Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

Alcohol Related Abstracts

19 Production of Alcohol from Sweet Potato

Authors: Abhishek S. Shete

Abstract:

There is nothing new in the use of alcohol made from root crops as a motor fuel. Alcohol is an excellent alternative motor fuel for petrol engines. The reason alcohol fuel has not been fully exploited is that, up until now; gasoline has been cheap, available, and easy to produce. However, nowadays, crude oil is getting scarce, and the historic price difference between alcohol and gasoline is getting narrower. Alcohol fuel can be an important part of the solution for Rwanda because there is tremendous scope to use bulk production of sweet potato into alcohol. The total sweet potato production in both seasons is found to be 1.607.296 tones/year. The average productivity of sweet potato in the country irrespective of seasons is found to be 8.9 tones/ha. If all of the available agricultural surplus were converted to ethanol, alcohol would supply less than 5% of motor fuel needs.

Keywords: Alcohol, root crops, sweet potato, surplus

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18 New Methodology for Monitoring Alcoholic Fermentation Processes Using Refractometry

Authors: Boukhiar Aissa, Halladj Fatima, Iguergaziz Nadia, Lamrani yasmina, Benamara Salem

Abstract:

Determining the alcohol content in alcoholic fermentation bioprocess has a great importance. In fact, it is a key indicator for monitoring this fermentation bioprocess. Several methodologies (chemical, spectrophotometric, chromatographic...) are used to the determination of this parameter. However, these techniques are very long and require: rigorous preparations, sometimes dangerous chemical reagents, and/or expensive equipment. In the present study, the date juice is used as a substrate of alcoholic fermentation. The extracted juice undergoes an alcoholic fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The study of the possible use of refractometry as a sole means for the in situ control of this process revealed a good correlation (R2 = 0.98) between initial and final ° Brix: ° Brix f = 0.377× ° Brixi. In addition, we verified the relationship between the variation in final and initial ° Brix (Δ ° Brix) and alcoholic rate produced (A exp): CΔ° Brix / A exp = 1.1. This allows the tracing of abacus isoresponses that permit to determine the alcoholic and residual sugar rates with a mean relative error (MRE) of 5.35%.

Keywords: Alcohol, Fermentation, refractometry, residual sugar, brix, date, juice

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17 Knowledge and Eating Behavior of Teenage Pregnancy

Authors: Udomporn Yingpaisuk, Premwadee Karuhadej

Abstract:

The purposed of this research was to study the eating habit of teenage pregnancy and its relationship to the knowledge of nutrition during pregnancy. The 100 samples were derived from simple random sampling technique of the teenage pregnancy in Bangkae District. The questionnaire was used to collect data with the reliability of 0.8. The data were analyzed by SPSS for Windows with multiple regression technique. Percentage, mean and the relationship of knowledge of eating and eating behavior were obtained. The research results revealed that their knowledge in nutrition was at the average of 4.07 and their eating habit that they mentioned most was to refrain from alcohol and caffeine at 82% and the knowledge in nutrition influenced their eating habits at 54% with the statistically significant level of 0.001.

Keywords: Alcohol, Teenage Pregnancy, Caffeine, Eating Behavior, knowledge of eating

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16 Comparative Toxicity of Garlic Juice and Dicofol to Population of Citrus Mites

Authors: T. Slimani, Y. Atibi, A. Boutaleb Joutei

Abstract:

Insecticidal properties of Alliaceae are widely known, they are plant with varied biological properties. Garlic and onion are known for their positive effect on health, including the prevention of cardiovascular disease and some digestive cancers. These health benefits molecules are also responsible for pest potential control of Alliaceae. With these properties, we can consider using Alliaceae as acaricides. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of chemical and biopesticides on citrus mites, especially Tetranychus urticae, Panonychus citri and Eutetranychus orientalis. Chemical treatment (Dicofol) and biopesticides (Garlic juice + Alcohol) applied on this study to control the various stages of mites, have reduced the proliferation of mobile forms and reducing the number of eggs to acceptable levels. Garlic juice + alcohol revealed efficiency from 50 to 57.69 % against the mobile forms of T. urticae, however, it was effective against the mobile forms of P. citri and E. orientalis with an efficiency of 85.71 % and 100 % respectively, its action has also reduced the number of eggs of T. urticae and E. orientalis at low levels. Therefore, this biopesticide is conceivable viewpoint technical and economic as the infestation by mite is low.

