Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

Aircraft Related Abstracts

20 Enhanced Method of Conceptual Sizing of Aircraft Electro-Thermal De-Icing System

Authors: Ahmed Shinkafi, Craig Lawson

Abstract:

There is a great advancement towards the All-Electric Aircraft (AEA) technology. The AEA concept assumes that all aircraft systems will be integrated into one electrical power source in the future. The principle of the electro-thermal system is to transfer the energy required for anti/de-icing to the protected areas in electrical form. However, powering a large aircraft anti-icing system electrically could be quite excessive in cost and system weight. Hence, maximising the anti/de-icing efficiency of the electro-thermal system in order to minimise its power demand has become crucial to electro-thermal de-icing system sizing. In this work, an enhanced methodology has been developed for conceptual sizing of aircraft electro-thermal de-icing System. The work factored those critical terms overlooked in previous studies which were critical to de-icing energy consumption. A case study of a typical large aircraft wing de-icing was used to test and validate the model. The model was used to optimise the system performance by a trade-off between the de-icing peak power and system energy consumption. The optimum melting surface temperatures and energy flux predicted enabled the reduction in the power required for de-icing. The weight penalty associated with electro-thermal anti-icing/de-icing method could be eliminated using this method without under estimating the de-icing power requirement.

Keywords: Aircraft, de-icing system, electro-thermal, in-flight icing

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19 Jet-Stream Airsail: Study of the Shape and the Behavior of the Connecting Cable

Authors: Christopher Frank, Yoshiki Miyairi

Abstract:

A jet-stream airsail concept takes advantage of aerology in order to fly without propulsion. Weather phenomena, especially jet streams, are relatively permanent high winds blowing from west to east, located at average altitudes and latitudes in both hemispheres. To continuously extract energy from the jet-stream, the system is composed of a propelled plane and a wind turbine interconnected by a cable. This work presents the aerodynamic characteristics and the behavior of the cable that links the two subsystems and transmits energy from the turbine to the aircraft. Two ways of solving this problem are explored: numerically and analytically. After obtaining the optimal shape of the cross-section of the cable, its behavior is analyzed as a 2D problem solved numerically and analytically. Finally, a 3D extension could be considered by adding lateral forces. The results of this work can be further used in the design process of the overall system: aircraft-turbine.

Keywords: Wind, Aerodynamics, Aircraft, jet-stream, cable, tether, airsail

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18 Investigation of Adaptable Winglets for Improved UAV Control and Performance

Authors: A. Gatto, E. Kaygan

Abstract:

An investigation of adaptable winglets for morphing aircraft control and performance is described in this paper. The concepts investigated consist of various winglet configurations fundamentally centred on a baseline swept wing. The impetus for the work was to identify and optimize winglets to enhance controllability and the aerodynamic efficiency of a small unmanned aerial vehicle. All computations were performed with Athena Vortex Lattice modelling with varying degrees of twist, swept, and dihedral angle considered. The results from this work indicate that if adaptable winglets were employed on small scale UAV’s improvements in both aircraft control and performance could be achieved.

Keywords: Aircraft, Wing, Rolling, winglet

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17 Optimum Flight Altitude

Authors: Ravi Nandu, Anmol Taploo

Abstract:

As per current scenario, commercial aircrafts have been very well functioning with higher efficiency, but there is something that affects it. Every aircraft runs with the combustion produced by mixture of fuel and air. For example: A flight to travel from Mumbai to Kolkata it takes 2h: 30 min and from Kolkata to Mumbai it takes 2h: 45 min. It happens due to head and tail wind. Due to head wind air craft travels faster than its usual velocity and it takes 2h: 30 min to reach to Kolkata, while it takes 2h;45min vis versa. This lag in time is caused due to head wind that increases the drag and reduces the relative velocity of the plane. So in order to reduce this wastage of fuel there is an optimal flight altitude at which the head and tail wind action is reduced compared to the present scenario.

Keywords: Aircraft, drag, head wind, tail wind

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16 Heat and Mass Transfer Study of Supercooled Large Droplet Icing

Authors: Yang Xiaofeng, Gui Yewei, Du Yanxia, Stephan E. Bansmer, Xiao Guangming

Abstract:

The heat and mass transfer characteristics of icing coupled with film flow is studied and the coupled model of the thermal behavior with the flow simulation by single-step method is developed. The behavior of ice and water was analyzed. The results show that under supercooled large droplet (SLD) icing conditions, the film flow is an important phonomena in icing accretion process. The pressure gradient, gravity and shear stress are the main factors affecting the film flow on icing surface, which has important influence on the shape and rate of icing. To predict SLD ice accretion accurately, the heat and mass transfer of ice and film flow should be taken into account.

