Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Agroforestry Related Abstracts

17 Insects and Meteorological Inventories in a Mango-Based Agroforestry System in Bangladesh

Authors: Md. Ruhul Amin, Shakura Namni, Md. Ramiz Uddin Miah, Md. Giashuddin Miah, Mohammad Zakaria, Sang Jae Suh, Yong Jung Kwon


Insect species abundance and diversity associated with meteorological factors during January to June 2013 at a mango-based agroforestry research field in Bangladesh, and the effects of pests and pollinator species on mango are presented in this study. Among the collected and identified insects, nine species belong to 3 orders were found as pollinator, 11 species in 5 orders as pest, and 13 species in 6 orders as predator. The mango hopper, fruit fly and stone weevil appeared as major pest because of their high levels of abundance and infestation. The hoppers caused 100% inflorescence damage followed by fruit fly (51.7% fruit) and stone weevil (31.0% mature fruit). The major pests exerted significantly higher abundance compared to pollinator, predator and minor pests. Hemipteroid insects were most abundant (60%) followed by Diptera (21%), Hymenoptera (10%), Lepidoptera (5%), and Coleoptera (4%). Insect population increased with increasing trend of temperature and humidity, and revealed peak abundance during April-May. The flower visiting insects differed in their landing duration and showed preference to forage with time of a day. Their foraging activity was found to be peaked between 11.00 am to 01.00 pm. The activity of the pollinators led to higher level of fruit set. This study provides baseline information about the phenological patterns of insect abundance in an agroforestry research field which could be an indication to incorporate some aspects of pest management.

Keywords: Insects, Agroforestry, abundance, abiotic factors, mango

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16 Priority Sites for Deforested and Degraded Mountain Restoration Projects in North Korea

Authors: Koo Ja-Choon, Seok Hyun-Deok, Park So-Hee


Even though developed countries have supported aid projects for restoring degraded and deforested mountain, recent North Korean authorities announced that North Korean forest is still very serious. Last 12 years, more than 16 thousand ha of forest were destroyed. Most of previous researches concluded that food and fuel problems should be solved for preventing people from deforesting and degrading forest in North Korea. It means that mountain restoration projects such as A/R(afforestation/reforestation) and REDD(Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation) project should be implemented with the agroforestry and the forest tending project. Because agroforestry and the forest tending can provide people in the project area with foods and fuels, respectively. Especially, Agroforestry has been operated well with the support of Swiss agency of Development and cooperation since 2003. This paper aims to find the priority sites for mountain restoration project where all types of projects including agroforesty can be implemented simultaneously. We tried to find the primary counties where the areas of these activities were distributed widely and evenly. Recent spatial data of 186 counties representing altitude, gradient and crown density were collected from World Forest Watch. These 3 attributes were used to determine the type of activities; A/R, REDD, Agroforestry and forest tending project. Finally, we calculated the size of 4 activities in 186 counties by using GIS technique. Result shows that Chongjin in Hamgyeongbuk-do, Hoeryong in Hamgyeongbuk-do and Tongchang in Pyeonganbuk-do are on the highest priority of counties. Most of feasible counties whose value of richness and uniformity were greater than the average were located near the eastern coast of North Korea. South Korean government has not supported any aid projects in North Korea since 2010. Recently, South Korea is trying to continue the aid projects for North Korea. Forest project which is not affected by the political situation between North- and South- Korea can be considered as a priority activities. This result can be used when South Korean government determine the priority sites for North Korean mountain restoration project in near future.

Keywords: Agroforestry, GIS, priority, forest restoration project, North Korea

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15 Deriving an Index of Adoption Rate and Assessing Factors Affecting Adoption of an Agroforestry-Based Farming System in Dhanusha District, Nepal

Authors: Arun Dhakal, Geoff Cockfield, Tek Narayan Maraseni


This paper attempts to fulfil the gap in measuring adoption in agroforestry studies. It explains the derivation of an index of adoption rate in a Nepalese context and examines the factors affecting adoption of agroforestry-based land management practice (AFLMP) in the Dhanusha District of Nepal. Data about the different farm practices and the factors (bio-physical, socio-economic) influencing adoption were collected during focus group discussion and from the randomly selected households using a household survey questionnaire, respectively. A multivariate regression model was used to determine the factors. The factors (variables) found to significantly affect adoption of AFLMP were: farm size, availability of irrigation water, education of household heads, agricultural labour force, frequency of visits by extension workers, expenditure on farm inputs purchase, household’s experience in agroforestry, and distance from home to government forest. The regression model explained about 75% of variation in adoption decision. The model rejected ‘erosion hazard’, ‘flood hazard’ and ‘gender’ as determinants of adoption, which in case of single agroforestry practice were major variables and played positive role. Out of eight variables, farm size played the most powerful role in explaining the variation in adoption, followed by availability of irrigation water and education of household heads. The results of this study suggest that policies to promote the provision of irrigation water, extension services and motivation to obtaining higher education would probably provide the incentive to adopt agroforestry elsewhere in the terai of Nepal.