Keywords: Alcohol, garlic juice, biopesticide, acaricide, mites, Tetranychus urticae, Panonychus citri, Eutetranychus orientalis

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15 Perceived Effects of Alcohol Abuse on Ordinary Level Students at Gatsi Secondary School

Authors: Chimeri Muzano Leonard

Abstract:

The study was carried out to investigate the perceptions of male and female Ordinary Level students on the effects of alcohol abuse at Gatsi Secondary School. The study showed that alcohol abuse has academic, social, psychological and health effects on Ordinary Level students. The negative effects comprises of death, dropping out, poor grades, poor concentration, risky behaviors, impairment of the brain and central nervous system , risky behaviors and Impairment of reproductive functioning Only students who enrolled for Ordinary Level in the 2014 academic year participated in this study. Fifty students (25 males and 25 females) were randomly selected to participate in the study. A formal survey questionnaire was used to collect data. The respondents were asked to use a scale of 0 (totally disagree) to 10 (completely agree) to indicate the extent to which they agreed with each perception. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 19.0 was used for data analysis. The Mann Whitney U test was used to test for the significance of differences in the perceptions of male and female students. No statistically significant differences were detected between males and females in most of their perceptions regarding the effects of alcohol abuse on Ordinary Level students. However, there were three perceptions found to be significantly different between male and female. They comprises of “Peers influence one to drink alcohol”, “Alcohol abuse is a major problem among male students compared to their female peers” and “ Female students should not drink beer”.It was evident from this study that Gatsi Secondary School needs to implement more effective interventions that combat alcohol abuse. A deeper analysis of the issues that predispose Ordinary Level students to alcohol abuse should inform the interventions. Consequently, unravelling the problem of negative effects of alcohol abuse was desirable because of its potential usefulness in developing strategies that might help curb the problem and presumably improve the performance of Ordinary Level students and above all the quality of education at Gatsi Secondary School.

Keywords: Alcohol, Alcohol abuse, perceived effects, Gatsi Secondary School

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14 Developmental Relationships between Alcohol Problems and Internalising Symptoms in a Longitudinal Sample of College Students

Authors: Lina E. Homman, Alexis C. Edwards, Seung Bin Cho, Danielle M. Dick, Kenneth S. Kendler

Abstract:

Research supports an association between alcohol problems and internalising symptoms, but the understanding of how the two phenotypes relate to each other is poor. It has been hypothesized that the relationship between the phenotypes is causal; however investigations in regards to direction are inconsistent. Clarity of the relationship between the two phenotypes may be provided by investigating the phenotypes developmental inter-relationships longitudinally. The objective of the study was to investigate a) changes in alcohol problems and internalising symptoms in college students across time and b) the direction of effect of growth between alcohol problems and internalising symptoms from late adolescent to emerging adulthood c) possible gender differences. The present study adds to the knowledge of comorbidity of alcohol problems and internalising symptoms by examining a longitudinal sample of college students and by examining the simultaneous development of the symptoms. A sample of college students is of particular interest as symptoms of both phenotypes often have their onset around this age. A longitudinal sample of college students from a large, urban, public university in the United States was used. Data was collected over a time period of 2 years at 3 time points. Latent growth models were applied to examine growth trajectories. Parallel process growth models were used to assess whether initial level and rate of change of one symptom affected the initial level and rate of change of the second symptom. Possible effects of gender and ethnicity were investigated. Alcohol problems significantly increased over time, whereas internalizing symptoms remained relatively stable. The two phenotypes were significantly correlated in each wave, correlations were stronger among males. Initial level of alcohol problems was significantly positively correlated with initial level of internalising symptoms. Rate of change of alcohol problems positively predicted rate of change of internalising symptoms for females but not for males. Rate of change of internalising symptoms did not predict rate of change of alcohol problems for either gender. Participants of Black and Asian ethnicities indicated significantly lower levels of alcohol problems and a lower increase of internalising symptoms across time, compared to White participants. Participants of Black ethnicity also reported significantly lower levels of internalising symptoms compared to White participants. The present findings provide additional support for a positive relationship between alcohol problems and internalising symptoms in youth. Our findings indicated that both internalising symptoms and alcohol problems increased throughout the sample and that the phenotypes were correlated. The findings mainly implied a bi-directional relationship between the phenotypes in terms of significant associations between initial levels as well as rate of change. No direction of causality was indicated in males but significant results were found in females where alcohol problems acted as the main driver for the comorbidity of alcohol problems and internalising symptoms; alcohol may have more detrimental effects in females than in males. Importantly, our study examined a population-based longitudinal sample of college students, revealing that the observed relationships are not limited to individuals with clinically diagnosed mental health or substance use problems.

