usage the Point Analysis Algorithm (SANN) on Drought Analysis

Authors: Khosro Shafie Motlaghi, Amir Reza Salemian

Abstract:

In arid and semi-arid regions like our country Evapotranspiration is the greatestportion of water resource. Therefor knowlege of its changing and other climate parameters plays an important role for planning, development, and management of water resource. In this search the Trend of long changing of Evapotranspiration (ET0), average temprature, monthly rainfall were tested. To dose, all synoptic station s in iran were divided according to the climate with Domarton climate. The present research was done in semi-arid climate of Iran, and in which 14 synoptic with 30 years period of statistics were investigated with 3 methods of minimum square error, Mann Kendoll, and Vald-Volfoytz Evapotranspiration was calculated by using the method of FAO-Penman. The results of investigation in periods of statistic has shown that the process Evapotranspiration parameter of 24 percent of stations is positive, and for 2 percent is negative, and for 47 percent. It was without any Trend. Similary for 22 percent of stations was positive the Trend of parameter of temperature for 19 percent , the trend was negative and for 64 percent, it was without any Trend. The results of rainfall trend has shown that the amount of rainfall in most stations was not considered as a meaningful trend. The result of Mann-kendoll method similar to minimum square error method. regarding the acquired result was can admit that in future years Some regions will face increase of temperature and Evapotranspiration.

Keywords: Analysis, Algorithm, SANN, ET0

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
23 Identification Algorithm of Critical Interface, Modelling Perils on Critical Infrastructure Subjects

Authors: Josef Krahulec, Hana Malachova, Jiří. J. Urbánek, Jitka Johanidisová

Abstract:

The paper deals with crisis situations investigation and modelling within the organizations of critical infrastructure. Every crisis situation has an origin in the emergency event occurrence in the organizations of energetic critical infrastructure especially. Here, the emergency events can be both the expected events, then crisis scenarios can be pre-prepared by pertinent organizational crisis management authorities towards their coping or the unexpected event (Black Swan effect) – without pre-prepared scenario, but it needs operational coping of crisis situations as well. The forms, characteristics, behaviour and utilization of crisis scenarios have various qualities, depending on real critical infrastructure organization prevention and training processes. An aim is always better organizational security and continuity obtainment. This paper objective is to find and investigate critical/ crisis zones and functions in critical situations models of critical infrastructure organization. The DYVELOP (Dynamic Vector Logistics of Processes) method is able to identify problematic critical zones and functions, displaying critical interfaces among actors of crisis situations on the DYVELOP maps named Blazons. Firstly, for realization of this ability is necessary to derive and create identification algorithm of critical interfaces. The locations of critical interfaces are the flags of crisis situation in real organization of critical infrastructure. Conclusive, the model of critical interface will be displayed at real organization of Czech energetic crisis infrastructure subject in Black Out peril environment. The Blazons need live power Point presentation for better comprehension of this paper mission.

Keywords: Algorithm, Infrastructure, Crisis, DYVELOP

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
22 Algorithm for Quantification of Pulmonary Fibrosis in Chest X-Ray Exams

Authors: Guilherme Giacomini, Marcela de Oliveira, Fernando Antonio Bacchim Neto, Allan Felipe Fattori Alves, Maria Eugênia Dela Rosa, Diana Rodrigues De Pina, Ana Luiza Menegatti Pavan

Abstract:

It is estimated that each year one death every 10 seconds (about 2 million deaths) in the world is attributed to tuberculosis (TB). Even after effective treatment, TB leaves sequelae such as, for example, pulmonary fibrosis, compromising the quality of life of patients. Evaluations of the aforementioned sequel are usually performed subjectively by radiology specialists. Subjective evaluation may indicate variations inter and intra observers. The examination of x-rays is the diagnostic imaging method most accomplished in the monitoring of patients diagnosed with TB and of least cost to the institution. The application of computational algorithms is of utmost importance to make a more objective quantification of pulmonary impairment in individuals with tuberculosis. The purpose of this research is the use of computer algorithms to quantify the pulmonary impairment pre and post-treatment of patients with pulmonary TB. The x-ray images of 10 patients with TB diagnosis confirmed by examination of sputum smears were studied. Initially the segmentation of the total lung area was performed (posteroanterior and lateral views) then targeted to the compromised region by pulmonary sequel. Through morphological operators and the application of signal noise tool, it was possible to determine the compromised lung volume. The largest difference found pre- and post-treatment was 85.85% and the smallest was 54.08%.

