Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 66

Algeria Related Abstracts

36 Assessment of Potential Spontaneous Plants Seed Dispersal in Camels and Small Ruminants Faeces

Authors: H. Trabelsi, A. Chehma, I. Benseddik

Abstract:

Animals can play an important role in the seed dispersal cycle through the active or passive uptake of seeds and the subsequent external (epizoochory) or internal transport (endozoochory) of seeds. In Algeria, small ruminants and camels are generally conducted in extensive livestock exploiting the Saharan and steppe rangelands. To get an idea on the ecological potential role of these animals in the spontaneous plants proliferation, we propose to make a study of seeds dispersal and germination possibilities by camel faeces compared to those of small ruminants. Manual faeces decortication of the two animals categories has allowed to inventory 72 seed which 71% are in good condition, while 29% of the seeds that are encountered are partially altered and could not be identified. The species that have been identified, from small ruminants dung are weeds of cultures, while those identified from camel dung are spontaneous plants of Saharan rangeland. Concerning germination in the laboratory, only 3 species seeds were germinated from camel feces, whose germination rate varies from 25% to 100%. Contrary to Sheep-Goat feces, a single species germinated with 71%. The three months seed germination in greenhouse allowed to identify 10 species belonging to 4 botanical families (5 species from small ruminants dung and 3 species from Camel dung). In general, the results show the positive effect played by two animals categories for plants seed dispersal with the camel particularity for spontaneous plants due to its capacity to cover long distances in different rangeland types.

Keywords: Rangeland, Seeds, Algeria, camel, endozoochory, sheep-goat

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35 Ecobiological Study of Olivier in the Northern Slopes of the Mountains of Tlemcen, Western Algeria

Authors: Hachemi Nouria

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The olive tree is a Mediterranean tree, which belongs to the family Oleaceae. The Olea genus contains various species and subspecies, and the only species bearing edible fruit is Olea europaea. The desired issue in this study is to provide the current status of plant cover and especially the training in Olea europaea currently existing in the major centers of the region of Tlemcen. While based on the flora and biometric aspect of this plant germplasm. In order to make an assessment of the phytomass, we made measurements of the four parameters of the aerial part of the taxon: height, diameter, and canopy density to ten feet of the olive tree per station. The floristic analysis shows a certain floristic difference between the different stations. The vegetal formations reflect the biotic and abiotic conditions including climate affecting the ecosystem. Biometric study on the feet of Olea in the six study sites, has led us to conclude that the four measured parameters provides insight on the development or degradation of Olea feet depending on the layout of the stations and the factors environmental. We find that the terrains are havens for these assets. Also the local microclimate (Oued Thalweg) promotes the healthy development of this species.

Keywords: Biometrics, Ecology, Algeria, Tlemcen, olivier

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34 Inventory Larval Ectoparasites of Tomato Leafminer in National High School of Agriculture, Algeria

Authors: Khadidja Mahdi, Salaheddine Doumandji

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Among the natural enemies that reduce populations of the tomato leaf miner studied in experimental plots of National High school of agriculture (ENSA, Algeria, 36° 40’ à 36° 43’ N.; 3° 08’ à 3° 12’ E.), larval ectoparasites. Three larval ectoparasites are reported in this study namely Necrinmus Sp. and two species of indeterminate Chalcidae (Chalcidae Sp. 1 and 2). These species have significantly reduced the effectives of Tuta absoluta. The results for the parasitism of eggs, larval instars and pupae of Tuta absoluta on the open field tomato in the experimental plots of ENSA show high levels of parasite eggs with 25%. With 94.7%, the first larval instar (L1) is the most parasites. The second instar (L2) undergoes the action of parasitoids least 60%. Instars L3 and L4 and pupae remain unharmed.

Keywords: Tuta Absoluta, Algeria, tomato, larval ectoparasites, ensa

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33 Entomological Study of Pests of Olive Trees in the Region of Batna - Algeria

Authors: Smail Chafaa, Abdelkrim Si Bachir

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Our work aims to study the insect diversity based on bioclimatic levels of pests in olive cultures (Olea europea L.) in the area of Batna (arid and semi arid north eastern Algeria) during the period from January 2011 to May 2011. Several sampling techniques were used, those of hunting on sight, visual inspection, hatches traps, colored traps, Japanese umbrella and sweep net. We have identified in total, 2311 individuals with results in inventory 206 species divided to 74 families and 11 orders, including Coleoptera order is quantitatively the most represented with 47.1%. The most dominant diet in our inventory is the phytophagous. Between the herbivorous insects that we have listed and which are the main olive pest of olive cultivation; we quote the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae), cochineal purple olive (Parlatoria oleae) the psyllid olive (Euphyllura olivina) and olive Trips (Liothrips oleae). The distribution of species between stations shows that Boumia resort with the most number of species (113) compared to other resorts and beetles are also better represented in three groves. Total wealth is high in Boumia station compared with the others stations. The values of (H') exceeding 3.9 bits for all the stations studied indicate a specific wealth and diversity of ecological nests in insect species. The values of equitability are near the unit; that suggests a balance between the numbers of insect populations sampled in the various stations.

