Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Algae Related Abstracts

17 Removal of Nutrients from Sewage Using Algal Photo-Bioreactor

Authors: Purnendu Bose, Jyoti Kainthola

Abstract:

Due to recent advances in illumination technology, artificially illuminated algal-bacterial photo bioreactors are now a potentially feasible option for simultaneous and comprehensive organic carbon and nutrients removal from secondary treated domestic sewage. The experiments described herein were designed to determine the extent of nutrient uptake in photo bioreactors through algal assimilation. Accordingly, quasi steady state data on algal photo bioreactor performance was obtained under 20 different conditions. Results indicated that irrespective of influent N and P levels, algal biomass recycling resulted in superior performance of algal photo bioreactors in terms of both N and P removals. Further, both N and P removals were positively related to the growth of algal biomass in the reactor. Conditions in the reactor favouring greater algal growth also resulted in greater N and P removals. N and P removals were adversely impacted in reactors with low algal concentrations due to the inability of the algae to grow fast enough under the conditions provided. Increasing algal concentrations in reactors over a certain threshold value through higher algal biomass recycling was also not fruitful, since algal growth slowed under such conditions due to reduced light availability due to algal ‘self-shading’. It was concluded that N removals greater than 80% at high influent N concentrations is not possible with the present reactor configuration. Greater than 80% N removals may however be possible in similar reactors if higher light intensity is provided. High P removal is possible only if the influent N: P ratio in the reactor is aligned closely with the algal stoichiometric requirements for P.

Keywords: bioreactor, Nutrients, Algae, photo

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16 Impact of Light Intensity, Illumation Strategy and Self-Shading on Sustainable Algal Growth in Photo Bioreactors

Authors: Amritanshu Shriwastav and Purnendu Bose

Abstract:

Algal photo bioreactors were operated at incident light intensities of 0.24, 2.52 and 5.96 W L-1 to determine the impact of light on algal growth. Low specific Chlorophyll-a content of algae was a strong indicator of light induced stress on algal cells. It was concluded that long term operation of photo bioreactors in the continuous illumination mode was infeasible under the range of incident light intensities examined and provision of a dark period after each light period was necessary for algal cells to recover from light-induced stress. Long term operation of photo bioreactors in the intermittent illumination mode was however possible at light intensities of 0.24 and 2.52 W L-1. Further, the incident light intensity in the photo bioreactors was found to decline exponentially with increase in algal concentration in the reactor due to algal ‘self-shading’. This may be an important determinant for photo bioreactor performance at higher algal concentrations.

Keywords: Algae, algal growth, photo bioreactor, photo-inhibition, ‘self-shading’

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15 An Analysis System for Integrating High-Throughput Transcript Abundance Data with Metabolic Pathways in Green Algae

Authors: Han-Qin Zheng, Yi-Fan Chiang-Hsieh, Chia-Hung Chien, Wen-Chi Chang

Abstract:

As the most important non-vascular plants, algae have many research applications, including high species diversity, biofuel sources, adsorption of heavy metals and, following processing, health supplements. With the increasing availability of next-generation sequencing (NGS) data for algae genomes and transcriptomes, an integrated resource for retrieving gene expression data and metabolic pathway is essential for functional analysis and systems biology in algae. However, gene expression profiles and biological pathways are displayed separately in current resources, and making it impossible to search current databases directly to identify the cellular response mechanisms. Therefore, this work develops a novel AlgaePath database to retrieve gene expression profiles efficiently under various conditions in numerous metabolic pathways. AlgaePath, a web-based database, integrates gene information, biological pathways, and next-generation sequencing (NGS) datasets in Chlamydomonasreinhardtii and Neodesmus sp. UTEX 2219-4. Users can identify gene expression profiles and pathway information by using five query pages (i.e. Gene Search, Pathway Search, Differentially Expressed Genes (DEGs) Search, Gene Group Analysis, and Co-Expression Analysis). The gene expression data of 45 and 4 samples can be obtained directly on pathway maps in C. reinhardtii and Neodesmus sp. UTEX 2219-4, respectively. Genes that are differentially expressed between two conditions can be identified in Folds Search. Furthermore, the Gene Group Analysis of AlgaePath includes pathway enrichment analysis, and can easily compare the gene expression profiles of functionally related genes in a map. Finally, Co-Expression Analysis provides co-expressed transcripts of a target gene. The analysis results provide a valuable reference for designing further experiments and elucidating critical mechanisms from high-throughput data. More than an effective interface to clarify the transcript response mechanisms in different metabolic pathways under various conditions, AlgaePath is also a data mining system to identify critical mechanisms based on high-throughput sequencing.