Keywords: Heat and Mass Transfer, Aircraft, SLD, icing

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15 Computational Analysis of Adaptable Winglets for Improved Morphing Aircraft Performance

Authors: Erdogan Kaygan, Alvin Gatto

Abstract:

An investigation of adaptable winglets for enhancing morphing aircraft performance is described in this paper. The concepts investigated consist of various winglet configurations fundamentally centered on a baseline swept wing. The impetus for the work was to identify and optimize winglets to enhance the aerodynamic efficiency of a morphing aircraft. All computations were performed with Athena Vortex Lattice modelling with varying degrees of twist and cant angle considered. The results from this work indicate that if adaptable winglets were employed on aircraft’s improvements in aircraft performance could be achieved.

Keywords: Aircraft, winglet, drag, twist

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14 Aircraft Landing Process Simulation Using Multi-Body Multi-Dynamics Software

Authors: Ahmad Kavousi, Ali Delaviz

Abstract:

In this project, the landing process is simulated by using of multi-body dynamics commercial software. Various factors, including landing situations, aircraft structures and climate are used in this simulation. The purpose of this project is to determine the forces exerted on the aircraft landing gears in landing process in various landing conditions. For this purpose, the ADAMS multi-body dynamics software is used. Different scenarios based on FAR-25, including level landing, tail-down landing, crab landing are simulated. Results of dynamic simulation software with landing load factor obtained from the analytical solution are compared. The effect of fuselage elasticity on the landing load is studied. For this purpose, both of elastic and rigid body assumptions are used in the simulation process, and the results are compared and some conclusions are made.

Keywords: Aircraft, Multi-body dynamics, landing gear, landing process

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13 Minimize Wear and Tear in Y12 Aircraft Tyres

Authors: N. D. Hiripitiya, H. V. H. De Soysa, H. S. U. Thrimavithana, B. R. Epitawala, K. A. D. D. Kuruppu, D. J. K. Lokupathirage

Abstract:

This research was related to identify the reasons which lead for early wear and tear of aircraft tyres. Further this research focused to rectify those issues in tyres with some modifications. The aircraft tyres of Y12 aircraft was selected for the study as due to Y12 aircraft fly frequently. Self-structured questionnaire was prepared and it was distributed among Y12 aircraft technicians. Based on their feedback several issues were identified related to tyre wear and tear. One of the reasons was uneven tyre wearing. But it could rectify after interchanging the tyre sides after completion of 50 landings. Several modifications were done in order to rectify all the identified issues. Several devices were constructed in order to enhance the life time of the Y12 aircraft tyre. Mechanical properties were measured for the worn-out tyres. The properties were compared with the control tyre sample. It was found that there was an average increment of tensile strength by 38.14 % of control tyre, when compared with the worn-out tyres which were completed 50 number of landings. The suggested modifications are in the process of implementation. It is confident that above mentioned solutions will lead to increase the life span of tyres in Y12 aircraft.

Keywords: Devices, Aircraft, enhance life span, modifications for tyre wear

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12 Mechanism to Optimize Landing Distance in Order to Minimize Tyre Wear during Braking

Authors: N. D. Hiripitiya, H. V. H. De Soysa, H. S. U. Thrimavithana, B. R. Epitawala, K. A. D. D. Kuruppu, D. J. K. Lokupathirage

Abstract:

This research was based on developing a mechanism in order to optimize the landing distance. Short distance braking and long distance braking may cause several issues for the aircraft including tyre wearing. The worst case occurs with short distance landing. The issues related to short distance landing were identified after conducting interviews with pilots, aeronautical engineers and technicians. A model was constructed in order to optimize the landing distance. The device started to function at the point where the main wheels of the aircraft touchdown the runway. It was found that implementing this device to the aircraft benefits to optimize the landing distance. This could lead to rectifying several issues occurred due to improper braking distances.