Keywords: Entomology, Algeria, olive, grove, batna

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32 First Breeding Populations of The Glossy Ibis (Plegadis falcinellus) in a Peri-Urban Wetland Areas (Marsh of Boussedra; North-East of Algeria)

Authors: Boudraa Wahiba, Chettibi Farah, Lahlah Naouel, Bouslama Zihad, Houhamdi Moussa

Abstract:

The marsh of Boussedra (55 ha) is a peri-urban wetland, located in the city of El - Bouni, wilaya of Annaba (North-east of the Algeria). This city hosts every year, 53 species of waterfowl, belonging to 15 different families, of which the most represented family is the Anatidae with almost 12 species. The Glossy ibis (Plegadis falcinellus) is the only representative of the family of the threskiornithidae. After a total absence for almost a decade, this species has established in North Africa and started breeding since 2000. The Glossy ibis (plegadis falcinellus), breeds with low numbers in distant areas. At the wetland of Boussedra, the population of this species was observed with numbers approaching 160 individuals. During the breeding season of 2014 (between march and july), this species bred in mixed heronries (Cattle egret Bubulcus ibis , Little egret Egretta garzetta, The black-crowned night heron Nycticorax nycticorax , Squacco heron Ardeola ralloides and Little bittern Ixobrychus minutus), where a total of 120 nests were counted. This represents the largest colony observed in North Africa. The reproduction of the studied species took place on a Tamaricaceae (Tamarix gallica), where more than 2000 nest were constructed. During this breeding season, we have monitored the colony's installation and evolution and tried to characterize the reproduction, at the urban water plan of Boussedra (measurements of nests, measurements of eggs and monitoring the growing rate and weight gaining of the chicks, since their birth until their flight).

Keywords: Reproduction, Algeria, glossy ibis, peri-urban wetland, mixed heronry, Boussedra

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31 Bacteriological Quality and Physicochemical Water Beaches of the City of Annaba (Mediterranean Sea)

Authors: Wahiba Boudraa, Farah Chettibbi, Meriem Aberkane, Fatma Djamaa, Moussa Houhamdi

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The intensity of human activities in regions surrounding the Mediterranean Sea always has a strong long-term environmental impact resulting in coastal and marine degradation, as well as an aggravated risk of more serious damage. The available data on water quality show that most water resources in Algeria are polluted by uncontrolled discharges from municipal sewage and untreated industrial effluents. Annaba is a coastal town in Algeria; The Gulf of Annaba, responds to these changes as it receives the continental inputs and urban waste, industrial without prior treatment of a highly industrialized and urbanized city, subject to the same environmental problems that know the rest of the Algerian coast. In later year, the beaches of bacterial enumeration process waters showed relatively high levels of bacterial indicators of fecal contamination (group D streptococci, total and fecal coliforms), which reflect the risks to people attending these beaches. During the twelve months of our study, we isolated from three beaches in the city of Annaba (St. Cloud, El-Kettara, and Djenane El Bey) a number of pathogenic microorganisms considered, namely: Salmonella, Aeromonas, Citrobacter, Yersinia, Enterococcus, and E.coli. The microbial count revealed elevated levels of coliform bacteria, fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci quite high especially in urban beaches (St. Cloud and El-Kettara). They are widely popular during the summer by many vacationers. For the physico-chemical parameters, there exist some weak values which increase during the pluvial period, hivernal and festival saison. These values remain, nevertheless, weak to be able to cause an organic or metallic pollution.

Keywords: Algeria, quality microbiology, pollution of water, fecal contamination, physico-chemistry, beaches of Annaba city

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30 A Preliminary Study of the Effects of Abiotic Environmental Variables on Early Diptera Carrion Colonizers in Algiers, Algeria

Authors: M. Taleb, G. Tail, F. Z. Kara, B. Djedouani T. Moussa

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Necrophagous insects usually colonize cadavers within a short time after death. However, they are influenced by weather conditions, and their distribution and activity vary according to different time scales, which can affect the post-mortem interval (PMI) estimation. As no data have been published in Algeria on necrophagous insects visiting corpses, two field surveys were conducted in July 2012 and March 2013 at the National Institute for Criminalistics and Criminology (INCC) using rabbit carcasses (Oryctolagus cuniculus L.). The trials were designed to identify the necrophagous Diptera fauna of Algiers, Algeria and examine their variations according to environmental variables. Four hundred and eighteen Diptera adults belonging to five families were captured during this study. The species which were identified on human corpses in different regions of Algeria were also observed on the rabbit carcasses. Although seasonal variations of the species were observed, their abundance did not significantly vary between the two seasons. In addition to seasonal effects, the ambient temperature, the wind speed, and precipitation affect the number of trapped flies. These conclusions highlight the necessity of considering the environmental factors at a scene to estimate the post-mortem interval accurately. It is hoped that these findings provide basic information regarding the necrophagous Diptera fauna of Algeria.

Keywords: Forensic Entomology, Algeria, abiotic factors, necrophagous diptera, post-mortem interval

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29 Dietary Micronutritient and Health among Youth in Algeria

Authors: Allioua Meryem

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Similar to much of the developing world, Algeria is currently undergoing an epidemiological transition. While mal- and under-nutrition and infectious diseases used to be the main causes of poor health, today there is a higher proportion of chronic, non-communicable diseases (NCDs), including cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, cancer, etc. According to estimates for Algeria from the World Health Organization (WHO), NCDs accounted for 63% of all deaths in 2010. The objective of this study was the assessment of eating habits and anthropometric characteristics in a group of youth aged 15 to 19 years in Tlemcen. This study was conducted on a total effective of 806 youth enrolled in a descriptive cross-sectional study; the classification of nutritional status has been established by international standards IOTF, youth were defined as obese if they had a BMI ≥ 95th percentile, and youth with 85th ≤ BMI ≤ 95th percentile were defined as overweight. Wc is classified by the criteria HD, Wc with moderate risk ≥ 90th percentile and Wc with high risk ≥ 95th percentile. The dietary assessment was based on a 24-hour dietary recall assisted by food records. USDA’S nutrient database for Nutrinux® program was used to analyze dietary intake. Nutrients adequacy ratio was calculated by dividing daily individual intake to dietary recommended intake DRI for each nutrient. 9% of the population was overweight, 3% was obese, 7.5% had abdominal obesity, foods eaten in moderation are chips, cookies, chocolate 1-3 times/day and increased consumption of fried foods in the week, almost half of youth consume sugary drinks more than 3 times per week, we observe a decreased intake of energy, protein (P < 0.001, P = 0.003), SFA (P = 0.018), the NAR of phosphorus, iron, magnesium, vitamin B6, vitamin E, folate, niacin, and thiamin reflecting less consumption of fruit, vegetables, milk, and milk products. Youth surveyed have eating habits at risk of developing obesity and chronic disease.