Keywords: Alcohol, Comorbidity, internalising symptoms, longitudinal modelling

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13 Efficacy of Some Plant Extract against Larvae and Pupae of American Bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) including the Effect on Peritropme Membrane

Authors: Deepali Lal, Sudha Summerwar, Jyoutsna Pandey

Abstract:

The resistance of pesticide by the pest is an important matter of concern.The pesticide of plant origin having nontoxic biodegradable and environmentally friendly qualities. The frequent spraying of toxic chemicals is developing resistance to the pesticide. Leaf powder of the plants like Argimone mexicana and Calotropis procera is prepared, Different doses of these plant extracts are given to the Fourth in star stages of Helicoverpa armigera through feeding methods, to find their efficacy the experimental findings will be put under analysis using various parameters. The effect on paritrophic membrane is also studied.

Keywords: Alcohol, Cotton, acetone, plant extract, distillation plant, pipette, castor leaves, grams pods, larvae of helicoverpa armigera, vails, jars

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12 Descriptive Analysis of Alcohol Abuse and Sexual Behaviour of Adolescent Males in Eastern Cape

Authors: Jabulani Gilford Kheswa, Sinovuyo Takatshana

Abstract:

Literature documented that the combination of permissive attitudes, sexual experimentation and lack of accurate information from parents to educate male adolescents, poses a threat to the sexual health of adolescent males and exposes them to risky sexual behaviours. Grounded in problem behaviour theory as a theoretical framework for this study in understanding health-related behaviours of adolescent males, the weaker one’s perceived self-efficacy, the more social and affective factors increase the likelihood of risky sexual behaviour, such as alcohol abuse and intimate partner violence. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between alcohol use and sexual behaviour among 176 purposively selected Xhosa- speaking adolescent males, from one school in the Nkonkobe Municipality, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. These learners were in grade ten, eleven and twelve with an age range from a low of 14 to a high of 25 years. The mean age was 18.06 years while the standard deviation was .144. To be ethically bound, the researchers sought permission from the school principal to distribute self-administered questionnaires and assured the participants of confidentiality and anonymity. A survey was conducted by means of self-administered questionnaires. A cross-sectional study was carried out within the quantitative paradigm using the SPSS version 18 and the Chronbach’s alpha of 0.79 were found for alcohol and sexual behaviour of adolescent males. Findings showed that 59.6% (N=105) of the learners indicated that their caregivers talk about safe sex practice as compared to only 40.4% (N=71) who indicated that their caregivers do not talk to them about safe sex practice. A statistically significant association between alcohol and negotiation of safe sex at p-value of 0.05 (chi-square of 34.529, degree of freedom of 16) was reported. In conclusion, as young people in South Africa become sexually active at an early age, schools should initiate psycho-educational programmes to equip adolescents against risk- behaviours (such as HIV/AIDS, substance abuse, crime).