Keywords: Aircraft, Mechanism, optimize landing distance, runway

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11 Design and Optimization of a Mini High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) Multi-Role Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Authors: M. Senthil Kumar, Vishaal Subramanian, Annuatha Vinod Kumar, Santosh Kumar Budankayala

Abstract:

This paper discusses the aerodynamic and structural design, simulation and optimization of a mini-High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) UAV. The applications of this mini HALE UAV vary from aerial topological surveys, quick first aid supply, emergency medical blood transport, search and relief activates to border patrol, surveillance and estimation of forest fire progression. Although classified as a mini UAV according to UVS International, our design is an amalgamation of the features of ‘mini’ and ‘HALE’ categories, combining the light weight of the ‘mini’ and the high altitude ceiling and endurance of the HALE. Designed with the idea of implementation in India, it is in strict compliance with the UAS rules proposed by the office of the Director General of Civil Aviation. The plane can be completely automated or have partial override control and is equipped with an Infra-Red camera and a multi coloured camera with on-board storage or live telemetry, GPS system with Geo Fencing and fail safe measures. An additional of 1.5 kg payload can be attached to three major hard points on the aircraft and can comprise of delicate equipment or releasable payloads. The paper details the design, optimization process and the simulations performed using various software such as Design Foil, XFLR5, Solidworks and Ansys.

Keywords: Endurance, Aircraft, UAV, Unmanned aerial vehicle, HALE, high altitude, long range

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10 Concepts of Technologies Based on Smart Materials to Improve Aircraft Aerodynamic Performance

Authors: Krzysztof Skiba, Ksenia Siadkowska, Zbigniew Czyz, Piotr Borowiec

Abstract:

The article presents selected concepts of technologies that use intelligent materials in aircraft in order to improve their performance. Most of the research focuses on solutions that improve the performance of fixed wing aircraft due to related to their previously dominant market share. Recently, the development of the rotorcraft has been intensive, so there are not only helicopters but also gyroplanes and unmanned aerial vehicles using rotors and vertical take-off and landing. There are many different technologies to change a shape of the aircraft or its elements. Piezoelectric, deformable actuator systems can be applied in the system of an active control of vibration dampening in the aircraft tail structure. Wires made of shape memory alloys (SMA) could be used instead of hydraulic cylinders in the rear part of the aircraft flap. The aircraft made of intelligent materials (piezoelectrics and SMA) is one of the NASA projects which provide the possibility of changing a wing shape coefficient by 200%, a wing surface by 50%, and wing deflections by 20 degrees. Active surfaces made of shape memory alloys could be used to control swirls in the flowing stream. An intelligent control system for helicopter blades is a method for the active adaptation of blades to flight conditions and the reduction of vibrations caused by the rotor. Shape memory alloys are capable of recovering their pre-programmed shapes. They are divided into three groups: nickel-titanium-based, copper-based, and ferromagnetic. Due to the strongest shape memory effect and the best vibration damping ability, a Ni-Ti alloy is the most commercially important. The subject of this work was to prepare a conceptual design of a rotor blade with SMA actuators. The scope of work included 3D design of the supporting rotor blade, 3D design of beams enabling to change the geometry by changing the angle of rotation and FEM (Finite Element Method) analysis. The FEM analysis was performed using NX 12 software in the Pre/Post module, which includes extended finite element modeling tools and visualizations of the obtained results. Calculations are presented for two versions of the blade girders. For FEM analysis, three types of materials were used for comparison purposes (ABS, aluminium alloy 7057, steel C45). The analysis of internal stresses and extreme displacements of crossbars edges was carried out. The internal stresses in all materials were close to the yield point in the solution of girder no. 1. For girder no. 2 solution, the value of stresses decreased by about 45%. As a result of the displacement analysis, it was found that the best solution was the ABS girder no. 1. The displacement of about 0.5 mm was obtained, which resulted in turning the crossbars (upper and lower) by an angle equal to 3.59 degrees. This is the largest deviation of all the tests. The smallest deviation was obtained for beam no. 2 made of steel. The displacement value of the second girder solution was approximately 30% lower than the first solution. Acknowledgement: This work has been financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development under the LIDER program, Grant Agreement No. LIDER/45/0177/L-9/17/NCBR/2018.