Keywords: Health, Algeria, food intake, anthropometric characteristics

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28 Forensic Entomology in Algeria

Authors: Meriem Taleb, Ghania Tail, Fatma Zohra Kara, Brahim Djedouani, T. Moussa

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Forensic entomology is the use of insects and their arthropod relatives as silent witnesses to aid legal investigations by interpreting information concerning a death. The main purpose of forensic entomology is to establish the postmortem interval or PMI Postmortem interval is a matter of crucial importance in the investigations of homicide and other untimely deaths when the body found is after three days. Forensic entomology has grown immensely as a discipline in the past thirty years. In Algeria, forensic entomology was introduced in 2010 by the National Institute for Criminalistics and Criminology of the National Gendarmerie (NICC). However, all the work that has been done so far in this growing field in Algeria has been unknown at both the national and international levels. In this context, the aim of this paper is to describe the state of forensic entomology in Algeria. The Laboratory of Entomology of the NICC is the only one of its kind in Algeria. It started its activities in 2010, consisting of two specialists. The main missions of the laboratory are estimation of the PMI by the analysis of entomological evidence, and determination if the body was moved. Currently, the laboratory is performing different tasks such as the expert work required by investigators to estimate the PMI using the insects. The estimation is performed by the accumulated degree days method (ADD) in most of the cases except for those where the cadaver is in dry decay. To assure the quality of the entomological evidence, crime scene personnel are trained by the laboratory of Entomology of the NICC. Recently, undergraduate and graduate students have been studying carrion ecology and insect activity in different geographic locations of Algeria using rabbits and wild boar cadavers as animal models. The Laboratory of Entomology of the NICC has also been involved in some of these research projects. Entomotoxicology experiments are also conducted with the collaboration of the Toxicology Department of the NICC. By dint of hard work that has been performed by the Laboratory of Entomology of the NICC, official bodies have been adopting more and more the use of entomological evidence in criminal investigations in Algeria, which is commendable. It is important, therefore, that steps are taken to fill in the gaps in the knowledge necessary for entomological evidence to have a useful future in criminal investigations in Algeria.

Keywords: Insects, Forensic Entomology, expertise, Algeria, postmortem interval, corpse

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27 Application of Forensic Entomology to Estimate the Post Mortem Interval

Authors: Meriem Taleb, Ghania Tail, Fatma Zohra Kara, Brahim Djedouani, T. Moussa

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Forensic entomology has grown immensely as a discipline in the past thirty years. The main purpose of forensic entomology is to establish the post mortem interval or PMI. Three days after the death, insect evidence is often the most accurate and sometimes the only method of determining elapsed time since death. This work presents the estimation of the PMI in an experiment to test the reliability of the accumulated degree days (ADD) method and the application of this method in a real case. The study was conducted at the Laboratory of Entomology at the National Institute for Criminalistics and Criminology of the National Gendarmerie, Algeria. The domestic rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus L. was selected as the animal model. On 08th July 2012, the animal was killed. Larvae were collected and raised to adulthood. Estimation of oviposition time was calculated by summing up average daily temperatures minus minimum development temperature (also specific to each species). When the sum is reached, it corresponds to the oviposition day. Weather data were obtained from the nearest meteorological station. After rearing was accomplished, three species emerged: Lucilia sericata, Chrysomya albiceps, and Sarcophaga africa. For Chrysomya albiceps species, a cumulation of 186°C is necessary. The emergence of adults occured on 22nd July 2012. A value of 193.4°C is reached on 9th August 2012. Lucilia sericata species require a cumulation of 207°C. The emergence of adults occurred on 23rd, July 2012. A value of 211.35°C is reached on 9th August 2012. We should also consider that oviposition may occur more than 12 hours after death. Thus, the obtained PMI is in agreement with the actual time of death. We illustrate the use of this method during the investigation of a case of a decaying human body found on 03rd March 2015 in Bechar, South West of Algerian desert. Maggots were collected and sent to the Laboratory of Entomology. Lucilia sericata adults were identified on 24th March 2015 after emergence. A sum of 211.6°C was reached on 1st March 2015 which corresponds to the estimated day of oviposition. Therefore, the estimated date of death is 1st March 2015 ± 24 hours. The estimated PMI by accumulated degree days (ADD) method seems to be very precise. Entomological evidence should always be used in homicide investigations when the time of death cannot be determined by other methods.