Keywords: Sex, Alcohol, Parents, adolescent males

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11 Local Remedies to Hangover in Iligan City, Philippines: An Alcohol Consumer Welfare-Concerned Study

Authors: Lindsay Crystabelle A. Gillamac, Lemuel Roy Amarillo, Al Leonard Joseph B. Aca-Ac, Felipe V. Lula Jr.

Abstract:

Hangover is the unpleasant psychological and physiologic effects after heavy consumption of alcoholic beverages. In awareness of the need to have a remedy for hangover occurrence in Iligan City, the authors aimed to determine the most preferred and effective local remedy to the hangover and inform people, bars and food establishments that there are available remedies to the hangover in the locality. The study utilizes qualitative data gathered through an interview on four different age groups with 50 random individuals each group as to what symptom determines they are experiencing the hangover. Then, quantitative data gathered through an online and written survey was done as to what local hangover remedy do they intake after drinking to ameliorate the most experienced symptom provided from the first assessment. After data tabulation of hangover symptoms on different age groups, we have found out that the most common determinant that you have a hangover has a headache. Thus, we queried the respondents again to what was effective the most in relieving them of a headache and their other felt symptoms depending on their varying age groups. The results of the evaluations showed that most respondents from different age groups preferred Halang-halang Soup, a spicy beef soup in the locality. As part of the hospitality industry concerned with welfare of customers, Bars in Iligan City should include on their menu these hang-over remedies in anticipation of guest needs given the fact that there are no more stores open at late hours in Iligan City. Placards should also be posted within the bar area to orient the guests about hang-over cures available inside the bar. Bartenders and other staff being directly in-contact with guests should take part in orienting guests about these aforementioned remedies. Added to that, we would like to promote Halang-halang Soup as a Health beneficial cuisine in the Philippines and help in the growth of the Tourism Industry of Iligan City by making the Halang-halang place a tourist destination.

Keywords: Headache, Alcohol, Hospitality Industry, Philippines, alcohol consumption, alcohol hangover, anticipation of needs, bar, cure, hangover, local remedy, menu, menu development, menu improvement, remedy

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10 Injury Patterns and Outcomes in Alcohol Intoxicated Trauma Patients Admitted at Level I Apex Trauma Centre of a Developing Nation

Authors: S. Kumar, A. Gupta, G. Kaushik, S. Lalwani, K. D. Soni, S. Sagar

Abstract:

Objective: Alcohol is a leading risk factor associated with the disability and death due to RTI. Present study aims to demonstrate the demographic profile, injury pattern, physiological parameters of victims of trauma following alcohol consumption arriving in the emergency department (ED) and mortality in alcohol intoxicated trauma patients admitted to Apex Trauma Center in Delhi. Design and Methods: Present study was performed in randomly selected 182 alcohol breath analyzer tested RTI patients from the emergency department of Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma Center (JPNATC), All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi for over a period of 3 months started from September 2013 to November 2013. Results: A total 182 RTI patients with blunt injury were selected between 30-40 years of age and equally distributed to male and female group. Of these, 93 (51%) were alcohol negative and 89 (49%) were alcohol positive. In 89 alcohol positive patients, 47 (53%) had Artificial Airway as compared to 17 (18%), (p < 0.001) in the other group. The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score was lower (p < 0.001) and higher Injury Severity Score (ISS) was observed in alcohol positive group as compared to other group (p < 0.03). Increased number of patients (58%) were admitted to Intensive Care Unit (ICU), in alcohol positive group (p < 0.001) and they were in ICU for longer time compare to other group (p < 0.001). The alcohol positive patients were on ventilator support for longer duration as compared to non-alcoholic group (p < 0.001). Mortality rate was higher in alcohol intoxicated patients as compared to non-alcoholic RTI patients, however, the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: This study revealed that GCS, mean ISS, ICU stay, ventilation time etc. might have considerable impact on mortality in alcohol intoxicated patients as compared to non-alcoholic group.