Keywords: Agroforestry, Nepal, adoption index, determinants of adoption, step-wise linear regression

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14 Potentiality of Litchi-Fodder Based Agroforestry System in Bangladesh

Authors: M. R. Zaman, M. S. Bari, M. Kajal


A field experiment was conducted at the Agroforestry and Environment Research Field, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur during 2013 to investigate the potentiality of three napier fodder varieties under Litchi orchard. The experiment was consisted of 2 factors RCBD with 3 replications. Among the two factors, factor A was two production systems; S1= Litchi + fodder and S2 = Fodder (sole crop); another factor B was three napier varieties: V1= BARI Napier -1 (Bazra), V2= BARI Napier - 2 (Arusha) and V3= BARI Napier -3 (Hybrid). The experimental results revealed that there were significant variation among the varieties in terms of leaf growth and yield. The maximum number of leaf plant -1 was recorded in variety Bazra (V1) whereas the minimum number was recorded in hybrid variety (V3).Significantly the highest (13.75, 14.53 and14.84 tha-1 at 1st, 2nd and 3rd harvest respectively) yield was also recorded in variety Bazra whereas the lowest (5.89, 6.36 and 9.11 tha-1 at 1st, 2nd v and 3rd harvest respectively) yield was in hybrid variety. Again, in case of production systems, there were also significant differences between the two production systems were founded. The maximum number of leaf plant -1 was recorded under Litchi based AGF system (T1) whereas the minimum was recorded in open condition (T2). Similarly, significantly the highest (12.00, 12.35 and 13.31 tha-1 at 1st, 2nd and 3rd harvest respectively) yield of napier was recorded under Litchi based AGF system where as the lowest (9.73, 10.47 and 11.66 tha-1 at 1st, 2nd and 3rd harvest respectively) yield was recorded in open condition i.e. napier in sole cropping. Furthermore, the interaction effect of napier variety and production systems were also gave significant deviation result in terms of growth and yield. The maximum number of leaf plant -1 was recorded under Litchi based AGF systems with Bazra variety whereas the minimum was recorded in open condition with hybrid variety. The highest yield (14.42, 16.14 and 16.15 tha-1 at 1st, 2nd and 3rd harvest respectively) of napier was found under Litchi based AGF systems with Bazra variety. Significantly the lowest (5.33, 5.79 and 8.48 tha-1 at 1st, 2nd and 3rd harvest respectively) yield was found in open condition i.e. sole cropping with hybrid variety. In case of the quality perspective, the highest nutritive value (DM, ASH, CP, CF, EE, and NFE) was found in Bazra (V1) and the lowest value was found in hybrid variety (V3). Therefore, the suitability of napier production under Litchi based AGF system may be ranked as Bazra > Arusha > Hybrid variety. Finally, the economic analysis showed that maximum BCR (5.20) was found in the Litchi based AGF systems over sole cropping (BCR=4.38). From the findings of the taken investigation, it may be concluded that the cultivation of Bazra napier varieties in the floor of Litchi orchard ensures higher revenue to the farmers compared to its sole cropping.

Keywords: Agroforestry, potentiality, Litchi, fodder

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13 Assessing the Actual Status and Farmer’s Attitude towards Agroforestry in Chiniot, Pakistan

Authors: M. F. Nawaz, S. Gul, T. H. Farooq, M. T. Siddiqui, M. Asif, I. Ahmad, N. K. Niazi