Keywords: Forensic Entomology, Algeria, diptera, postmortem interval, accumulated degree days

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26 Modeling of Global Solar Radiation on a Horizontal Surface Using Artificial Neural Network: A Case Study

Authors: Laidi Maamar, Hanini Salah

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The present work investigates the potential of artificial neural network (ANN) model to predict the horizontal global solar radiation (HGSR). The ANN is developed and optimized using three years meteorological database from 2011 to 2013 available at the meteorological station of Blida (Blida 1 university, Algeria, Latitude 36.5°, Longitude 2.81° and 163 m above mean sea level). Optimal configuration of the ANN model has been determined by minimizing the Root Means Square Error (RMSE) and maximizing the correlation coefficient (R2) between observed and predicted data with the ANN model. To select the best ANN architecture, we have conducted several tests by using different combinations of parameters. A two-layer ANN model with six hidden neurons has been found as an optimal topology with (RMSE=4.036 W/m²) and (R²=0.999). A graphical user interface (GUI), was designed based on the best network structure and training algorithm, to enhance the users’ friendliness application of the model.

Keywords: Solar energy, prediction, Artificial Neural Network, Algeria, global solar radiation

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25 Hydrologic Balance and Surface Water Resources of the Cheliff-Zahrez Basin

Authors: Mehaiguene Madjid, Touhari Fadhila, Meddi Mohamed

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The Cheliff basin offers a good hydrological example for the possibility of studying the problem which elucidated in the future, because of the unclearity in several aspects and hydraulic installation. Thus, our study of the Cheliff basin is divided into two principal parts: The spatial evaluation of the precipitation: also, the understanding of the modes of the reconstitution of the resource in water supposes a good knowledge of the structuring of the precipitation fields in the studied space. In the goal of a good knowledge of revitalizes them in water and their management integrated one judged necessary to establish a precipitation card of the Cheliff basin for a good understanding of the evolution of the resource in water in the basin and that goes will serve as basis for all study of hydraulic planning in the Cheliff basin. Then, the establishment of the precipitation card of the Cheliff basin answered a direct need of setting to the disposition of the researchers for the region and a document of reference that will be completed therefore and actualized. The hydrological study, based on the statistical hydrometric data processing will lead us to specify the hydrological terms of the assessment hydrological and to clarify the fundamental aspects of the annual flow, seasonal, extreme and thus of their variability and resources surface water.

Keywords: Algeria, surface water resources, hydrological assessment, Cheliff

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24 On Board Measurement of Real Exhaust Emission of Light-Duty Vehicles in Algeria

Authors: R. Kerbachi, S. Chikhi, M. Boughedaoui

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The study presents an analysis of the Algerian vehicle fleet and resultant emissions. The emission measurement of air pollutants emitted by road transportation (CO, THC, NOX and CO2) was conducted on 17 light duty vehicles in real traffic. This sample is representative of the Algerian light vehicles in terms of fuel quality (gasoline, diesel and liquefied petroleum gas) and the technology quality (injection system and emission control). The experimental measurement methodology of unit emission of vehicles in real traffic situation is based on the use of the mini-Constant Volume Sampler for gas sampling and a set of gas analyzers for CO2, CO, NOx and THC, with an instrumentation to measure kinematics, gas temperature and pressure. The apparatus is also equipped with data logging instrument and data transfer. The results were compared with the database of the European light vehicles (Artemis). It was shown that the technological injection liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) has significant impact on air pollutants emission. Therefore, with the exception of nitrogen oxide compounds, uncatalyzed LPG vehicles are more effective in reducing emissions unit of air pollutants compared to uncatalyzed gasoline vehicles. LPG performance seems to be lower under real driving conditions than expected on chassis dynamometer. On the other hand, the results show that uncatalyzed gasoline vehicles emit high levels of carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides. Overall, and in the absence of standards in Algeria, unit emissions are much higher than Euro 3. The enforcement of pollutant emission standard in developing countries is an important step towards introducing cleaner technology and reducing vehicular emissions.

Keywords: Algeria, on-board measurements of unit emissions of CO, NOx and CO2, light vehicles, mini-CVS, LPG-fuel, artemis

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23 The Study of Ecological Seabirds in Algeria

Authors: A. Baaloudj, F. Samraoui, B. Samraoui

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We have been studied the reproductive ecology and dispersal of Yellow-legged Gull Larus michahellis for three years 2009-2011. The study of the breeding ecology of the species was undertaken at the Srigina Island (Skikda). The mean clutch size was 2.64±0.62, 2.49±0.72 and 2.37±0.77eggsin the three study years 2009-2011 respectively. Hatching success was similar for the first two years of study (53% in 2009and 54% in 2010) but significantly lower in the third year (27% in 2011). The same trend was found for the fledging success, it was 33% and 32% in 2009and 2010respectivelyandonly 14% in 2011. Cannibalism and predation by cats were the two likely causes of low reproductive success in the third year. Regarding the species dispersal, we started a banding program of the yellow-legged gulls Larus michahellis michahellis in 2009, the first scheme of its kind in North Africa. Banding of chicks was initiated at Skikda and extended, a year later, to four other colonies located along the Algerian coast. Preliminary analysis of ringed yellow-legged gulls from Algerian colonies indicates that juveniles dispersed in a north-westerly direction to the Balearic Sea, the Bay of Biscay, the Alboran Sea and the western Atlantic coast from the Bay of Cadiz to the Galician shores. Preliminary data suggested two distinct routes: gulls from the eastern North African colonies moved N/NW to eastern Spain and overland to the Bay of Biscay, a pattern of dispersal previously reported for birds from Spanish and French western Mediterranean colonies. Juveniles from western colonies seemed also to move N/NW to the Alboran Sea and the Bay of Cadiz. In Spain, where most of the dispersal took place, data suggested that Algerian gulls occupied coastal areas which are used as aestivating refuges before returning to North Africa in late autumn and winter.