Keywords: Trauma, Alcohol, Emergency Department, Road Traffic Injuries

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9 Prevalence and Effect of Substance Use and Psychological Co-Morbidities in Medical and Dental Students of a Medical University of Nepal

Authors: Nidesh Sapkota, Garima Pudasaini, Dikshya Agrawal, Binav Baral, Umesh Bhagat, Dharanidhar Baral

Abstract:

Background: Medical and Dental students are vulnerable to higher levels of Psychological distress than other age matched peers. Many studies reveals that there is high prevalence of psychoactive substance use and Psychiatric co-morbidities among them. Objectives: -To study the prevalence of substance use among medical and dental students of a Medical University. -To study the prevalence of depression and anxiety in medical and dental students of a Medical University. Materials and Method: A cross-sectional descriptive study in which simple random sampling was done. Semi-structured questionnaire, AUDIT for alcohol use, Fagerstrom test for Nicotine dependence, Cannabis screening test (CAST), Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck’s Anxiety Inventory (BAI) were used for the assessment. Results: Total sample size was 588 in which the mean age of participants was 22±2years. Among them the prevalence of alcohol users was 47.75%(281) in which 32%(90) were harmful users. Among 19.55%(115) nicotine users 56.5%(65), 37.4%(43), 6.1%(7) had low, low to moderate and moderate dependence respectively. The prevalence of cannabis users was 9%(53) with 45.3%(24), 18.9%(10) having low and high addiction respectively. Depressive symptoms were recorded in 25.3%(149) out of which 12.6%(74), 6.5%(38), 5.3%(31), 0.5%(3), 0.5%(3) had mild, borderline, moderate, severe and extreme depressive symptoms respectively. Similarly anxiety was recorded among 7.8%(46) students with 42 having moderate and 4 having severe anxiety symptoms. Among them 6.3%(37) had suicidal thoughts and 4(0.7%) of them had suicide attempt in last one year. Statistically significant association was noted with harmful alcohol users, Depression and suicidal attempts. Similar association was noted between Depression and suicide with moderate use of nicotine. Conclusion: There is high prevalence of Psychoactive substance use and psychiatric co-morbidities noted in the studies sample. Statistically significant association was noted with Psychiatric co-morbidities and substance use.

Keywords: Depression, Alcohol, Cannabis, medical students, dependence

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8 Influence of Alcohol Consumption on Attention in Wistar Albino Rats

Authors: Adekunle Adesina, Dorcas Adesina

Abstract:

This Research investigated the influence of alcohol consumption on attention in Wister albino rats. It was designed to test whether or not alcohol consumption affected visual and auditory attention. The sample of this study comprise of 3males albino rats and 3 females albino rats which were randomly assigned to 3 (male/female each) groups, 1, 2 and 3. The first group which was experimental Group 1 received 4ml of alcohol ingestion with cannula twice daily (morning and evening). The second group which was experimental group 2 received 2ml of alcohol ingestion with cannula twice daily (morning and evening). Third group which was the control group only received water (placebo), all these happened within a period of 2 days. Three hypotheses were advanced and testedf in the study. Hypothesis 1 stated that there will be no significant difference between the response speed of albino rats that consume alcohol and those that consume water on visual attention using 5-CSRTT. This was confirmed (DF (2, 9) = 0.72, P <.05). Hypothesis 2 stated that albino rats who consumed alcohol will perform better than those who consume water on auditory accuracy using 5-CSRTT. This was also tested but not confirmed (DF (2, 9) = 2.10, P< .05). The third hypothesis which stated that female albino rats who consumed alcohol would not perform better than male albino rats who consumed alcohol on auditory accuracy using 5-CSRTT was tested and not confirmed. (DF (4) = 0.17, P < .05). Data was analyzed using one-way ANOVA and T-test for independent measures. It was therefore recommended that government policies and programs should be directed at reducing to the barest minimum the rate of alcohol consumption especially among males as it is detrimental to the human auditory attentional organ.

