Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 63

Algeria Related Abstracts

63 The Impact of Urban Planning and French Reglementions on the Management of Algerian Environment

Authors: Sara Zatir, Kouide Brahimi, Amira Zatir

Abstract:

The planning and the environment have long evolved at the same two parallel tracks. But today, we can design a layout without addressing its environmental impact on the landscape. And the role of The documents of the regulatory planning is to control the urbanization of a common and its effects indirectly on the urban environment, but what about the urban landscape? Algeria is like many countries in the world leans primarily on developing sustainable economy, it was officially declared in the Maghreb countries, with the enactment of Law No. 01-20 of 12 December 2001 on the organization and sustainable development of the territory, one of the purposes of this law is the protection, mapping values and rational use of, natural resources, heritage and the natural preservation for future generations. However, Algeria initiatives have recently been undertaken but it still have some infancy which can be detected by the cavity between the delineation instruments,regulations and. In this context, we should note the important role of public authorities in the situation of the living and its future. The idea is to find a balance from the unbalanced conditions (between present and future generations, between economic needs, and the needs of environmental protection and cultural, between individual and collective interests) and to develop new strategies management laws and the urban landscape.

Keywords: Sustainable, Laws, Algeria, development urban landscapes

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
62 Knowledge Management in Agro-Alimentary Companies in Algeria

Authors: Radia Bernaoui, Mohamed Hassoun

Abstract:

Our survey deals a theme of the measurement of the management knowledge of actors in Algerian agricultural sector, through a study carried out with professionals affiliated to agro-alimentary 'agribusinesses'. Taking into account the creation of a national device of information on the agronomic research in Algeria, the aim is to analyze their informational practices and to assess how they rate the sharing of knowledge and the process of collective intelligence. The results of our study reveal a more crucial need: The creation a suitable framework to the division of the knowledge, to produce 'knowledge shared social' where the scientific community could interact with firms. It is a question of promoting processes for the adaptation and the spreading of knowledge, through a partnership between the R&D sector and the production one, to increase the competitiveness of the firms, even the sustainable development of the country.

Keywords: Knowledge Management, Information System, Agribusiness, Algeria, pole of competitiveness, economy of knowledge, agro-alimentary

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
61 Evaluation of Milk Production of an Algerian Rabbit Population Raised in Aures Area

Authors: Melizi Mohamed, Moumen Souad

Abstract:

In order to characterize rabbits does of an Aures local population raised in Algeria, a study of their milk yield was realized in the experimental rabbitry of El Hadj Lakhdhar University. Milk production of does was measured every day during the days following 215 parturitions. It was estimated by weighing the female before and after the single daily suckling (10–15 min between the two weighing operations). The various calculated parameters were the quantity of milk produced per day, per week and the total quantity produced in 21 days, as well as the intake of milk by young rabbits. The analysis concerned the effects of the number of successive litters (3 classes: 1 to 3 and more) and of the average number of the number of young rabbits suckled per litter (6 classes: from 1-2 kits to more than 6). During the 21 days of controlled lactation, the average litter size was 6±3. The rabbits of the Aures area produced on average 2544.34±747 g in 21 days that is 121 g of milk/day or 21 g of milk/kit/day. The milk yield increased from 526, 1035, 1240 and 2801 g to 760, 1365, 1715 and 3840 for week 1, 2, 3 and the total period of lactation, respectively. Nevertheless, milk production available per kit and per day decreased linearly with kits number in the litter for each of the 3 weeks considered. On the other hand the milk yield was not affected by the weight at birth of kits.

Keywords: milk production, Algeria, litter size, rabbit, Aures area

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60 Effect of the Average Kits Birth Weight and of the Number of Born Alive per Liter on the Milk Production of Algerian Rabbit Raised in Aures Area

Authors: M. Melizi, S. Moumen

Abstract:

In order to characterize rabbits does of an Aures local population raised in Algeria; a study of their milk yield was realized in the experimental rabbitry of El Hadj Lakhdhar University. Milk production of does was measured every day during the days following 215 parturitions. It was estimated by weighing the female before and after the single daily suckling (10-15 min between the 2 weighing operations). The various calculated parameters were the quantity of milk produced per day, per week and the total quantity produced in 21 days, as well as the intake of milk by young rabbits. The analysis concerned the effects of the number of successive litters (3 classes: 1 to 3 and more) and of the average number of the number of young rabbits suckled per litter (6 classes: from 1-2 kits to more than 6). During the 21 days of controlled lactation, the average litter size was 6±3. The rabbits of the Aures area produced on average 2544.34±747 g in 21 days that is 121 g of milk/day or 21g of milk/kit/day. The milk yield increased from 526, 1035, 1240, and 2801g to 760, 1365, 1715 and 3840 for week 1, 2, 3 and the total period of lactation respectively. Nevertheless, milk production available per kit and per day decreased linearly with kits number in the litter for each of the 3 weeks considered. On the other hand the milk yield was not affected by the weight at birth of kits.