Keywords: Transcriptome, Algae, Metabolic Pathway, next-generation sequencing (NGS), co-expression

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14 The Influence of Crude Oil on Growth of Freshwater Algae

Authors: Al-Saboonchi Azhar

Abstract:

The effects of Iraqi crude oil on growth of three freshwater algae (Chlorella vulgaris Beij., Scenedesmus acuminatus (Lag.) Chodat. and Oscillatoria princeps Vauch.) were investigated, basing on it's biomass expressed as Chl.a. Growth rate and doubling time of the cell were calculated. Results showed that growth rate and species survival varied with concentrations of crude oil and species type. Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus acuminatus were more sensitive in culture containing crude oil as compared with Oscillatoria princeps cultures. The growth of green algae were significantly inhibited in culture containing (5 mg/l) crude oil, while the growth of Oscillatoria princeps reduced in culture containing (10 mg/l) crude oil.

Keywords: Cyanobacteria, Algae, green algae, crude oil

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13 The Aquatic Plants Community in the Owena-Idanre Section of the Owena River of Ondo State

Authors: Nelson R. Osungbemiro, Rafiu O. Sanni, Rotimi F. Olaniyan, Abayomi O. Olajuyigbe

Abstract:

The Owena River lies within the drainage basins of the Oni, Siluko, and Ogbesse rivers. The river’s immediate surroundings are covered by dense forests, interspersed by plantations of cocoa, oil palm, kolanut, bananas, and other crops. The objectives were to identify the aquatic plants community, comprising the algae and aquatic macrophytes, observe their population dynamics in relation to the two seasons and identify their economic importance, especially to the neighbouring community. The study sites were determined using a stratified sampling method. Three strata were marked out for sampling namely strata I (upstream)–5 stations, strata II (reservoir) –2 stations, and strata III (outflow) 2 stations. These nine stations were tagged st1, st2, st3…st9. The aquatic macrophytes were collected using standard methods and identified at the University of Ibadan herbarium while the algal samples were collected using standard methods for microalgae. The periphytonic species were scraped from surfaces of rocks (perilithic), sucked with large syringe from mud (epipellic), scraped from suspended logs, washed from roots of aquatic angiosperms (epiphytic), as well as shaken from other particles such as suspended plant parts. Some were collected physically by scooping floating thallus of non-microscopic multicellular forms. The specimens were taken to the laboratory and observed under a microscope with mounted digital camera for photomicrography. Identification was done using Prescott.

Keywords: Algae, Aquatic Plants, Owena river, aquatic macrophytes

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12 Recovery and Εncapsulation of Μarine Derived Antifouling Agents

Authors: Marina Stramarkou, Sofia Papadaki, Maria Kaloupi, Ioannis Batzakas

Abstract:

Biofouling is a complex problem of the aquaculture industry, as it reduces the efficiency of the equipment and causes significant losses of cultured organisms. Nowadays, the current antifouling methods are proved to be labor intensive, have limited lifetime and use toxic substances that result in fish mortality. Several species of marine algae produce a wide variety of biogenic compounds with antibacterial and antifouling properties, which are effective in the prevention and control of biofouling and can be incorporated in antifouling coatings. In the present work, Fucus spiralis, a species of macro algae, and Chlorella vulgaris, a well-known species of microalgae, were used for the isolation and recovery of bioactive compounds, belonging to groups of fatty acids, lipopeptides and amides. The recovery of the compounds was achieved through the application of the ultrasound- assisted extraction, an environmentally friendly method, using green, non-toxic solvents. Moreover, the coating of the antifouling agents was done by innovative encapsulation and coating methods, such as electro-hydrodynamic process. For the encapsulation of the bioactive compounds natural matrices were used, such as polysaccharides and proteins. Water extracts that were incorporated in protein matrices were considered the most efficient antifouling coating.