Keywords: Dispersal, Algeria, breeding ecology, population dynamic, yellow-legged gull larus michahellis, sea bird, banding scheme, Srigina

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22 Contribution to the Study of Reproduction of Water Birds (Case of Marsh Bouessdra, North East Algeria)

Authors: Wahiba Boudraa, Khalil Draidi, Badis Bakhouch, Farah Chettibi, Meriem Aberkane, Zihad Bouslama, Moussa Houhamdi

Abstract:

The Gulf of Annaba, located at the extreme north eastern Algerian; our site of study is a marsh administratively it is part of the wilaya of Annaba, municipality of El-Bouni; extends on a surface from 55 hectare, the maximum depth is of less 2m. A scheme of work was adopted for an evaluation and characterization of the reproduction of the water nicheurs birds in the marsh of Boussedra. Some important parameters described by the scientific literature; According to standardized methods, variables were the object of a regular follow-up during the period of reproduction. These parameters were taken into account: the installation date of the nests, the vegetable support; blossoming of eggs, causes of the failure of the blossomings (predation or abandonment), characteristics of the nests (composition, internal diameter, external diameter, depth and heightening), measurements of the distances nest-nest nearest, Depth of water, the measurement of eggs, size of laying, size of laying. The follow-up in the marsh was carried out between March 2013 until the month of July 2014 at a rate of two outputs per weeks, one located and noted the nests to control them each week. The study on the reproduction of the water birds enables us to note that this site plays a very important part in the wintering and the reproduction of certain species important. This study opens broad prospects for study of several phenomena related to the ecology of the water birds, and the conservation of the wetlands.

Keywords: Reproduction, Algeria, Boussedra, nests, water birds

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21 Impact of El-Matrouha Landfill on Oued El-Kebir (North East of Algeria)

Authors: Mohamed Djalil Zaafour, Samir Chekchaki, Mohamed Benslama

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The Landfill of El Matrouha is located in El-Tarf town (extreme north east of Algeria), the Landfill is present as a gigantic wild dump. This waste dump occupies an area of over four hectares, tons of rubbish that is sent daily are scattered over kilometers, reaching farmland located west of the town, the landfill is close to a temporary Oued, which supply Oued Guergour the last tributary Oued El Kebir. The landfills are causing serious environmental damage, following the infiltration of leachates, which contribute to the degradation of water quality, in the context of this problem, the purpose of the work is focused on assessing the impact of this landfill on Oued El-Kebir, for this a series of sampling and analysis of the soil and water of this Oued was performed; The results show that the soil collected reveal the sandy texture facilitating infiltration and percolation of leachate from the landfill; the physicochemical analysis of the quality of the river water reveals high levels of sulfates in fact this element is one of the essential constituents of the mineral fraction of the waste presenting a risk of pollution by this element, The recorded values for nutrients are sub-standard, for trace elements analysis shows very low metal load on the river except for lead, which is present at high concentrations exceeding all standard.

Keywords: Landfill, Algeria, leachates, Oued El-kebir

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20 Evaluation and Analysis of the Regulations of Health and Safety in the Construction Industry: A Case of Study in Skikda, Algeria

Authors: Khorief Ouissem, Sassi Boudmagh Souad, Mahimoud Aissa

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The health and safety problem in the construction companies has been a major subject of research in Algeria for many years. The latest statistics of the Algerian National Social Security Fund (CNAS) shows that a third of accidents recorded at the national level are originated from construction activities. It is becoming increasingly essential and urgent to investigate and address its causes in order to find measures to overcome the deficiencies in this area. Thus, this paper takes in investigating this problem through a study conducted in the city of Skikda, Algeria. The study was carried out through questionnaire where twenty construction companies were taking into consideration. First, the study identifies the regulations and the laws related to the health and safety in the construction sector in Algeria. Then it goes on to assess and evaluate the implementation of the identified regulations in the companies selected. The result of the assessment indicates that the majority of the construction companies considered do not meet the health and safety standards and regulations. To extract the main causes of the failure of the system to control this industry, the observations and the evaluation were analyzed using the 5M or Ichikawa diagram method. This method is based on identifying the causes of the problem in terms of purpose, the list of potential causes for families. These families often correspond to 5M (Labor, Material, Methods, Middle, and Management). Finally, having identified the primary motives, the present authors propose a list of actions to move towards a more controlled and effective health and safety system for the construction industry.

Keywords: Performance Measurement, Health and Safety, construction industry, Algeria

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19 Soil-Vegetation Relationship in the Watersheds of the Tonga and OubeïRa Lakes, Algeria

Authors: Nafaa Zaafour

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Located at the north eastern of Algeria, the National Park of El-Kala (PNEK) is a set of landscapes whose bioclimatic stages of vegetation extend from sub-humid to humid. In order to know the soil occupation in this complex, an initiated ecological soil cartography using a stratified sampling plan of vegetation had made, the study area occupies two-thirds of the northern National Park of El Kala, it has been divided into 380 plots of 1km2 of which, 76 were the subject of a detailed floristic inventory and sampling of soils. The inventory of vegetation carried out on different sites has allowed identifying several plant groups that share the soil cover with the following distribution: The group of cork oak, this formation occupies the biggest part of the area, it develops mainly on Incepttisols, Alfisols and Mollisols; The group of kermes oak, occupies a large area, it grows on Mollisols and Alfisols; The group of maritime pine, it occupies the same soils as the Kermes Oak; The group of Mirbeck oak, installed on Regosols, it is located in the Eastern part, on the Algerian-Tunisian border; The group of eucalyptus, it grows mainly on Inceptisols, Mollisols of, and Vertisols; The group of wetland, it grows along the banks of lakes and rivers, which primarily develops on Histosols soil Mollisols and Vertisols; The cultures, distributed mainly around the lakes occupy several soil types on Histosols, the Inceptisols, Mollisols of, and Vertisols. This great diversity of vegetation is linked not only to the soil variability but also to climate, hydrological and geological variability.