Keywords: milk production, Algeria, litter size, rabbit, Aures area

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59 Determination of Some Biochemical Parameters in Women during the First Trimester of Pregnancy (Normal Pregnancy and Missed Miscarriage)

Authors: M. Yahia, A. Chaouch, Massinissa Yahia, N. Chaoui

Abstract:

Our study was designed to determine the metabolic changes of some biochemical parameters (cholesterol, triglyceride, Iron, uric acid, Urea and folic acid) and highlight their changes in 57 women of the region Batna, during the first trimester of pregnancy. This practical work was done with 27 women with missed miscarriage, compared with 30 control subjects of normal pregnant women. The assay results revealed a highly significant difference (P = 0.0006) between the two groups in serum iron (64.00 vs 93.54) and in the rate of folate (6.70 vs 9.22) (P <0.001) but no difference was found regarding the rate of Ca (9.69 vs 10.20), urea (0.19 vs 0.17), UA (33.96 vs 32.76), CH (1.283 vs 1.431), and TG (0.8852 vs 0.8290). The present study indicates that iron deficiency and folate are associated with missed miscarriage, but no direct pathophysiological link has been determined. Further in-depth studies are needed to determine the exact mechanism by which these deficits lead to a missed miscarriage.

Keywords: Pregnant Women, Algeria, biochemical parameters, missed miscarriage

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58 Impact of Unconventional Waters on Spirulina Production under Greenhouse Condition in Ouargla

Authors: Jr., Afaf Djaghoubi, Mustapha Daddi Bouhoun, Ali Seggai

Abstract:

The study of the habitat of Spirulina is the key to ensure the smooth running of its culture outside of its natural habitat. Our experimental work in the Ouargla basin which aims to study the Spirulina productivity cultivated under greenhouse in unconventional waters enriched and non-enriched, drainage and wastewater treated were used in the experiment. For this, we proceeded to measure the biomass concentration by the DO625. The high biomass concentration and productivity amount were in treated wastewater enriched with 2.49±1.09 and 0.12±0.57 respectively, while The high amount in drainage water were in medium enriched with 2.19 ± 0.85 g/l and 0.08±0.52 g/l/d respectively. In spite of the enrichment and the good productivity of these waters, the chemical and microbiological qualities remain to study for a better valuation.

Keywords: Production, Algeria, Ouargla, Spirulina, unconventional water

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
57 Zn, Sb, Pb (Au) Mineralization of Hammam N’bails, NE of Algeria

Authors: Brahim Merdas, Abdelhak Boutaleb

Abstract:

Polymetallic mineralizations with Zn, Sb, Pb boxed in miopliocene limestones of Hammam N’bails’s basin are regarded as the youngest mineralizations of North East of Algeria and are characterized by the presence of rather rare mineral phases throughout the world such as nadorite and flajolotite. Mineralization seems to have a bond with thermal springs emergent within the basin and with the faults which limit the basin. The comparison between mineralizations and similar ore deposits known in the world and which are characterized by the presence of the noble metals such as gold and the discovery of traces of this metal (1.4g/t) enables us to start again the problems of the noble metals of the type “low sulfidation” related to the thermal springs in the area in particular and in all Algerian North generally.

Keywords: Epigenetic, Gold, Algeria, Nadorite, galana, dolomitisation, hot springs, miopliocene, Hammam N’bails

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
56 Remotely Sensed Data Fusion to Extract Vegetation Cover in the Cultural Park of Tassili, South of Algeria

Authors: Y. Fekir, K. Mederbal, M. A. Hammadouche, D. Anteur

Abstract:

The cultural park of the Tassili, occupying a large area of Algeria, is characterized by a rich vegetative biodiversity to be preserved and managed both in time and space. The management of a large area (case of Tassili), by its complexity, needs large amounts of data, which for the most part, are spatially localized (DEM, satellite images and socio-economic information etc.), where the use of conventional and traditional methods is quite difficult. The remote sensing, by its efficiency in environmental applications, became an indispensable solution for this kind of studies. Multispectral imaging sensors have been very useful in the last decade in very interesting applications of remote sensing. They can aid in several domains such as the de¬tection and identification of diverse surface targets, topographical details, and geological features. In this work, we try to extract vegetative areas using fusion techniques between data acquired from sensor on-board the Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) satellite and Landsat ETM+ and TM sensors. We have used images acquired over the Oasis of Djanet in the National Park of Tassili in the south of Algeria. Fusion technqiues were applied on the obtained image to extract the vegetative fraction of the different classes of land use. We compare the obtained results in vegetation end member extraction with vegetation indices calculated from both Hyperion and other multispectral sensors.