Keywords: Attention, Alcohol, rats, influence, Wistar

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7 Frequency of Problem Drinking and Depression in Males with a History of Alcohol Consumption Admitted to a Tertiary Care Setting in Southern Sri Lanka

Authors: N. H. D. P. Fonseka, I. H. Rajapakse, A. S. Dissanayake

Abstract:

Background: Problem drinking, namely alcohol dependence (AD) and alcohol abuse (AA) are associated with major medical, social and economic adverse consequences. Problem drinking behavior is noted among those admitted to hospitals due to alcohol-related medical/surgical complaints as well as those with unrelated complaints. Literature shows an association between alcohol consumption and depression. Aims of this study were to determine the frequency of problem drinking and depression among males with a history of alcohol consumption tertiary care setting in Southern Sri Lanka. Method: Two-hundred male patients who consumed alcohol, receiving care in medical and surgical wards in Teaching Hospital Galle, were assessed. A validated J12 questionnaire of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview was administered to determine frequency AA and AD. A validated PHQ 9 questionnaire to determine the prevalence and severity of depression. Results: Sixty-three participants (31%) had problem drinking. Of them, 61% had AD, and 39% had AA. Depression was noted in 39 (19%) subjects. In those who reported alcohol consumption not amounting to problem drinking, depression was noted in 23 (16%) participants. Mild depression was seen in 17, moderate in five and moderately severe in one. Among those who had problem drinking, 16 (25%) had depression. Mild depression was seen in four, moderate in seven, moderately severe in three and severe in two. Conclusions: A high proportion alcohol users had problem drinking. Adverse consequences associated with problem drinking places a major strain on the health system especially in a low resource setting where healthcare spending is limited and alcohol cessation support services are not well organised. Thus alcohol consumption and problem drinking behaviour need to be inquired into all medical consultations. Community prevalence of depression in Sri Lanka is approximately 10%. Depression among those consuming alcohol was two times higher compared to the general population. The rates of depression among those with problem drinking were especially high being 2.5 times more common than in the general population. A substantial proportion of these patients with depression had moderately severe or severe depression. When depression coexists with problem drinking, it may increase the tendency to consume alcohol as well as act as a barrier to the success of alcohol cessation interventions. Thus screening all patients who consume alcohol for depression, especially those who are problem drinkers becomes an important step in their clinical evaluation. In addition, in view of the high prevalence of problem drinking and coexistent depression, the need to organize a structured alcohol cessation support service in Sri Lanka as well as the need for increasing access to psychological evaluation and treatment of those with problem drinking are highlighted.

Keywords: Depression, Alcohol, Alcohol abuse, problem drinking

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6 Antioxydant Properties and Gastroprotective Effect of Rosa canina Aqueous Extract against Alcohol-Induced Ulceration and Oxidative Stress in Rat Model

Authors: H. Sebai, M. A. Jabria, D. Wannes, H. Tounsi, L. Marzouki

Abstract:

We aimed in the present study to investigate the protective effects of Tunisian Rosa canina aqueous extract (RCAE) against ethanol-induced gastric ulceration and oxidative stress in a rat model. In this respect, adult male Wistar rats were used and divided into six groups of ten each: control, EtOH, EtOH plus various doses of RCAE, EtOH plus famotidine and EtOH + gallic acid. Phytochemical and biochemical analysis were performed using colorimetric methods. We found that RCAE is rich in total polyphenols, total flavonoids, and condensed tannins, and exhibited an importance in vitro antioxidant activity on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. In vivo, the results showed that oral administration of EtOH caused macroscopic and histological changes in gastric mucosa. These injuries are accompanied by an oxidative stress status as assessed by an increase of lipid peroxidation as well as a decrease of antioxidant enzyme activities such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Alcohol intoxication also induced intracellular mediators deregulation as assessed by an increase of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), calcium and free iron levels in gastric mucosa. More, importantly, RCAE pretreatment reversed all macroscopic, histological and biochemical changes induced by EtOH administration. In conclusion, we suggest that RCAE has potent protective effects on acute ethanol-induced gastric ulceration related in part in part its antioxidant properties and its opposite effect on intracellular mediators. Indeed, Rosa canina can be offered as a food additive to protect against alcohol consumption-induced gastric and oxidative damage.