Keywords: Cartography, Vegetation, Soil, Algeria

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18 Ability of Gastric Enzyme Extract of Adult Camel to Clot Bovine Milk

Authors: Boudjenah-Haroun Saliha, Isselnane Souad, Nouani Abdelwahab, Baaissa Babelhadj, Mati Abderrahmane

Abstract:

Algeria is experiencing significant development of the dairy sector, where consumption of milk and milk products increased by 2.7 million tons in 2008 to 4,400,000 tons in 2013, and cheese production has reached 1640 tons in the year 2014 with average consumption of 0.7 kg/person/year. Although rennet is still the most used coagulating enzyme in cheese, its production has been growing worldwide shortage. This shortage is primarily due to a growing increase in the production and consumption of cheese, and the inability to increase in parallel the production of rennet. This shortage has caused very large fluctuations in its price). To overcome these obstacles, much research has been undertaken to find effective and competitive substitutes used industrially. For this, the selection of a local production of rennet substitute is desirable. It would allow a permanent supply with limited dependence on imports and price fluctuations. Investigations conducted by our research team showed that extracts coagulants from the stomachs of older camels are characterized by a coagulating power than those from younger camels. The objective of this work is to study the possibility of substituting commercial rennet coagulant by gastric enzymes from adult camels for coagulation bovine milk. Excerpts from the raw camel coagulants obtained are characterized through their teneures proteins and clotting and proteolytic activities. Milk clotting conditions by the action of these extracts were optimized. Milk clotting time all treated with enzyme preparations and under different conditions was calculated. Bovine rennet has been used for comparison. The results show that crude extracts from gastric adult camel can be good substituting bovine rennet.

Keywords: Coagulation, Milk, cheese, Algeria, camel, gastric extracts

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17 Urban Seismic Risk Reduction in Algeria: Adaptation and Application of the RADIUS Methodology

Authors: Mehdi Boukri, Mohammed Naboussi Farsi, Mounir Naili, Omar Amellal, Mohamed Belazougui, Ahmed Mebarki, Nabila Guessoum, Brahim Mezazigh, Mounir Ait-Belkacem, Nacim Yousfi, Mohamed Bouaoud, Ikram Boukal, Aboubakr Fettar, Asma Souki

Abstract:

The seismic risk to which the urban centres are more and more exposed became a world concern. A co-operation on an international scale is necessary for an exchange of information and experiments for the prevention and the installation of action plans in the countries prone to this phenomenon. For that, the 1990s was designated as 'International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR)' by the United Nations, whose interest was to promote the capacity to resist the various natural, industrial and environmental disasters. Within this framework, it was launched in 1996, the RADIUS project (Risk Assessment Tools for Diagnosis of Urban Areas Against Seismic Disaster), whose the main objective is to mitigate seismic risk in developing countries, through the development of a simple and fast methodological and operational approach, allowing to evaluate the vulnerability as well as the socio-economic losses, by probable earthquake scenarios in the exposed urban areas. In this paper, we will present the adaptation and application of this methodology to the Algerian context for the seismic risk evaluation in urban areas potentially exposed to earthquakes. This application consists to perform an earthquake scenario in the urban centre of Constantine city, located at the North-East of Algeria, which will allow the building seismic damage estimation of this city. For that, an inventory of 30706 building units was carried out by the National Earthquake Engineering Research Centre (CGS). These buildings were digitized in a data base which comprises their technical information by using a Geographical Information system (GIS), and then they were classified according to the RADIUS methodology. The study area was subdivided into 228 meshes of 500m on side and Ten (10) sectors of which each one contains a group of meshes. The results of this earthquake scenario highlights that the ratio of likely damage is about 23%. This severe damage results from the high concentration of old buildings and unfavourable soil conditions. This simulation of the probable seismic damage of the building and the GIS damage maps generated provide a predictive evaluation of the damage which can occur by a potential earthquake near to Constantine city. These theoretical forecasts are important for decision makers in order to take the adequate preventive measures and to develop suitable strategies, prevention and emergency management plans to reduce these losses. They can also help to take the adequate emergency measures in the most impacted areas in the early hours and days after an earthquake occurrence.

Keywords: Mitigation, Seismic risk, urban areas, Algeria, Constantine, RADIUS, earthquake scenario

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16 Geological Characteristics of the Beni Snouss District

Authors: N. Hadj Mohamed, A. Boutaleb

Abstract:

The Beni Snouss area is characterized by horst and graben structures and it comprises deformed Palaeozoic sedimentary and magmatic rocks overlapping by Mesozoic sediments. Two structural units are distinguished: a Palaeozoic basement and a Mesozoic cover. The study area is densely faulted and major faults strike N110° to N140° and dip vertically The mineralized fault zones are readily distinguishable by their argillic wall rock alteration. The fault zones that are filled with mineralizations, aplites, microgranites and quartz run roughly parallel to each other and are apparently in the same fault system. The Palaeozoic basement rocks contain mineralization occurring as veins, veinlets and disseminations. The Liassic carbonate platform sequence contains Ba (Pb-Zn) sulphide deposits occurring mainly as strata bound, and open space filling.