Keywords: Vegetation, Data fusion, Algeria, Landsat ETM+, EO1, Tassili

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55 Performance of Exclosure in Restoring Arid Degraded Steppes of Algeria

Authors: Kadi-Hanifi Halima, Amghar Fateh

Abstract:

Steppes of arid Mediterranean zones are deeply threatened by desertification. To stop or alleviate ecological and economic problems associated with this desertification, management actions have been implemented since the last three decades. The struggle against desertification has become a national priority in many countries. In Algeria, several management techniques have been used to cope with desertification. This study aims at investigating the effect of exclosure on floristic diversity and chemical soil properties after four years of implementation. 167 phyto-ecological samples have been studied, 122 inside the exclosure and 45 outside. Results showed that plant diversity, composition, vegetation cover, pastoral value and soil fertility were significantly higher in protected areas.

Keywords: Desertification, Algeria, arid, pastoral management, plant community soil fertility, gestation of environment

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
54 Physico-Chemical Parameters and Economic Evaluation of Bio-Ethanol Produced from Waste of Starting Dates in South Algeria

Authors: Insaf Mehani, Bachir Bouchekima

Abstract:

The fight against climate change and the replacement of fossil energies nearing exhaustion gradually emerge as major societal and economic challenges. It is possible to develop common dates of low commercial value, and put on the local and international market a new generation of products with high added values such as bio ethanol. Besides its use in chemical synthesis, bio ethanol can be blended with gasoline to produce a clean fuel while improving the octane.

Keywords: Bio-Energy, Algeria, waste dates, bio ethanol

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
53 Ethnopharmacology of Urinary Deseases in Algerian Sahara

Authors: Khaled Sekkoum

Abstract:

The traditional pharmacopoeia of Algerian Sahara is very rich on vegetable drugs. The great resources and biodiversity of Algerian Sahara flora seem responsible. A survey of medicinal plants used by the local population of the south west of Algeria for the urinary disorders is reported. Sixty-three plant species belonging to thirty-three families were identified. Their botanical and local names, plant part used, mode of use and ailment treated are given.

Keywords: Medicinal Plants, Algeria, urinary diseases, Sahara

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
52 Species Composition of Alticinae Newman, 1834 (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae): Distribution and Host Plants in Eastern Upper Plains (Setif, Algeria)

Authors: S. Bouharati, M. Bounechada, M. Fenni, S. E. Doumandji

Abstract:

The study was taken in Setif region (36° 11' 29 N and 5° 24' 34 E) located at the north-eastern of Algeria. This paper recorded and discusses zoogeography and host plant relationships of Setifian species Alticinae subfamily. A total of 50 species belonging to Alticinae subfamily of Chrysomelidae which is the economically important familty, were recorded from differentes localities of Setif region. They are included in 10 genera. Genera Longitarsus Berthold, 1827 is less species-rich than the other Alticinae genera captured. It represens about 38% of the all species collected. Cruciferae and Compositae were the mostly prefered host plant families representing Alticinae species. For each species we mentioned the collecting sites, geographical distribution and the host plants.

Keywords: Distribution, Species Composition, Algeria, Alticinae, Chrysomelidae, Coleoptera, host plants, Setif

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
51 Phytochemical Study and Antimicrobial Activity of Nigella sativa L. (Renunculaceae) in Algeria

Authors: L. Bendifallah, F. Acheuk, M. Djouabi, M. Oukili, R. Ghezraoui, W. Lakhdari, R. Allouane

Abstract:

Nigella sativa L. (Renunculaceae) native to the Mediterranean region and Western Asia, Black cumin is grown to India, through Sudan and Ethiopia. It is widely cultivated in Egypt, the Middle East, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, Sudan, Afghanistan and Europe. It is among the most important medicinal plants in Algeria that is known for its antifungal and antimicrobial properties. Despite its plethora of uses for treating various diseases, it has garnered very little scientific interest so far, particularly in Algeria. For this study, the seeds of Algerian Nigella sativa L cultivated in the area of Magra (M’sila) in northern Algeria, were collected in summer. In such a propitious context, the aim of this study was to enhance Nigella sativa as a medicinal herb. The phytochemical screening methods are used. For their antimicrobial activity, extracts of tannin and polyphenols were screened against four pathogenic bacterial strains and two pathogenic yeast strains. The phytochemical analysis results showed a remarkable combination of chemical components including a high content in tannins, in flavonoïds, and in alkaloids. The tannins and the polyphenols have strong antimicrobial activity against all the species. The maximum zone of inhibition was noted for polyphenol and tannin extracts against Escerichia coli (14 mm, 12.33 mm) and an antifungic activity against Aspergillus niger (11.66 mm, 9 mm). These results indicate to some benefits of Nigella sativa seeds which can use to treatment the microbial infection.

Keywords: Phytochemistry, Antimicrobial activity, Algeria, Nigella sativa

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50 Eco-Ethology of Bees Visitors on Vicia faba L. var. Major (Fabaceae) in Algeria

Authors: S. Doumandji, L. Bendifallah, F. Acheuk, K. Louadi, S. Iserbyt

Abstract:

Due to their ecological key position and diversity, plant-bee relationships constitute excellent models to understand the processes of food specialisation. The purpose of this study is to define and identify the most important species of bees foraging broadbean flowers, we estimated morphological, phonological and behavioural features. We discuss the results by considering the food specialisation level of the visitor. In the studied populations (Algiers, Algeria), visiting bees belong to four different genus: Apis, Andrena, Eucera and Xylocopa. Eucera is foraging broad beans flowers during months of April, May. The genus Andrena and Xylocopa were found on weeds after the flowering period of beans. The two species have not a preferred type of vegetation compared to Eucera. The main pollinators were generalist bees such as Apis mellifera L. and Xylocopa pubescens Spinola (Apidae), and specialist bees such Eucera numida Lep. (Apidae). The results show that no one of the studied species, neither the specialist, nor the generalist ones, share adaptative morphological or behavioural features that may improve foraging on Vicia faba. However, there is a narrow synchronisation between the daily and yearly phenologies of Eucera numida and those of V. faba. This could be an adaptation of the specialist bee to its host plant. Thus, the food specialisation of Eucera numida, as for most specialist bees, would be more linked to its adapted phenology than to an adapted morphology.

Keywords: Pollinators, Algeria, Vicia faba, bees

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49 Efficiency and Limits of Physicochemical Treatment of Dairy Wastewater: A Case Study of Dairy Industry in Western Algeria

Authors: Khedidja Benouis

Abstract:

Environmental issues in the food industry are related to the water because it consumes water and release large volumes of wastewater. The treatment of such discharges techniques can be adapted to different situations encountered. For dairy effluents, it is necessary and very effective to use a treatment that eliminates much of the pollutant load,thus, to drastically reduce the organic loading rate. This study aims to evaluate the Efficiency and limitations of physicochemical treatment by coagulation - flocculation of liquid effluent from this type of food industry in Algeria, to give an example of the type and the degree of pollution generated by this sector and in order to reduce pollution and minimize its environmental issues. Coagulation - flocculation-sedimentation was carried out using lime without addition of additive (flocculant), the processing efficiency is indicated by the concentration of pollutants in treated water. The results show that treatment is not sufficient to remove organic pollution, but it has significantly reduced the Total suspended solids (TSS), nitrate (NO3-N) and phosphate (PO4-P).

Keywords: treatment, Algeria, coagulation-flocculation, dairy effluent

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48 Teachers’ Awareness of the Significance of Lifelong Learning: A Case Study of Secondary School Teachers of Batna - Algeria

Authors: Bahloul Amel

Abstract:

This study is an attempt to raise the awareness of the stakeholders and the authorities on the sensitivity of Algerian secondary school teachers of English as a Foreign Language about the students’ loss of English language skills learned during formal schooling with effort and at expense and the supposed measures to arrest that loss. Data was collected from secondary school teachers of EFL and analyzed quantitatively using a questionnaire containing open-ended and close-ended questions. The results advocate a consensus about the need for actions to be adopted to make assessment techniques outcome-oriented. Most of the participants were in favor of including curricular activities involving contextualized learning, problem-solving learning critical self-awareness, self and peer-assisted learning, use of computers and internet so as to make learners autonomous.