Keywords: Radiology, Algorithm, Tuberculosis, x-rays exam

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21 Automatic Approach for Estimating the Protection Elements of Electric Power Plants

Authors: Mahmoud Mohammad Salem Al-Suod, Ushkarenko O. Alexander, Dorogan I. Olga

Abstract:

New algorithms using microprocessor systems have been proposed for protection the diesel-generator unit in autonomous power systems. The software structure is designed to enhance the control automata of the system, in which every protection module of diesel-generator encapsulates the finite state machine.

Keywords: Algorithm, Control System, Protection, Software Components, diesel-generator unit, state diagram

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
20 A Time-Reducible Approach to Compute Determinant |I-X|

Authors: Wang Xingbo

Abstract:

Computation of determinant in the form |I-X| is primary and fundamental because it can help to compute many other determinants. This article puts forward a time-reducible approach to compute determinant |I-X|. The approach is derived from the Newton’s identity and its time complexity is no more than that to compute the eigenvalues of the square matrix X. Mathematical deductions and numerical example are presented in detail for the approach. By comparison with classical approaches the new approach is proved to be superior to the classical ones and it can naturally reduce the computational time with the improvement of efficiency to compute eigenvalues of the square matrix.

Keywords: Computation, Algorithm, Determinant, eigenvalue, time complexity

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19 M-Machine Assembly Scheduling Problem to Minimize Total Tardiness with Non-Zero Setup Times

Authors: Ali Allahverdi, Harun Aydilek, Asiye Aydilek

Abstract:

Our objective is to minimize the total tardiness in an m-machine two-stage assembly flowshop scheduling problem. The objective is an important performance measure because of the fact that the fulfillment of due dates of customers has to be taken into account while making scheduling decisions. In the literature, the problem is considered with zero setup times which may not be realistic and appropriate for some scheduling environments. Considering separate setup times from processing times increases machine utilization by decreasing the idle time and reduces total tardiness. We propose two new algorithms and adapt four existing algorithms in the literature which are different versions of simulated annealing and genetic algorithms. Moreover, a dominance relation is developed based on the mathematical formulation of the problem. The developed dominance relation is incorporated in our proposed algorithms. Computational experiments are conducted to investigate the performance of the newly proposed algorithms. We find that one of the proposed algorithms performs significantly better than the others, i.e., the error of the best algorithm is less than those of the other algorithms by minimum 50%. The newly proposed algorithm is also efficient for the case of zero setup times and performs better than the best existing algorithm in the literature.

Keywords: Simulation, Scheduling, Algorithm, assembly flowshop, total tardiness

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
18 Two Stage Assembly Flowshop Scheduling Problem Minimizing Total Tardiness

Authors: Ali Allahverdi, Harun Aydilek, Asiye Aydilek

Abstract:

The two stage assembly flowshop scheduling problem has lots of application in real life. To the best of our knowledge, the two stage assembly flowshop scheduling problem with total tardiness performance measure and separate setup times has not been addressed so far, and hence, it is addressed in this paper. Different dominance relations are developed and several algorithms are proposed. Extensive computational experiments are conducted to evaluate the proposed algorithms. The computational experiments have shown that one of the algorithms performs much better than the others. Moreover, the experiments have shown that the best performing algorithm performs much better than the best existing algorithm for the case of zero setup times in the literature. Therefore, the proposed best performing algorithm not only can be used for problems with separate setup times but also for the case of zero setup times.

Keywords: Scheduling, Algorithm, assembly flowshop, total tardiness

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
17 Variations in Spatial Learning and Memory across Natural Populations of Zebrafish, Danio rerio

Authors: Tamal Roy, Anuradha Bhat

Abstract:

Cognitive abilities aid fishes in foraging, avoiding predators & locating mates. Factors like predation pressure & habitat complexity govern learning & memory in fishes. This study aims to compare spatial learning & memory across four natural populations of zebrafish. Zebrafish, a small cyprinid inhabits a diverse range of freshwater habitats & this makes it amenable to studies investigating role of native environment in spatial cognitive abilities. Four populations were collected across India from waterbodies with contrasting ecological conditions. Habitat complexity of the water-bodies was evaluated as a combination of channel substrate diversity and diversity of vegetation. Experiments were conducted on populations under controlled laboratory conditions. A square shaped spatial testing arena (maze) was constructed for testing the performance of adult zebrafish. The square tank consisted of an inner square shaped layer with the edges connected to the diagonal ends of the tank-walls by connections thereby forming four separate chambers. Each of the four chambers had a main door in the centre. Each chamber had three sections separated by two windows. A removable coloured window-pane (red, yellow, green or blue) identified each main door. A food reward associated with an artificial plant was always placed inside the left-hand section of the red-door chamber. The position of food-reward and plant within the red-door chamber was fixed. A test fish would have to explore the maze by taking turns and locate the food inside the right-side section of the red-door chamber. Fishes were sorted from each population stock and kept individually in separate containers for identification. At a time, a test fish was released into the arena and allowed 20 minutes to explore in order to find the food-reward. In this way, individual fishes were trained through the maze to locate the food reward for eight consecutive days. The position of red door, with the plant and the reward, was shuffled every day. Following training, an intermission of four days was given during which the fishes were not subjected to trials. Post-intermission, the fishes were re-tested on the 13th day following the same protocol for their ability to remember the learnt task. Exploratory tendencies and latency of individuals to explore on 1st day of training, performance time across trials, and number of mistakes made each day were recorded. Additionally, mechanism used by individuals to solve the maze each day was analyzed across populations. Fishes could be expected to use algorithm (sequence of turns) or associative cues in locating the food reward. Individuals of populations did not differ significantly in latencies and tendencies to explore. No relationship was found between exploration and learning across populations. High habitat-complexity populations had higher rates of learning & stronger memory while low habitat-complexity populations had lower rates of learning and much reduced abilities to remember. High habitat-complexity populations used associative cues more than algorithm for learning and remembering while low habitat-complexity populations used both equally. The study, therefore, helped understand the role of natural ecology in explaining variations in spatial learning abilities across populations.

Keywords: Algorithm, Population, associative cue, habitat complexity, spatial learning

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16 THz Phase Extraction Algorithms for a THz Modulating Interferometric Doppler Radar

Authors: Shaolin Allen Liao, Hual-Te Chien

Abstract:

Various THz phase extraction algorithms have been developed for a novel THz Modulating Interferometric Doppler Radar (THz-MIDR) developed recently by the author. The THz-MIDR differs from the well-known FTIR technique in that it introduces a continuously modulating reference branch, compared to the time-consuming discrete FTIR stepping reference branch. Such change allows real-time tracking of a moving object and capturing of its Doppler signature. The working principle of the THz-MIDR is similar to the FTIR technique: the incoming THz emission from the scene is split by a beam splitter/combiner; one of the beams is continuously modulated by a vibrating mirror or phase modulator and the other split beam is reflected by a reflection mirror; finally both the modulated reference beam and reflected beam are combined by the same beam splitter/combiner and detected by a THz intensity detector (for example, a pyroelectric detector). In order to extract THz phase from the single intensity measurement signal, we have derived rigorous mathematical formulas for 3 Frequency Banded (FB) signals: 1) DC Low-Frequency Banded (LFB) signal; 2) Fundamental Frequency Banded (FFB) signal; and 3) Harmonic Frequency Banded (HFB) signal. The THz phase extraction algorithms are then developed based combinations of 2 or all of these 3 FB signals with efficient algorithms such as Levenberg-Marquardt nonlinear fitting algorithm. Numerical simulation has also been performed in Matlab with simulated THz-MIDR interferometric signal of various Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) to verify the algorithms.

Keywords: Algorithm, modulation, THz phase, THz interferometry doppler radar

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15 Individual Cylinder Ignition Advance Control Algorithms of the Aircraft Piston Engine

Authors: M. Wendeker, G. Barański, P. Kacejko

Abstract:

The impact of the ignition advance control algorithms of the ASz-62IR-16X aircraft piston engine on a combustion process has been presented in this paper. This aircraft engine is a nine-cylinder 1000 hp engine with a special electronic control ignition system. This engine has two spark plugs per cylinder with an ignition advance angle dependent on load and the rotational speed of the crankshaft. Accordingly, in most cases, these angles are not optimal for power generated. The scope of this paper is focused on developing algorithms to control the ignition advance angle in an electronic ignition control system of an engine. For this type of engine, i.e. radial engine, an ignition advance angle should be controlled independently for each cylinder because of the design of such an engine and its crankshaft system. The ignition advance angle is controlled in an open-loop way, which means that the control signal (i.e. ignition advance angle) is determined according to the previously developed maps, i.e. recorded tables of the correlation between the ignition advance angle and engine speed and load. Load can be measured by engine crankshaft speed or intake manifold pressure. Due to a limited memory of a controller, the impact of other independent variables (such as cylinder head temperature or knock) on the ignition advance angle is given as a series of one-dimensional arrays known as corrective characteristics. The value of the ignition advance angle specified combines the value calculated from the primary characteristics and several correction factors calculated from correction characteristics. Individual cylinder control can proceed in line with certain indicators determined from pressure registered in a combustion chamber. Control is assumed to be based on the following indicators: maximum pressure, maximum pressure angle, indicated mean effective pressure. Additionally, a knocking combustion indicator was defined. Individual control can be applied to a single set of spark plugs only, which results from two fundamental ideas behind designing a control system. Independent operation of two ignition control systems – if two control systems operate simultaneously. It is assumed that the entire individual control should be performed for a front spark plug only and a rear spark plug shall be controlled with a fixed (or specific) offset relative to the front one or from a reference map. The developed algorithms will be verified by simulation and engine test sand experiments. This work has been financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development, INNOLOT, under Grant Agreement No. INNOLOT/I/1/NCBR/2013.

Keywords: Algorithm, combustion process, radial engine, spark plug

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
14 Cryptography and Cryptosystem a Panacea to Security Risk in Wireless Networking

Authors: Modesta E. Ezema, Chikwendu V. Alabekee, Victoria N. Ishiwu, Ifeyinwa NwosuArize, Chinedu I. Nwoye

Abstract:

The advent of wireless networking in computing technology cannot be overemphasized, it opened up easy accessibility to information resources, networking made easier and brought internet accessibility to our doorsteps, but despite all these, some mishap came in with it that is causing mayhem in today ‘s overall information security. The cyber criminals will always compromise the integrity of a message that is not encrypted or that is encrypted with a weak algorithm.In other to correct the mayhem, this study focuses on cryptosystem and cryptography. This ensures end to end crypt messaging. The study of various cryptographic algorithms, as well as the techniques and applications of the cryptography for efficiency, were all considered in the work., present and future applications of cryptography were dealt with as well as Quantum Cryptography was exposed as the current and the future area in the development of cryptography. An empirical study was conducted to collect data from network users.

Keywords: Cryptography, Network, Algorithm, cryptosystem

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
13 Accurate Algorithm for Selecting Ground Motions Satisfying Code Criteria

Authors: S. J. Ha, S. J. Baik, T. O. Kim, S. W. Han

Abstract:

For computing the seismic responses of structures, current seismic design provisions permit response history analyses (RHA) that can be used without limitations in height, seismic design category, and building irregularity. In order to obtain accurate seismic responses using RHA, it is important to use adequate input ground motions. Current seismic design provisions provide criteria for selecting ground motions. In this study, the accurate and computationally efficient algorithm is proposed for accurately selecting ground motions that satisfy the requirements specified in current seismic design provisions. The accuracy of the proposed algorithm is verified using single-degree-of-freedom systems with various natural periods and yield strengths. This study shows that the mean seismic responses obtained from RHA with seven and ten ground motions selected using the proposed algorithm produce errors within 20% and 13%, respectively.

Keywords: Algorithm, Selection, Ground Motion, response history analysis

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12 Spatial Object-Oriented Template Matching Algorithm Using Normalized Cross-Correlation Criterion for Tracking Aerial Image Scene

Authors: Ricardo Villar, Jigg Pelayo

Abstract:

Leaning on the development of aerial laser scanning in the Philippine geospatial industry, researches about remote sensing and machine vision technology became a trend. Object detection via template matching is one of its application which characterized to be fast and in real time. The paper purposely attempts to provide application for robust pattern matching algorithm based on the normalized cross correlation (NCC) criterion function subjected in Object-based image analysis (OBIA) utilizing high-resolution aerial imagery and low density LiDAR data. The height information from laser scanning provides effective partitioning order, thus improving the hierarchal class feature pattern which allows to skip unnecessary calculation. Since detection is executed in the object-oriented platform, mathematical morphology and multi-level filter algorithms were established to effectively avoid the influence of noise, small distortion and fluctuating image saturation that affect the rate of recognition of features. Furthermore, the scheme is evaluated to recognized the performance in different situations and inspect the computational complexities of the algorithms. Its effectiveness is demonstrated in areas of Misamis Oriental province, achieving an overall accuracy of 91% above. Also, the garnered results portray the potential and efficiency of the implemented algorithm under different lighting conditions.

Keywords: Algorithm, Object recognition, Lidar, OBIA

Procedia PDF Downloads 144