Keywords: Algeria, basement, Beni Snouss, cover

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15 Molecular Detection of Leishmania from the Phlebotomus Genus: Tendency towards Leishmaniasis Regression in Constantine, North-East of Algeria

Authors: K. Frahtia, I. Mihoubi, S. Picot

Abstract:

Leishmaniasis is a group of parasitic disease with a varied clinical expression caused by flagellate protozoa of the Leishmania genus. These diseases are transmitted to humans and animals by the sting of a vector insect, the female sandfly. Among the groups of dipteral disease vectors, Phlebotominae occupy a prime position and play a significant role in human pathology, such as leishmaniasis that affects nearly 350 million people worldwide. The vector control operation launched by health services throughout the country proves to be effective since despite the prevalence of the disease remains high especially in rural areas, leishmaniasis appears to be declining in Algeria. In this context, this study mainly concerns molecular detection of Leishmania from the vector. Furthermore, a molecular diagnosis has also been made on skin samples taken from patients in the region of Constantine, located in the North-East of Algeria. Concerning the vector, 5858 sandflies were captured, including 4360 males and 1498 females. Male specimens were identified based on their morphological. The morphological identification highlighted the presence of the Phlebotomus genus with a prevalence of 93% against 7% represented by the Sergentomyia genus. About the identified species, P. perniciosus is the most abundant with 59.4% of the male identified population followed by P. longicuspis with 24.7% of the workforce. P. perfiliewi is poorly represented by 6.7% of specimens followed by P. papatasi with 2.2% and 1.5% S. dreyfussi. Concerning skin samples, 45/79 (56.96%) collected samples were found positive by real-time PCR. This rate appears to be in sharp decline compared to previous years (alert peak of 30,227 cases in 2005). Concerning the detection of Leishmania from sandflies by RT-PCR, the results show that 3/60 PCR performed genus are positive with melting temperatures corresponding to that of the reference strain (84.1 +/- 0.4 ° C for L. infantum). This proves that the vectors were parasitized. On the other side, identification by RT-PCR species did not give any results. This could be explained by the presence of an insufficient amount of leishmanian DNA in the vector, and therefore support the hypothesis of the regression of leishmaniasis in Constantine.

Keywords: Algeria, real time PCR, molecular diagnostic, phlebotomus

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14 Geology and Geochemistry of the Paleozoic Basement, Western Algeria

Authors: Hadj Mohamed Nacera, Boutaleb Abdelhak

Abstract:

The Hercynian granite in Western Algeria, has a typical high-K calc-alkaline evolution, with peraluminous trend U-Pb zircon geochronology yielded the minimum emplacement age of 297 ± 1 Ma. It shows dark microgranular enclaves, veins of pegmatite, aplite, tourmaline and quartz. The granite plutons selected for this study are formed during the late Variscian phase and intrudes the Lower Silurian metasediments which were affected by the major Hercynian folding phases. An important Quartz vein field cross-cutting metasedimentary and granitic rocks. Invisible gold occurs in a very small arsenopyrite minerals. The purpose of this study is to highlight the relationship between the gold mineralisation and the intrusion by combining petrographic and geochemic studies.

Keywords: Algeria, granite, basement, geochemestry

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13 The Impact of Culture in Teaching English, the Case Study of Preparatory School of Sciences and Techniques

Authors: Nouzha Yasmina Soulimane-Benhabib

Abstract:

Language is a medium of communication and a means of expression that is why today the learning of foreign languages especially the English language has become a basic necessity for every student who is ambitious. It is known that culture and language are inseparable and complementary, however, in the process of teaching a foreign language, teachers used to focus mainly on preparing adequate syllabi for ESP students, yet, some parameters should be considered. For instance; the culture of the target language may play an important role since students attitudes towards a foreign language enhance their learning or vice versa. The aim of this study is to analyse how culture could influence the teaching of a foreign language, we have taken the example of the English language as it is considered as the second foreign language in Algeria after French. The study is conducted at the Preparatory School of Sciences and Techniques, Tlemcen where twenty-five students participated in this research. The reasons behind learning the English language are various, and since English is the most widely-spoken language in the world, it is the language of research and education and it is used in many other fields, we have to take into consideration one important factor which is the social distance between the culture of the Algerian learner and the culture of the target language, this gap may lead to a culture shock. Two steps are followed in this research: The first one is to collect data from those students who are studying at the Preparatory School under the form of questionnaire and an interview is submitted to six of them in order to reinforce our research and get effective and precise results, and the second step is to analyse these data taking into consideration the diversity of the learners within this institution. The results obtained show that learners’ attitudes towards the English community and culture are mixed and it may influence their curiosity and attention to learn. Despite of big variance between Algerian and European cultures, some of the students focused mainly on the benefits of the English language since they need it in their studies, research and a future carrier, however, the others manifest their reluctance towards this language and this is mainly due to the profound impact of the English culture which is different from the Algerian one.

Keywords: Culture, English, Impact, Algeria

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12 Modelization of Land Degradation by Desertification Using Medalus Method, Case Study of the Wilaya of Saida, Algeria

Authors: Fekir Youcef, Mederbal Khalladi, M. A. Hamadouche, D. Anteur

Abstract:

Algeria is one of the countries that are highly affected by desertification which is the consequence of several factors. For this purpose, there is a need to study this problem by quantitative approaches. In this study, we apply the MEDALUS method (Mediterranean Desertification and Land Use) to a watershed located in Saida town in semi-arid environment in the south west of Algeria. The method is based on sensitive areas identification by making use of the different parameters that may affect the desertification process such as vegetation, soil, climate and management. Spatial analyses are strong tools that allow modelization of each indicator. Results show that according to European standards, a large scale of the watershed falls into critical classes. And therefore, the modelization approach can be an effective way to study and understand the desertification showing an example of the project of the green dam that limits the desertification process to affect the north areas off Algeria.