Keywords: Aircraft, UAV, Unmanned aerial vehicle, SMA, shape memory alloy, smart material, helicopters

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9 [Keynote Speech]: Conceptual Design of a Short Take-Off and Landing (STOL) Light Sport Aircraft

Authors: Zamri Omar, Alifi Zainal Abidin

Abstract:

Although flying machines have made their tremendous technological advancement since the first successfully flight of the heavier-than-air aircraft, its benefits to the greater community are still belittled. One of the reasons for this drawback is due to the relatively high cost needed to fly on the typical light aircraft. A smaller and lighter plane, widely known as Light Sport Aircraft (LSA) has the potential to attract more people to actively participate in numerous flying activities, such as for recreational, business trips or other personal purposes. In this paper, we propose a new LSA design with some simple, yet important analysis required in the aircraft conceptual design stage.

Keywords: Aircraft, conceptual design, light sport aircraft, aircraft layout

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8 Simulation Research of Diesel Aircraft Engine

Authors: Mirosław Wendeker, Łukasz Grabowski, Michał Gęca

Abstract:

This paper presents the simulation results of a new opposed piston diesel engine to power a light aircraft. Created in the AVL Boost, the model covers the entire charge passage, from the inlet up to the outlet. The model shows fuel injection into cylinders and combustion in cylinders. The calculation uses the module for two-stroke engines. The model was created using sub-models available in this software that structure the model. Each of the sub-models is complemented with parameters in line with the design premise. Since engine weight resulting from geometric dimensions is fundamental in aircraft engines, two configurations of stroke were studied. For each of the values, there were calculated selected operating conditions defined by crankshaft speed. The required power was achieved by changing air fuel ratio (AFR). There was also studied brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC). For stroke S1, the BSFC was lowest at all of the three operating points. This difference is approximately 1-2%, which means higher overall engine efficiency but the amount of fuel injected into cylinders is larger by several mg for S1. The cylinder maximum pressure is lower for S2 due to the fact that compressor gear driving remained the same and boost pressure was identical in the both cases. Calculations for various values of boost pressure were the next stage of the study. In each of the calculation case, the amount of fuel was changed to achieve the required engine power. In the former case, the intake system dimensions were modified, i.e. the duct connecting the compressor and the air cooler, so its diameter D = 40 mm was equal to the diameter of the compressor outlet duct. The impact of duct length was also examined to be able to reduce the flow pulsation during the operating cycle. For the so selected geometry of the intake system, there were calculations for various values of boost pressure. The boost pressure was changed by modifying the gear driving the compressor. To reach the required level of cruising power N = 68 kW. Due to the mechanical power consumed by the compressor, high pressure ratio results in a worsened overall engine efficiency. The figure on the change in BSFC from 210 g/kWh to nearly 270 g/kWh shows this correlation and the overall engine efficiency is reduced by about 8%. Acknowledgement: This work has been realized in the cooperation with The Construction Office of WSK "PZL-KALISZ" S.A." and is part of Grant Agreement No. POIR.01.02.00-00-0002/15 financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development.

Keywords: Simulation, Aircraft, Engine, diesel

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7 Nano Sol Based Solar Responsive Smart Window for Aircraft

Authors: K. A. D. D. Kuruppu, R. M. De Silva, K. M. N. De Silva

Abstract:

This research work was based on developing a solar responsive aircraft window panel which can be used as a self-cleaning surface and also a surface which degrade Volatile Organic compounds (VOC) available in the aircraft cabin areas. Further, this surface has the potential of harvesting energy from Solar. The transparent inorganic nano sol solution was prepared. The obtained sol solution was characterized using X-ray diffraction, Particle size analyzer and FT-IR. The existing nano material which shows the similar characteristics was also used to compare the efficiencies with the newly prepared nano sol. Nano sol solution was coated on cleaned four aircraft window pieces separately using a spin coater machine. The existing nano material was dissolved and prepared a solution having the similar concentration as nano sol solution. Pre-cleaned four aircraft window pieces were coated with this solution and the rest cleaned four aircraft window pieces were considered as control samples. The control samples were uncoated from anything. All the window pieces were allowed to dry at room temperature. All the twelve aircraft window pieces were uniform in all the factors other than the type of coating. The surface morphologies of the samples were analyzed using SEM. The photocatalytic degradation of VOC was determined after incorporating gas of Toluene to each sample followed by the analysis done by UV-VIS spectroscopy. The self- cleaning capabilities were analyzed after adding of several types of stains on the window pieces. The self-cleaning property of each sample was analyzed using UV-VIS spectroscopy. The highest photocatalytic degradation of Volatile Organic compound and the highest photocatalytic degradation of stains were obtained for the samples which were coated by the nano sol solution. Therefore, the experimental results clearly show that there is a potential of using this nano sol in aircraft window pieces which favors the self-cleaning property as well as efficient photocatalytic degradation of VOC gases. This will ensure safer environment inside aircraft cabins.