Keywords: lifelong learning, Algeria, EFL, contextualized learning

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47 GC-MS Analysis of Essential Oil from the Leaves and Fruits of Artemesia Campestris from Algeria

Authors: B. Bakchiche, H. Guenane, M. Bireche, A. Noureddinne, A. Gherib

Abstract:

The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from Artemisia campestris L (family Asteraceae) collected in Djebel Amour (Sahara Atlas, Algeria). Aerial parts were also evaluated by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The analyses for leaves and fruits of A. campestris resulted in the identification of thirty-one compounds, representing 91.8 % of the total oil and the yields were 0.33% (v/dry weight). The main components were β-pinene and sabinene (25.6% and 17% respectively) followed by α-pinene (9.9%), limonene (6.6 %) and p-cymene (4.1%).

Keywords: Essential Oil, Algeria, GC-MS, Artemesia campestris

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46 Contribution to the Study of Phenotypic, Reproduction and Growth Parameters of Sheep in Eastern Algeria

Authors: Mohammed Titaouine, Toufik Meziane, Kahramen Deghnouche, Hanane Mohamdi, Nabil Mohamdi

Abstract:

In order to better understand the morphological characters and the zootechniques measures of sheeps races in the in South-East Algeria, a study that was conducted on 1344 heads, taken from 8 farms in different parts of the region, namely T’kout 1, T’kout 2, Tafrent, Barika, Sidi-Okba, Biskra, Ouled-Djellal and Msila. The results from the present study showed significant differences in the group of 14 morphological studied variables, the body length is the most important variable. Reproduction performance of 160 ewes and growth performances of 56 lambs were analysed. The analyses of the data showed that the ewes have a fertility level of 69%, a prolificacy level of 114% and a fecundity level of 79%. Lambs weigh 3.5kg at birth, 9.38kg at 30d, 13.45kg at 60d, 16.91kg at 90d and 21.51 kg at 120d. The speed of the growth level 0.20kg/d from birth to 30d, 0.14 kg/d between 30d and 60d, 0.12kg/d between 60d and 90d and 0.15kg/d between 90d and 120d. The simple born lambs were more heavy than the double born lambs. By contrast, sex was not significant for all the variables except the weight at 60d, the birth month has a significant effect on the weight at birth, at 30d, at 60d and it was no significant for the weight at 90d and at 120d.The flocks born on September, October, November, and December were more heavy than the flocks born on January, February, and March.

Keywords: Algeria, morphological characterization, reproduction performance, growth performances

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45 Planning and Management Options for Pastoral Resource: Case of Mecheria Region, Algeria

Authors: Driss Haddouche

Abstract:

Pastoral crisis in Algeria has its origins in rangeland degradation which are the main factor in any activity in the steppe zones. Indeed, faced with the increasing human and animal population on a living space smaller and smaller, there is an overuse of what remains of the steppe range lands, consequently the not sustainability of biomass production. Knowing the amount of biomass available, the practice of grazing options, taking into account the use of "Use Factor" factor remains an essential method for managing pastoral resources. This factor has three options: at 40% Conservative pasture; at 60 % the beginning of overgrazing; at 80% destructive grazing. Accessibility on the pasture is based on our field observations of a type any flock along a grazing cycle. The main purpose of these observations is to highlight the speed of herd grazing situation. Several individuals from the herd were timed to arrive at an average duration of about 5 seconds to move between two tufts of grass, separated by a distance of one meter. This gives a rate of 5 s/m (0.72 km/h) flat. This speed varies depending on the angle of the slope. Knowing the speed and slope of each pixel of the study area, given by the digital elevation model of Spot Image (MNE) and whose pitch is 15 meters, a map of pasture according to the distances is generated. Knowing the stocking and biomass available, the examination of the common Mécheria at regular distances (8.64 km or 12 hours of grazing, 17.28 km or 24 hours of grazing and 25.92 Km or 36 hours of grazing), offers three different options (conservation grazing resource: utilization at 40%; overgrazing statements for use at 60% and grazing destructive for use by more than 80%) for each distance traveled by sheep from the starting point is the town of Mécheria.

Keywords: biomass, Algeria, pastoral crisis, animal charge, use factor

Procedia PDF Downloads 383
44 The Use of Remotely Sensed Data to Extract Wetlands Area in the Cultural Park of Ahaggar, South of Algeria

Authors: Y. Fekir, K. Mederbal, M. A. Hammadouche, D. Anteur

Abstract:

The cultural park of the Ahaggar, occupying a large area of Algeria, is characterized by a rich wetlands area to be preserved and managed both in time and space. The management of a large area, by its complexity, needs large amounts of data, which for the most part, are spatially localized (DEM, satellite images and socio-economic information...), where the use of conventional and traditional methods is quite difficult. The remote sensing, by its efficiency in environmental applications, became an indispensable solution for this kind of studies. Remote sensing imaging data have been very useful in the last decade in very interesting applications. They can aid in several domains such as the detection and identification of diverse wetland surface targets, topographical details, and geological features... In this work, we try to extract automatically wetlands area using multispectral remotely sensed data on-board the Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) and Landsat satellite. Both are high-resolution multispectral imager with a 30 m resolution. The instrument images an interesting surface area. We have used images acquired over the several area of interesting in the National Park of Ahaggar in the south of Algeria. An Extraction Algorithm is applied on the several spectral index obtained from combination of different spectral bands to extract wetlands fraction occupation of land use. The obtained results show an accuracy to distinguish wetlands area from the other lad use themes using a fine exploitation on spectral index.

Keywords: Wetlands, Algeria, landsat, EO1, multispectral data, Ahaggar

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
43 Analysis of Solar Thermal Power Plant in Algeria

Authors: M. Laissaoui

Abstract:

The present work has for objective the simulation of a hybrid solar combined cycle power plant, compared with combined cycle conventional (gas turbine and steam turbine), this type of power plants disposed an solar tour (heliostat field and volumetric receiver) insurant a part of the thermal energy necessary for the functioning of the gas turbine. This solar energy serves to feed with heat the combustion air of the gas turbine when he out of the compressor and the front entered the combustion chamber. The simulation of even central and made for three zones deferential to know the zone of Hassi R' mel, Bechare, and the zone of Messaad wilaya of El djelfa. The radiometric and meteorological data arise directly from the software meteonorme 7. The simulation of the energy performances is made by the software TRNSYS 16.1.

Keywords: Thermal, Concentrating solar power, Algeria, heliostat

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42 Climatic and Human Impact on Karst Aquifer in Semi Arid Zone

Authors: Benhammadi Hocine, Fehdi Chemseddine, Chaffai Hicham

Abstract:

The study site is the plateau Cheria, a city in south eastern Algeria (Tebessa) thanks to its structure perched syncline is the region of Tebessa a real water tower. Special rates provided by some boreholes and wells around the city Cheria have long been led to believe that the reserves were virtually limitless. The investigations carried out in this region have located karstified limestone areas at depth of 100 meters of the carbonate formation. During the last two decades a rainfall deficit has increased the effect of drought has caused an increase in flow from this aquifer. The effect on water resources is a significant and progressive reduction of the static level of the karst aquifer. The qualitative aspect has also been marked by degradation. This climate variability marked by the decade of drought (1990/2000) has had the effect on the local population, a forced change of their activity primarily agricultural. Abandoning agro pastoral mode due to prolonged drought, populations chose agriculture maraichère consumer a lot of water, this increasing the depletion of water resources. This change in activity was accompanied by a rural exodus to urban areas. The result has led to an increase in population in the urban areas, this has resulted in an increase in water demand and an increase in emissions (waste water). Uncontrolled discharges contribute to pollute a little more groundwater. The second consequence is type Geotechnical, it is the appearance of sinkholes, results of the alternating periods of drought and violent floods. Sinkholes are a real concern for the management and urban development. An interdisciplinary contribution (geology, hydrology, climatology and management) is essential to reduce or avoid impacts in different sectors.

Keywords: resources, aquifer, Drought, Algeria, carbonate formation, exodus, chéria

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41 Potentiality of the Wind Energy in Algeria

Authors: C. Benachaiba, C. Benoudjafer, M. N. Tandjaoui

Abstract:

The use of kinetic energy of the wind is in full rise in the world and it starts to be known in our country but timidly. One or more aero generators can be installed to produce for example electricity on isolated places or not connected to the electrical supply network. To use the wind as energy source, it is necessary to know first the energy needs for the population and study the wind intensity, speed, frequency and direction.

Keywords: Wind, wind power, renewable energies, Algeria, aero-generators, wind energetic potential

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
40 Developing a Web GIS Tool for the Evaluation of Soil Erosion of a Watershed

Authors: Y. Fekir, K. Mederbal, D. Anteur, M. A. Hamadouche

Abstract:

The soil erosion by water has become one of the biggest problems of the environment in the world, threatening the majority of countries. There are several models to evaluate erosion. These models are still a simplified representation of reality. They permit the analysis of complex systems, measurements are complementary to allow an extrapolation in time and space and may combine different factors. The empirical model of soil loss proposed by Wischmeier and Smith (Universal Soil Loss Equation), is widely used in many countries. He considers that erosion is a multiplicative function of five factors: rainfall erosivity (the R factor) the soil erodibility factor (K), topography (LS), the erosion control practices (P) and vegetation cover and agricultural practices (C). In this work, we tried to develop a tool based on Web GIS functionality to evaluate soil losses caused by erosion taking into account five factors. This tool allows the user to integrate all the data needed for the evaluation (DEM, Land use, rainfall ...) in the form of digital layers to calculate the five factors taken into account in the USLE equation (R, K, C, P, LS). Accordingly, and after treatment of the integrated data set, a map of the soil losses will be achieved as a result. We tested the proposed tool on a watershed basin located in the weste of Algeria where a dataset was collected and prepared.