Keywords: Desertification, Algeria, modelization, MEDALUS

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11 Epidemiological Profile of Healthcare Associated Infections in Intensive Care Unit

Authors: Abdessamad Dali-Ali, Houaria Beldjillali, Fouzia Agag, Asmaa Oukebdane, Ramzi Tidjani, Arslane Bettayeb, Khadidja Meddeber, Radia Dali-Yahia, Nori Midoun

Abstract:

Healthcare-associated infections are a real public health problem, especially in intensive care units. The aim of our study was to describe the epidemiological profile and to estimate the incidence of these infections at the intensive care unit of our teaching hospital. A prospective study was conducted, from June 2012 to December 2013. During this period, 305 patients having a duration of hospitalization equal or more than 48 hours were included in the study. In terms of the incidence of healthcare associated infections, nosocomial pneumonia occupied the first position with a cumulative incidence rate of 20.0%, followed by bacteremia (5.6%), central venous catheter infections (4%), and urinary tract infections (3%). In the case of isolated microorganisms, Gram-negative bacilli not enterobacteriaceae occupied the first place with 48.5%, followed by enterobacteria (32.1%). Acinetobacter baumannii was the most common germ (27.6%). Our study showed that the rate of health-care-associated infections was relatively high in the intensive care unit. A control program to reduce all infections is a priority for the Infection Control Associated Committee.

Keywords: Algeria, intensive care units, epidemiological profile, healthcare associated infections, teaching hospital of Oran

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10 Restoration of Steppes in Algeria: Case of the Stipa tenacissima L. Steppe

Authors: H. Kadi-Hanifi, F. Amghar

Abstract:

Steppes of arid Mediterranean zones are deeply threatened by desertification. To stop or alleviate ecological and economic problems associated with this desertification, management actions have been implemented since the last three decades. The struggle against desertification has become a national priority in many countries. In Algeria, several management techniques have been used to cope with desertification. This study aims at investigating the effect of exclosure on floristic diversity and chemical soil proprieties after four years of implementation. 167 phyto-ecological samples have been studied, 122 inside the exclosure and 45 outside. Results showed that plant diversity, composition, vegetation cover, pastoral value and soil fertility were significantly higher in protected areas.

Keywords: soil fertility, Desertification, Algeria, arid, pastoral management

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9 The Dynamics of Algeria’s Natural Gas Exports to Europe: Evidence from ARDL Bounds Testing Approach with Breakpoints

Authors: Hicham Benamirouche, Oum Elkheir Moussi

Abstract:

The purpose of the study is to examine the dynamics of Algeria’s natural gas exports through the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach with break points. The analysis was carried out for the period from 1967 to 2015. Based on imperfect substitution specification, the ARDL approach reveals a long-run equilibrium relationship between Algeria’s Natural gas exports and their determinant factors (Algeria’s gas reserves, Domestic gas consumption, Europe’s GDP per capita, relative prices, the European gas production and the market share of competitors). All the long-run elasticities estimated are statistically significant with a large impact of domestic factors, which constitute the supply constraints. In short term, the elasticities are statistically significant, and almost comparable to those of the long term. Furthermore, the speed of adjustment towards long-run equilibrium is less than one year because of the little flexibility of the long term export contracts. Two break points have been estimated when we employ the domestic gas consumption as a break variable; 1984 and 2010, which reflect the arbitration policy between the domestic gas market and gas exports.

Keywords: Elasticity, Algeria, natural gas exports, ARDL bounds testing, break points

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8 Occurrence of Aspidiscus cristatus (Lamarck) in the 'Marnes De Smail' from the Bellezma-Batna Range (Algeria): An Index Species for the Middle Cenomanian 

Authors: Salmi-Laouar Sihem, Aouissi Riadh

Abstract:

The Cenomanian formations of the Bellezma-Batna Range are yielding very diversified fossiliferous beds. Among the abundant and well-preserved fossils stands out Aspidiscus cristatus (Lamarck). This taxon is assigned to the Family Latomeandridae (Alloiteau) for the presence of six symmetry axes. The outer morphology of sampled specimens documents a low-energy environment with a high sedimentary rate and a mud-supported bottom. Its provincialism evidences some characteristic thermal gradients of the marked Tethysian climatic areas. Biometric measurements are given. Coral size increases from the North towards the southeastern Tethysian margin where waters are supposed warmer; this feature is also underlined by a frequent bio-erosion of sampled specimens. Its limited stratigraphic range makes it a good candidate for an index species for the Middle Cenomanian.

Keywords: Algeria, batna, coral, Aspidiscus cristatus, Middle Cenomanian, Bellezma

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7 The Morocco's Return to the African Union: A New Era in the Kingdom's Foreign Policy

Authors: L. Ponomarenko, Rachid Kaouar

Abstract:

Morocco has rejoined the African Union and more than 30 years after it left the continental body due to the recognition of the Arabic Republic of Western Sahara. Morocco was readmitted after a one year campaign led by the King himself, who was visiting the Eastern African country with the aim to expend the kingdom presence in new region in Africa after that it managed to build a large influence net in the West Africa region. The return of Morocco can be a beginning of a new era in the foreign policy of Morocco, specially, in the policy towards the state-quo of the Western Sahara conflict, which is considerate as one the biggest obstacle for the cooperation and integration process in the region of North Africa. As a member-state of the African Union Morocco has lot more to lose, according to that the Moroccan position must be more flexible.

Keywords: Algeria, Morocco, African Union, North African Region, Western Sahara

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