Keywords: Alcohol, Antioxidant properties, Rat Model, food additive, gastric ulceration, Rosa canina

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5 Alcohol and Tobacco Influencing Prevalence of Hypertension among 15-54 Old Indian Men: An Application of Discriminant Analysis Using National Family Health Survey, 2015-16

Authors: Chander Shekhar, Jeetendra Yadav, Shaziya Allarakha

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Hypertension has been described as an 'iceberg disease' as those who suffered are ignored and hence usually seek healthcare services at a very late stage. It is estimated that more than 2 million Indians are suffering from hypertensive heart disease that contributed to above 0.13 million deaths in 2016. The paper study aims to know the prevalence of Hypertension in India and its variation by socioeconomic backgrounds and to find out risk factors discriminating hypertension with special emphasis on consumption of tobacco and alcohol among men aged 15-54 years in India. The paper uses NFHS (2015-16) data. The paper used binary logistic regression and discriminant analysis to find significant predictors and discriminants of interest. The prevalence of hypertension was 16.5% in the study population. The results suggest that consumption of alcohol and tobacco are significant discriminant characteristics in carrying hypertension irrespective of what socioeconomic background characteristic he possesses.

Keywords: Tobacco, Alcohol, discriminant, hypertention

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4 Attitudes toward Sexual Assault: The Role of Religious Affiliation, Alcohol, and Gender

Authors: Ignacio Luis Ramirez, Brittney Holcomb

Abstract:

This study examines attitudes toward sexual assault based on religious affiliation, religiosity, religious beliefs, attitude about sexual assault education, alcohol, and drug use. This study found respondents who identified themselves as Catholics had more negative attitudes toward sexual assault and were more likely to support victim-blaming statements than Baptists or Protestants. Respondents who indicated a greater problem with alcohol had more negative attitudes toward sexual assault and were more likely to support victim-blaming statements. In reference to gender, males had more negative attitudes toward sexual assault and were more likely to support victim-blaming statements than females. The respondent’s religiosity and religious beliefs did not affect their attitudes toward sexual assault. Additionally, attitudes about sexual assault education and drug use did not affect attitudes toward sexual assault.

Keywords: Education, drugs, Religion, Alcohol, Sexual assault

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3 Alcohol Rituals and Active Ageing: A Thematic Analysis of Semi-Structured Interviews with Retirees in the West of Scotland

Authors: Karen Bell, Deborah Nicholson, Fiona McCormack, Pete Seaman

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This paper explores alcohol consumption amongst retirees in the West of Scotland in the context of active and healthy ageing discourses. The public health consequences of alcohol use are well documented and of growing concern to policy makers in Scotland and elsewhere. However, alcohol occupies a prominent position in a range of cultural and social practices and has associated meanings for users related to conviviality, leisure, sociability, and inclusion- features closely tied to active and healthy ageing. These perceived positive and negative meanings place alcohol in an ambiguous and contradictory position in relation to the Scottish Government’s key health policy initiatives aimed at healthy ageing and the reduction of alcohol-related ill-health. This paper explores these positive and negative associations through an examination of the meanings which retirees attach to alcohol and the routines and rituals they develop to navigate wider health concerns. Methods: participants were recruited from the West of Scotland area using a quota sampling design based around gender, age, and socioeconomic position. Forty participants were interviewed using a semi-structured interview schedule and qualitative techniques. The interviews were transcribed and thematic analysis of the data was conducted. Results: Alcohol use amongst retirees in Scotland was widely varied with marked differences noted in terms of gender and age group, but with less clear variance by socioeconomic position. A range of strategies was employed to limit alcohol use by time, context, location and/or volume and these strategies clearly drew on a perception of alcohol use in retirement as potentially more problematic than at earlier stage of life. Thus, the retirees in the sample used these limiting strategies to navigate the positive and negative meanings they attached to alcohol use.