Keywords: Electrospinning, Algae, Fatty Acids, ultrasound-assisted extraction

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11 Alternative Biocides to Reduce Algal Fouling in Seawater Industrial Cooling Towers

Authors: TorOve Leiknes, Mohammed Al-Bloushi, Sanghyun Jeong

Abstract:

Biofouling in the open recirculating cooling water systems may cause biological corrosion, which can reduce the performance, increase the energy consummation and lower heat exchange efficiencies of the cooling tower. Seawater cooling towers are prone to biofouling due to the presences of organic and inorganic compounds in the seawater. The availability of organic and inorganic nutrients, along with sunlight and continuous aeration of the cooling tower contributes to an environment that is ideal for microbial growth. Various microorganisms (algae, fungi, and bacteria) can grow in a cooling tower system under certain environmental conditions. The most commonly being used method to control the biofouling in the cooling tower is the addition of biocides such as chlorination. In this study, algae containing diatom and green algae were added to the cooling tower basin, and its viability was monitored in the recirculating cooling seawater loop as well as in the cooling tower basin. Continuous addition of biocides was employed in pilot-scale seawater cooling towers, and it was operated continuously for 2 months. Three different types of oxidizing biocides, namely chlorine, chlorine dioxide and ozone, were tested. The results showed that all biocides were effective in keeping the biological growth to the minimum regardless of algal addition. Amongst the biocides, ozone could reduce 99% of total live cells of bacteria and algae, followed by chlorine dioxide at 97%, while the conventional chlorine showed only 89% reduction in the bioactivities.

Keywords: Biofouling, Algae, biocide, seawater cooling tower

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10 Wet Processing of Algae for Protein and Carbohydrate Recovery as Co-Product of Algal Oil

Authors: Sahil Kumar, Ramesh Bhujade, Rajaram Ghadge

Abstract:

Historically, lipid extraction from dried algal biomass remained a focus area of the algal research. It has been realized over the past few years that the lipid-centric approach and conversion technologies that require dry algal biomass have several challenges. Algal culture in cultivation systems contains more than 99% water, with algal concentrations of just a few hundred milligrams per liter ( < 0.05 wt%), which makes harvesting and drying energy intensive. Drying the algal biomass followed by extraction also entails the loss of water and nutrients. In view of these challenges, focus has shifted toward developing processes that will enable oil production from wet algal biomass without drying. Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL), an emerging technology, is a thermo-chemical conversion process that converts wet biomass to oil and gas using water as a solvent at high temperature and high pressure. HTL processes wet algal slurry containing more than 80% water and significantly reduces the adverse cost impact owing to drying the algal biomass. HTL, being inherently feedstock agnostic, i.e., can convert carbohydrates and proteins also to fuels and recovers water and nutrients. It is most effective with low-lipid (10--30%) algal biomass, and bio-crude yield is two to four times higher than the lipid content in the feedstock. In the early 2010s, research remained focused on increasing the oil yield by optimizing the process conditions of HTL. However, various techno-economic studies showed that simply converting algal biomass to only oil does not make economic sense, particularly in view of low crude oil prices. Making the best use of every component of algae is a key for economic viability of algal to oil process. On investigation of HTL reactions at the molecular level, it has been observed that sequential HTL has the potential to recover value-added products along with biocrude and improve the overall economics of the process. This potential of sequential HTL makes it a most promising technology for converting wet waste to wealth. In this presentation, we will share our experience on the techno-economic and engineering aspects of sequential HTL for conversion of algal biomass to algal bio-oil and co-products.

Keywords: biomass, Protein, Algae, lipid

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9 Comparison of Fat Soluble Vitamins, Carotenoids and Cholesterol Content in Mytilus galloprovincialis, Rapana venosa and Ulva rigida from the Black Sea

Authors: Mona Stancheva, Diana A. Dobreva, Veselina Panayotova, Albena Merdzhanova, Lubomir Makedonski

Abstract:

Many studies suggest that marine mollusks are healthy food, characterized by low fat and high digestible proteins content. They are one of the most important dietary sources of fat soluble vitamins. The most common species of mollusks in the Bulgarian Black Sea waters are the black mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and the sea snail Rapana (Rapana venosa). One of the main problems of the region is the lack of information about chemical composition of these important marine species. Due to these facts, the aim of the present work was to determine the fat soluble vitamins A, D2, D3, and E, carotenoids–β-carotene and astaxanthin, and total cholesterol contents of mollusk samples and compare them to sample of green algae (Ulva rigida). Samples were collected during autumn from north region of the Black Sea coast, and their wet tissues were used for evaluation of vitamins A, D2, D3, and E, astaxanthin, β-carotene and cholesterol compositions. All fat soluble analytes were simultaneously analyzed by RP- HPLC/UV/FL system. The results were calculated as milligrams per gram total lipid (mg.g-1TL). Alpha-tocopherol and b-carotene were most abundant in algae samples, while mussel samples presented the highest amounts of vitamin D3 (several times higher than the recommended daily intake in Bulgaria (Ordinance № 23 / 19.07.2005)). In all samples, cholesterol content was significantly low, which falls within recommendation of the same ordinance (upper daily consumption should not exceed 300 mg per day). From data, it can be concluded that all samples were characterized as beneficial sources of biologically active compounds.

Keywords: Carotenoids, Algae, fat soluble vitamins, mussel, rapana

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8 Box-Behnken Design for the Biosorption of Cationic Dye from Aqueous Solution Using a Zero-Valent Iron Nano Algal Composite

Authors: V. Sivasubramanian, M. Jerold

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The advancement of adsorption is the development of nano-biocomposite for the sorption dyes and heavy metal ions. In fact, Nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) is cost-effective reducing agent and a most reliable biosorbent for the dye biosorption. In this study, nano zero valent iron Sargassum swartzii (nZVI-SS) biocomposite, a novel marine algal based biosorbent, was used for the removal of simulated crystal violet (CV) in batch mode of operation. The Box-Behnen design (BBD) experimental results revealed the biosoprtion was maximum at pH 7.5, biosorbent dosage 0.1 g/L and initial CV concentration of 100 mg/L. Therefore, the result implies that nZVI-SS biocomposite is a cheap and most promising biosorbent for the removal of CV from wastewater.

Keywords: Waste water, Algae, biosorption, dye, zero-valent

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7 Molecular Profiling of an Oleaginous Trebouxiophycean Alga Parachlorella kessleri Subjected to Nutrient Deprivation

Authors: Pannaga Pavan Jutur

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Parachlorella kessleri, a marine unicellular green alga belonging to class Trebouxiophyceae, accumulates large amounts of oil, i.e., lipids under nutrient-deprived (-N, -P, and -S) conditions. Understanding their metabolic imprints is important for elucidating the physiological mechanisms of lipid accumulations in this microalga subjected to nutrient deprivation. Metabolic and lipidomic profiles were obtained respectively using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of P. kessleri under nutrient starvation (-N, -P and -S) conditions. Relative quantities of more than 100 metabolites were systematically compared in all these three starvation conditions. Our results demonstrate that in lipid metabolism, the quantities of neutral lipids increased significantly followed by the decrease in other metabolites involved in photosynthesis, nitrogen assimilation, etc. In conclusion, the metabolomics and lipidomic profiles have identified a few common metabolites such as citric acid, valine, and trehalose to play a significant role in the overproduction of oil by this microalga subjected to nutrient deprivation. Understanding the entire system through untargeted metabolome profiling will lead to identifying relevant metabolites involved in the biosynthesis and degradation of precursor molecules that may have the potential for biofuel production, aiming towards the vision of tomorrow’s bioenergy needs.

Keywords: biofuels, Omics, Algae, nutrient stress

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6 Impact of Nitrogenous Wastewater and Seawater Acidification on Algae

Authors: Pei Luen Jiang

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Oysters (Ostreidae) and hard clams (Meretrix lusoria) are important shallow sea-cultured shellfish in Taiwan, and are mainly farmed in Changhua, Yunlin, Chiayi and Tainan. As these shellfish are fed primarily on natural plankton, the artificial feed is not required, leading to high economic value in aquatic farming. However, in recent years, though mariculture production areas have expanded steadily, large-scale deaths of farmed shellfish have also become increasingly common due to climate change and human factors. Through studies over the past few years, our research team has determined the impact of nitrogen deprivation on growth and morphological variations in algae and sea anemones (Actiniaria) and identified the target genes affected by adverse environmental factors. In mariculture, high-density farming is commonly adopted, which results in elevated concentrations of nitrogenous waste in the water. In addition, excessive carbon dioxide from the atmosphere also dissolves in seawater, causing a steady decrease in the pH of seawater, leading to acidification. This study to observe the impact of high concentrations of nitrogen sources and carbon dioxide on algae.