Keywords: Aircraft, Nano, Solar, Smart Windows

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6 Structural Analysis of an Active Morphing Wing for Enhancing UAV Performance

Authors: A. Gatto, E. Kaygan

Abstract:

A numerical study of a design concept for actively controlling wing twist is described in this paper. The concept consists of morphing elements which were designed to provide a rigid and seamless skin while maintaining structural rigidity. The wing structure is first modeled in CATIA V5 then imported into ANSYS for structural analysis. Athena Vortex Lattice method (AVL) is used to estimate aerodynamic response as well as aerodynamic loads of morphing wings, afterwards a structural optimization performed via ANSYS Static. Overall, the results presented in this paper show that the concept provides efficient wing twist while preserving an aerodynamically smooth and compliant surface. Sufficient structural rigidity in bending is also obtained. This concept is suggested as a possible alternative for morphing skin applications. 

Keywords: Aircraft, Morphing, Skin, twist

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5 Analysis of Structure-Flow Interaction for Water Brake Mechanism

Authors: Ismail Yilmaz, Murat Avci, Fatih Kosar

Abstract:

In this study, structure-flow interaction for water brake mechanism is studied with Abaqus CEL approach. The water brake mechanism is used for dynamic systems such as sled system on rail. For the achievement of these system tests, structure-flow interaction should be investigated in detail. This study is about a sled test of an aircraft subsystem which rises to supersonic speeds thanks to rocket engines. To decrease or to stop the thrusting rocket sleds, water brake mechanisms are used. Water brake mechanism provides the deceleration of the structures that have supersonic speeds. Therefore, structure-flow interaction may cause damage to the water brake mechanism. To verify all design revisions with system tests are so costly so that some decisions are taken in accordance with numerical methods. In this study, structure-flow interaction that belongs to water brake mechanism is solved with Abaqus CEL approach. Fluid and deformation on the structure behaviors are modeled at the same time thanks to CEL approach. Provided analysis results are corrected with the dynamic tests. Deformation zones seen in numerical analysis are also observed in dynamic tests. Finally, Johnson-Cook material model parameters used for this analysis are proven, and it is understood that these parameters can be used for dynamic analysis like water brake mechanism.

Keywords: Supersonic, Aircraft, Rocket, structure-flow

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4 Thermal Imaging of Aircraft Piston Engine in Laboratory Conditions

Authors: Marcin Szlachetka, Lukasz Grabowski, Tytus Tulwin

Abstract:

The main task of the engine cooling system is to maintain its average operating temperatures within strictly defined limits. Too high or too low average temperatures result in accelerated wear or even damage to the engine or its individual components. In order to avoid local overheating or significant temperature gradients, leading to high stresses in the component, the aim is to ensure an even flow of air. In the case of analyses related to heat exchange, one of the main problems is the comparison of temperature fields because standard measuring instruments such as thermocouples or thermistors only provide information about the course of temperature at a given point. Thermal imaging tests can be helpful in this case. With appropriate camera settings and taking into account environmental conditions, we are able to obtain accurate temperature fields in the form of thermograms. Emission of heat from the engine to the engine compartment is an important issue when designing a cooling system. Also, in the case of liquid cooling, the main sources of heat in the form of emissions from the engine block, cylinders, etc. should be identified. It is important to redesign the engine compartment ventilation system. Ensuring proper cooling of aircraft reciprocating engine is difficult not only because of variable operating range but mainly because of different cooling conditions related to the change of speed or altitude of flight. Engine temperature also has a direct and significant impact on the properties of engine oil, which under the influence of this parameter changes, in particular, its viscosity. Too low or too high, its value can be a result of fast wear of engine parts. One of the ways to determine the temperatures occurring on individual parts of the engine is the use of thermal imaging measurements. The article presents the results of preliminary thermal imaging tests of aircraft piston diesel engine with a maximum power of about 100 HP. In order to perform the heat emission tests of the tested engine, the ThermaCAM S65 thermovision monitoring system from FLIR (Forward-Looking Infrared) together with the ThermaCAM Researcher Professional software was used. The measurements were carried out after the engine warm up. The engine speed was 5300 rpm The measurements were taken for the following environmental parameters: air temperature: 17 °C, ambient pressure: 1004 hPa, relative humidity: 38%. The temperatures distribution on the engine cylinder and on the exhaust manifold were analysed. Thermal imaging tests made it possible to relate the results of simulation tests to the real object by measuring the rib temperature of the cylinders. The results obtained are necessary to develop a CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) model of heat emission from the engine bay. The project/research was financed in the framework of the project Lublin University of Technology-Regional Excellence Initiative, funded by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education (contract no. 030/RID/2018/19).