Keywords: Health, Alcohol, retirement, routines

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2 A Study of Blood Alcohol Concentration in People Arrested for Various Offences and Its Demographic Pattern

Authors: Ashok Kumar Jaiswal, Tabin Millo, Khoob Chand

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Introduction: Various kinds of violence and offences are related to alcohol consumption by the offenders. The relationship between alcohol and violence is complex. But its study is important to achieve understanding of violence as well as alcohol related behavior. This study was done to know the blood alcohol concentration in people involved in various offences and its demographic pattern. The study was carried out in the forensic toxicology laboratory, department of Forensic Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India. Material and methods: The blood samples were collected from the arrested people shortly after the commission of the offence by the emergency medical officers in the emergency department and forwarded to the forensic toxicology laboratory through the investigating officer. The blood samples were collected in EDTA vial with sodium fluoride preservative. The samples were analyzed by using gas chromatography with head space (GC-HS), which is ideal for alcohol estimation. The toxicology reports were given within a week. The data of seven years (2011-17) were analyzed for its alcohol concentration, associated crimes and its demographic pattern. Analysis and conclusion: Total 280 samples were analyzed in the period of 2011-2017. All were males except one female who was a bar dancer. The maximum cases were in the age group of 21-30 years (124 cases). The type of offences involved were road traffic accidents (RTA), assault cases, drunken driving, drinking in public place, drunk on duty, sexual offence, bestiality, eve teasing, fall etc. The maximum cases were of assault (75 cases) followed by RTA (64 cases). The maximum cases were in the alcohol concentration range of 101-150mg% (58 cases) followed by 51-100mg% (52 cases). The maximum blood alcohol level detected was 391.51 mg%, belonging to a security guard found unconscious. This study shows that alcohol consumption is associated with various kinds of violence and offences in society.

Keywords: Crime, Violence, toxicology, Alcohol

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1 Modelling the Effect of Alcohol Consumption on the Accelerating and Braking Behaviour of Drivers

Authors: Ankit Kumar Yadav, Nagendra R. Velaga

Abstract:

Driving under the influence of alcohol impairs the driving performance and increases the crash risks worldwide. The present study investigated the effect of different Blood Alcohol Concentrations (BAC) on the accelerating and braking behaviour of drivers with the help of driving simulator experiments. Eighty-two licensed Indian drivers drove on the rural road environment designed in the driving simulator at BAC levels of 0.00%, 0.03%, 0.05%, and 0.08% respectively. Driving performance was analysed with the help of vehicle control performance indicators such as mean acceleration and mean brake pedal force of the participants. Preliminary analysis reported an increase in mean acceleration and mean brake pedal force with increasing BAC levels. Generalized linear mixed models were developed to quantify the effect of different alcohol levels and explanatory variables such as driver’s age, gender and other driver characteristic variables on the driving performance indicators. Alcohol use was reported as a significant factor affecting the accelerating and braking performance of the drivers. The acceleration model results indicated that mean acceleration of the drivers increased by 0.013 m/s², 0.026 m/s² and 0.027 m/s² for the BAC levels of 0.03%, 0.05% and 0.08% respectively. Results of the brake pedal force model reported that mean brake pedal force of the drivers increased by 1.09 N, 1.32 N and 1.44 N for the BAC levels of 0.03%, 0.05% and 0.08% respectively. Age was a significant factor in both the models where one year increase in drivers’ age resulted in 0.2% reduction in mean acceleration and 19% reduction in mean brake pedal force of the drivers. It shows that driving experience could compensate for the negative effects of alcohol to some extent while driving. Female drivers were found to accelerate slower and brake harder as compared to the male drivers which confirmed that female drivers are more conscious about their safety while driving. It was observed that drivers who were regular exercisers had better control on their accelerator pedal as compared to the non-regular exercisers during drunken driving. The findings of the present study revealed that drivers tend to be more aggressive and impulsive under the influence of alcohol which deteriorates their driving performance. Drunk driving state can be differentiated from sober driving state by observing the accelerating and braking behaviour of the drivers. The conclusions may provide reference in making countermeasures against drinking and driving and contribute to traffic safety.

Keywords: Alcohol, acceleration, driving simulator, braking behaviour

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