Keywords: Nitrogen, acidification, Algae, Shellfish

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5 Algae Biomass as Alternatives to Wood Pulp in Handmade Paper Technology

Authors: Piyali Mukherjee, Jai Prakash Keshri

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Anticipated shortages of raw materials for paper industry have forged the entry of algae as alternatives to wood pulp. Five algal species: Pithophora sp., Lyngbya sp., Hydrodictyon sp., Cladophora sp. and Rhizoclonium sp. were collected from different parts of Burdwan town, West Bengal, India. Their biomass compositional values were determined with respect to eucalyptus wood pulp. Paper characteristics were studied in terms of breaking length, tensile strength, CI index, pH, brightness, recyclability, and durability. Hydrodictyon sp., besides Rhizoclonium sp. and Cladophora sp. were established as the most suitable candidates for paper pulp formulation in terms of high cellulose, hemicelluloses contents and low lignin and silica contents. Paper from pure Hydrodictyon sp. pulp was found to have statistically significant (p < 0.05) improved breaking-length and tensile strength properties compared to that obtained from Lyngbya sp.

Keywords: biomass, Wood, Pulp, Algae, paper

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4 Zero Valent Iron Algal Biocomposite for the Removal of Crystal Violet from Aqueous Solution: Box-Behnken Optimization and Fixed Bed Column Studies

Authors: V. Sivasubramanian, M. Jerold

Abstract:

In this study, nano zero valent iron Sargassum swartzii (nZVI-SS) biocomposite a marine algal based biosorbent was used for the removal of simulated crystal violet (CV) in batch and continuous fixed bed operation. The Box-Behnen design (BBD) experimental results revealed the biosoprtion was maximum at pH 7.5, biosorbent dosage 0.1 g/L and initial CV concentration of 100 mg/L. The effect of various column parameters like bed depth (3, 6 and 9 cm), flow rate (5, 10 and 15 mL/min) and influent CV concentration (5, 10 and 15 mg/L) were investigated. The exhaustion time increased with increase of bed depth, influent CV concentration and decrease of flow rate. Adam-Bohart, Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models were used to predict the breakthrough curve and to evaluate the model parameters. Out of these models, Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models well described the experimental data. Therefore, the result implies that nZVI-SS biocomposite is a cheap and most promising biosorbent for the removal of CV from wastewater.

Keywords: wastewater, Algae, biosorption, dye, zero-valent

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3 Bioethanol Production from Marine Algae Ulva Lactuca and Sargassum Swartzii: Saccharification and Process Optimization

Authors: A. George, V. Sivasubramanian, M. Jerold, B.S. Ashik, S. S. Kumar

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Bioethanol is a sustainable biofuel that can be used alternative to fossil fuels. Today, third generation (3G) biofuel is gaining more attention than first and second-generation biofuel. The more lignin content in the lignocellulosic biomass is the major drawback of second generation biofuels. Algae are the renewable feedstock used in the third generation biofuel production. Algae contain a large number of carbohydrates, therefore it can be used for the fermentation by hydrolysis process. There are two groups of Algae, such as micro and macroalgae. In the present investigation, Macroalgae was chosen as raw material for the production of bioethanol. Two marine algae viz. Ulva Lactuca and Sargassum swartzii were used for the experimental studies. The algal biomass was characterized using various analytical techniques like Elemental Analysis, Scanning Electron Microscopy Analysis and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy to understand the physio-Chemical characteristics. The batch experiment was done to study the hydrolysis and operation parameters such as pH, agitation, fermentation time, inoculum size. The saccharification was done with acid and alkali treatment. The experimental results showed that NaOH treatment was shown to enhance the bioethanol. From the hydrolysis study, it was found that 0.5 M Alkali treatment would serve as optimum concentration for the saccharification of polysaccharide sugar to monomeric sugar. The maximum yield of bioethanol was attained at a fermentation time of 9 days. The inoculum volume of 1mL was found to be lowest for the ethanol fermentation. The agitation studies show that the fermentation was higher during the process. The percentage yield of bioethanol was found to be 22.752% and 14.23 %. The elemental analysis showed that S. swartzii contains a higher carbon source. The results confirmed hydrolysis was not completed to recover the sugar from biomass. The specific gravity of ethanol was found to 0.8047 and 0.808 for Ulva Lactuca and Sargassum swartzii, respectively. The purity of bioethanol also studied and found to be 92.55 %. Therefore, marine algae can be used as a most promising renewable feedstock for the production of bioethanol.