Keywords: Aircraft, Emission, Heat, piston engine

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3 A Research of the Prototype Fuel Injector for the Aircraft Two-Stroke Opposed-Piston Diesel Engine

Authors: Ksenia Siadkowska, Zbigniew Czyz, Lukasz Grabowski

Abstract:

The paper presents the research results of the construction of an injector with a modified injection nozzle. The injector is designed for a prototype aircraft opposed-piston diesel engine with an assumed starting power of 100 kW. The injector has been subjected to optical tests carried out in a constant volume chamber with the use of a camera allowing to record images at the frequency of 5400 fps and at the resolution of 1024x1024. The measurements were based on a Mie scattering technique with global lighting. Seven repetitions were made for a specific measurement point. The measuring point was selected on the basis of the analysis of engine operating conditions. The analysis focused on the average range of the spray and its distribution. As a result of the conducted research, the range of the fuel spray was defined for the determined parameters of injection. The obtained results were used to verify and optimize the combustion process in the designed opposed-piston two-stroke diesel engine. Acknowledgment: This work has been realized in the cooperation with The Construction Office of WSK 'PZL-KALISZ' S.A.' and is part of Grant Agreement No. POIR.01.02.00-00-0002/15 financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development.

Keywords: Aircraft, Diesel Engine, fuel injector, opposed-piston

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2 Bench Tests of Two-Stroke Opposed Piston Aircraft Diesel Engine under Propeller Characteristics Conditions

Authors: K. Pietrykowski, G. Barański, A. Majczak

Abstract:

Due to the growing popularity of light aircraft, it has become necessary to develop aircraft engines for this type of construction. One of engine system, designed to increase efficiency and reduce weight, is the engine with opposed pistons. In such an engine, the combustion chamber is formed by two pistons moving in one cylinder. Therefore, this type of engines run in a two-stroke cycle, so they have many advantages such as high power and torque, high efficiency, or a favorable power-to-weight ratio. Tests of one of the available aircraft engines with opposing piston system fueled with diesel oil were carried out on an engine dynamometer equipped with an eddy current brake and the necessary measuring and testing equipment. In order to get to know the basic parameters of the engine, the tests were carried out under partial load conditions for the following torque values: 40, 60, 80, 100 Nm. The rotational speed was changed from 1600 to 2500 rpm. Measurements were also taken for designated points of propeller characteristics. During the tests, the engine torque, engine power, fuel consumption, intake manifold pressure, and oil pressure were recorded. On the basis of the measurements carried out for particular loads, the power curve, hourly and specific fuel consumption curves were determined. Characteristics of charge pressure as a function of rotational speed as well as power, torque, hourly and specific fuel consumption curves for propeller characteristics were also prepared. The obtained characteristics make it possible to select the optimal points of engine operation.

Keywords: Aircraft, Engine Testing, diesel, opposed piston

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1 Electric Propulsion Systems in Aerospace Applications - Energy Balance Analysis

Authors: T. Tulwin, M. Gęca, R. Sochaczewski

Abstract:

Recent improvements in electric propulsion systems and energy storage systems allow for the electrification of many sectors where it was previously not feasible. This analysis proves the feasibility of electric propulsion in aviation applications reviewing recent energy storage developments. It can be more quiet, energy efficient and more environmentally friendly. Numerical simulations were done to prove that energy efficiency can be improved for rotorcrafts especially in hover conditions. New types of aircraft configurations are reviewed and future trends are presented.

Keywords: Aircraft, Propulsion, Storage, Efficiency

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