Keywords: erosion, Algeria, USLE, web gis

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39 Distribution and Comparative Diversity of Nematocera within Four Livestock Types in the Plain of Mitidja Algeria

Authors: Nebri Rachid, Berrouane Fatima, Doumandji Salah Eddine

Abstract:

During six months, from November 2013 to May 2014, census of Nematocera insects was conducted on four livestock: cattle, sheep, equine and cameline. The census, that took place in a station located in Mitidja plain, Algeria, revealed thirteen Nematocera species that had been observed and identified: Scatopse notata, Chironomus Sp., Sciara bicolor, Psychoda phalaenoïdes, Culex pipiens, Orthocladius Sp., Psycoda alternata, Trichocera regelationis, Culicoïdes Sp., Contarinia Sp., Ectaetia Sp., Tipula Sp., and Culicoïdes coprosus. A factorial correspondence analysis has been performed to study the distribution of the different species captured in colored traps that were placed in the four farms. The results showed the presence of three collections of Nematocera relating to the breeding type where the highest availability is in favor of the equine and the cattle. The analysis of the comparative diversity of Nematocera specimens revealed an indifferent taxonomic structure compared with the hosts. However, in terms of individuals, the supremacy is to the equine’s advantage. On the ecological arrival scale, Psycoda alternata, is undeniably the most predominant on the equines as well as on the cattle.

Keywords: Biodiversity, Livestock, Availability, Nematocera, Census, Algeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 316
38 Phytochemical Study and Antimicrobial Activity of Nigella Sativa L. (Renunculaceae) in Algeria

Authors: L. Bendifallah, M. Djouabi, M. Oukili, R. Ghezraoui, W. Lakhdari, R. Allouane, F.Acheuk

Abstract:

Nigella sativa L. (Renunculaceae) native to the Mediterranean region and Western Asia, Black cumin is grown to India, through Sudan and Ethiopia. It is widely cultivated in Egypt, the Middle East, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, Sudan, Afghanistan and Europe. It is among the most important medicinal plants in Algeria that is known for its antifungal and antimicrobial properties. Despite its plethora of uses for treating various diseases, it has garnered very little scientific interest so far, particularly in Algeria. For this study, the seeds of Algerian Nigella sativa L cultivated in the area of Magra (M’sila) in northern Algeria, were collected in summer. In such a propitious context, the aim of this study was to enhance Nigella sativa as a medicinal herb. The phytochemical screening methods are used. For their antimicrobial activity, extracts of tannin and polyphenols were screened against four pathogenic bacterial strains and two pathogenic yeast strains. The phytochemical analysis results showed a remarkable combination of chemical components including a high content in tannins, in flavonoïds, and in alkaloids. The tannins and the polyphenols have strong antimicrobial activity against all the species. The maximum zone of inhibition was noted for polyphenol and tannin extracts against Escerichia coli (14 mm, 12.33 mm) and an antifungic activity against Aspergillus niger (11.66 mm, 9 mm). These results indicate to some benefits of Nigella sativa seeds which can use to treatment the microbial infection.

Keywords: Phytochemistry, Antimicrobial activity, Algeria, Nigella sativa

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37 Analysis of the Aquifer Vulnerability of a Miopliocene Arid Area Using Drastic and SI Models

Authors: H. Majour, L. Djabri

Abstract:

Many methods in the groundwater vulnerability have been developed in the world (methods like PRAST, DRIST, APRON/ARAA, PRASTCHIM, GOD). In this study, our choice dealt with two recent complementary methods using category mapping of index with weighting criteria (Point County Systems Model MSCP) namely the standard DRASTIC method and SI (Susceptibility Index). At present, these two methods are the most used for the mapping of the intrinsic vulnerability of groundwater. Two classes of groundwater vulnerability in the Biskra sandy aquifer were identified by the DRASTIC method (average and high) and the SI method (very high and high). Integrated analysis has revealed that the high class is predominant for the DRASTIC method whereas for that of SI the preponderance is for the very high class. Furthermore, we notice that the method SI estimates better the vulnerability for the pollution in nitrates, with a rate of 85 % between the concentrations in nitrates of groundwater and the various established classes of vulnerability, against 75 % for the DRASTIC method. By including the land use parameter, the SI method produced more realistic results.