Keywords: biomass, biofuel, Algae, Pretreatment, bioethaol

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2 A Strategic Water and Energy Project as a Climate Change Adaptation Tool for Israel, Jordan and the Middle East

Authors: Doron Markel

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Water availability in most of the Middle East (especially in Jordan) is among the lowest in the world and has been even further exacerbated by the regional climatic change and the reduced rainfall. The Araba Valley in Israel is disconnected from the national water system. On the other hand, the Araba Valley, both in Israel and Jordan, is an excellent area for solar energy gaining. The Dead Sea (Israel and Jordan) is a hypersaline lake which its level declines at a rate of more than 1 m/y. The decline stems from the increasing use of all available freshwater resources that discharge into the Dead Sea and decreasing natural precipitation due to climate change in the Middle East. As an adaptation tool for this humanmade and Climate Change results, a comprehensive water-energy and environmental project were suggested: The Red Sea-Dead Sea Conveyance. It is planned to desalinate the Red Sea water, supply the desalinated water to both Israel and Jordan, and convey the desalination brine to the Dead Sea to stabilize its water level. Therefore, the World Bank had led a multi-discipline feasibility study between 2008 and 2013, that had mainly dealt with the mixing of seawater and Dead Sea Water. The possible consequences of such mixing were precipitation and possible suspension of secondary Gypsum, as well as blooming of Dunaliella red algae. Using a comprehensive hydrodynamic-geochemical model for the Dead Sea, it was predicted that while conveying up to 400 Million Cubic Meters per year of seawater or desalination brine to the Dead Sea, the latter would not be stratified as it was until 1979; hence Gypsum precipitation and algal blooms would be neglecting. Using another hydrodynamic-biological model for the Red Sea, it was predicted the Seawater pump from the Gulf of Eilat would not harm the ecological system of the gulf (including the sensitive coral reef), giving a pump depth of 120-160 m. Based on these studies, a pipeline conveyance was recommended to convey desalination brine to the Dead Sea with the use of a hydropower plant, utilizing the elevation difference of 400 m between the Red Sea and the Dead Sea. The complementary energy would come from solar panels coupled with innovative storage technology, needed to produce a continuous energy production for an appropriate function of the desalination plant. The paper will describe the proposed project as well as the feasibility study results. The possibility to utilize this water-energy-environmental project as a climate change adaptation strategy for both Israel and Jordan will also be discussed.

Keywords: Water supply, gypsum, Algae, hydro-power, Red Sea, Dead Sea

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1 The Role of Phycoremediation in the Sustainable Management of Aquatic Pollution

Authors: Raymond EZENWEANI, Jeffrey Ogbebor

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The menace of aquatic pollution has become increasingly of great concern and the effects of this pollution as a result of anthropogenic activities cannot be over emphasized. Phycoremediation is the application of algal remediation technology in the removal of harmful products from the environment. Harmful products also known as pollutants are usually introduced into the environment through variety of processes such as industrial discharge, agricultural runoff, flooding, and acid rain. This work has to do with the capability of algae in the efficient removal of different pollutants, ranging from hydrocarbons, eutrophication, agricultural chemicals and wastes, heavy metals, foul smell from septic tanks or dumps through different processes such as bioconversion, biosorption, bioabsorption and biodecomposition. Algae are capable of bioconversion of environmentally persistent compounds to degradable compounds and also capable of putting harmful bacteria growth into check in waste water remediation. Numerous algal organisms such as Nannochloropsis spp, Chlorella spp, Tetraselmis spp, Shpaerocystics spp, cyanobacteria and different macroalgae have been tested by different researchers in laboratory scale and shown to have 100% efficiency in environmental remediation. Algae as a result of their photosynthetic capacity are also efficient in air cleansing and management of global warming by sequestering carbon iv oxide in air and converting it into organic carbon, thereby making food available for the other organisms in the higher trophic level of the aquatic food chain. Algae play major role in the sustenance of the aquatic ecosystem by their virtue of being photosynthetic. They are the primary producers and their role in environmental sustainability is remarkable.

Keywords: Aquatic, Sustainability, Algae, pollutant, Phycoremediation

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