Keywords: GIS, Algeria, DRASTIC, Biskra sandy aquifer

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36 Yeasts Associated to Spontaneous Date Vinegar Process

Authors: S. Benamara, H. Amellal, F. Halladj

Abstract:

Current consumer trends go towards natural products defined as the products obtained by a traditional manufacturing method. Vinegar is one of those products marketed; it may be industrially obtained by a submerged (fast) or traditional (slow) processes. The latter exhibited a high quality because of its complex microbiological transformations (or two-stage fermentation) by the native must flora. Moreover, although that Acetic acid bacteria have traditionally been considered to play the leading role in vinegar production, some studies have recently highlighted that also yeasts metabolism can affect traditional vinegar chemical properties in a remarkable way. Thus, the aim of this study was to monitor a traditional slow process of vinegar as applied in the south of Algeria using date with hard texture (Degla-Beida variety) to isolate and identify the involved yeasts in order to select them as starter culture. Phenotypic and molecular analysis show that the non-Saccharomyces were the main yeasts species isolated throughout the alcoholic spontaneous fermentation and they included Hanseniaspora guilliermondii and Torulaspora delbrueckii.

Keywords: Algeria, yeasts, date vinegar, traditional production, Phenotypic

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35 Status, Habitat Use, and Behaviour of Wintering Greater Flamingos Phoenicopterus roseus in Semi-Arid and Saharan Wetlands of Algeria

Authors: E. Bensaci, M. Saheb, Y. Nouidjem, A. Zoubiri, A. Bouzegag, M. Houhamdi

Abstract:

The Greater flamingo is considered the flagship species of wetlands across semi-arid and Saharan regions of Africa, especially Chotts and Sebkhas, which also concentrate significant numbers of bird species. Flamingos have different status (wintering and breeder) which vary between sites in different parts of Algeria. We conducted surveys and recorded banded flamingos across distinct regions within two climatic belts: semi-arid (Hauts Plateaux) and arid (Sahara), showing the importance of these sites in the migratory flyways particularly the relation between West Mediterranean and West Africa populations. The distribution of Greater flamingos varied between sites and seasons, where the concentrations mainly were in the wide, lees deep and salt lakes. Many of the sites (17) in the surveyed area were regularly supporting at least 1% of the regional population during winter. The analysis of Greater flamingos behaviour in different climatic regions in relation showed that the feeding is the dominant diurnal activity with rates exceeding 60% of the time. While feeding varies between seasons, and showed a negative relationship with the degree of disturbance.

Keywords: Semi-Arid, Algeria, Sahara, greater flamingo, Phoenicopterus roseus

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34 The EAO2 in Essouabaa, Tebessa, Algeria: An Example of Facies to Organic Matter

Authors: Sihem Salmi Laouar, Khoudair Chabane, Rabah Laouar, Adrian J. Boyce et Anthony E. Fallick

Abstract:

The solid mass of Essouabaa belongs paléogéography to the field téthysian and belonged to the area of the Mounts of Mellègue. This area was not saved by the oceanic-2 event anoxic (EAO-2) which was announced, over one short period, around the limit cénomanian-turonian. In the solid mass of Essouabba, the dominant sediments, pertaining to this period, are generally fine, dark, laminated and sometimes rolled deposits. They contain a rather rich planktonic microfaune, pyrite, and grains of phosphate, thus translating an environment rather deep and reducing rather deep and reducing. For targeting well the passage Cénomanian-Turonian (C-T) in the solid mass of Essouabaa, of the studies lithological and biostratigraphic were combined with the data of the isotopic analyses carbon and oxygen like with the contents of CaCO3. The got results indicate that this passage is marked by a biological event translated by the appearance of the "filaments" like by a positive excursion of the δ13C and δ18O. The cénomanian-turonian passage in the solid mass of Essouabaa represents a good example where during the oceanic event anoxic a facies with organic matter with contents of COT which can reach 1.36%. C E massive presents biostratigraphic and isotopic similarities with those obtained as well in the areas bordering (ex: Tunisia and Morocco) that throughout the world.

Keywords: Stable Isotopes, Algeria, limit cénomanian-turonian (C-T), COT, filaments, event anoxic 2 (EAO-2), mounts of Mellègue

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