In Pakistan, major demands of fuel wood and timber wood are fulfilled by agroforestry. However, the information regarding economic significance of agroforestry and its productivity in Pakistan is still insufficient and unreliable. Survey of field conditions to examine the agroforestry status at local level helps us to know the future trends and to formulate the policies for sustainable wood supply. The objectives of this research were to examine the actual status and potential of agroforestry and to point out the barriers that are faced by farmers in the adoption of agroforestry. Research was carried out in Chiniot district, Pakistan because it is the famous city for furniture industry that is largely dependent on farm trees. A detailed survey of district Chiniot was carried out from 150 randomly selected farmer respondents using multi-objective oriented and pre-tested questionnaire. It was found that linear tree planting method was more adopted (45%) as compared to linear + interplanting (42%) and/or compact planting (12.6%). Chi-square values at P-value <0.5 showed that age (11.35) and education (17.09) were two more important factors in the quick adoption of agroforestry as compared to land holdings (P-value of 0.7). The major reason of agroforestry adoption was to obtain income, fodder and fuelwood. The most dominant species in farmlands was shisham (Dalbergia sissoo) but since last five years, mostly farmers were growing Sufeida (Eucalyptus camaldulensis), kikar (Acacia nilotica) and popular (Populus deltoides) on their fields due to “Shisham die-back” problem. It was found that agro-forestry can be increased by providing good quality planting material to farmers and improving wood markets.

Keywords: Services, Agriculture, Agroforestry, farmers, trees

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12 Prospects of Agroforestry Products in the Emergency Situation: A Case Study of Earthquake of 2015 in Central Nepal

Authors: Raju Chhetri


Agroforestry is one of the main sources of livelihood among the people of Nepal. In particular, this is the only one mode of livelihood among the Chepangs. The monster earthquake (7.3 MW) that hit the country on the 25th of April in 2015 and many of its aftershocks had devastating effects. As a result, not only the big structures collapsed, it incurred great losses on fabrication, collection centers, schools, markets and other necessary service centers. Although there were a large number of aftershocks after the monster earthquake, the most devastating aftershock took place on 12th May, 2015, which measured 6.3 richter scale. Consequently, it caused more destruction of houses, further calamity to the lives of people, and public life got further perdition. This study was mainly carried out to find out the food security and market situation of Agroforestry product of the Chepang community in Raksirang VDC (one of the severely affected VDCs of Makwanpur district) due to the earthquake. A total of 40 households (12 percent) were randomly selected as a sample in ward number 7 only. Questionnaires and focus groups were used to gather primary data. Additional, two Focus Group Discussions (FGD) were convened in the study area to get some descriptive information on this study. Estimated 370 hectares of land, which was full of Agroforestry plantation, ruptured by the earthquake. It caused severe damages to the households, and a serious loss of food-stock, up to 60-80 percent (maize, millet, and rice). Instead of regular cereal intake, banana (Muas Paradisca) consumption was found ‘high scale’ in the emergency period. The market price of rice (37-44 NRS/Kg) increased by 18.9 percent. Some difference in the income range before and after the earthquake was observed. Before earthquake, sale of Agroforestry, and livestock products were continuing, but after the earthquake, Agroforestry product sale is the only one means of livelihood among Chepangs. Nearly 50-60 percent Agroforestry production of banana (Mass Paradisca), citrus (Citrus Lemon), pineapple (Ananus comosus) and broom grass (Thysanolaena maxima) declined, excepting for cash income from the residual. Heavy demands of Agroforestry product mentioned above lay high farm gate prices (50-100 percent) helps surveyed the community to continue livelihood from its sale. Out of the survey samples, 30 households (75 percent) respondents migrated to safe location due to land rupture, ongoing aftershocks, and landslides. Overall food security situation in this community is acute and challenging for the days to come. Immediate and long term both response from a relief agency concerning food, shelter and safe stocking of Agroforestry product is required to keep secured livelihood in Chepang community.

Keywords: Food Security, Earthquake, Agroforestry, Indigenous, livelihood, rupture

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11 Measuring Impacts of Agroforestry on Soil Erosion with Field Devices: Quantifying Potential for Water Infiltration, Soil Conservation, and Payments for Ecosystems Services Schemes

Authors: Arthur Rouanet, Marina Gavaldao


Throughout the second half of the 20th Century, estimates indicate that soil losses due to erosion have impacted one-third of worldwide arable lands. As such, these losses are amongst the largest threats to agriculture sustainability and production potential. Increasing tree cover is considered one of the most efficient methods to mitigate this phenomenon. The present study describes soil erosion measurements in different land cover situations in Alto Huayabamba, Peru, using the experimental plot methodology. Three parcels were studied during a one-year period (starting September 2015) with 3 different land cover scenarii evaluated: 10-year-old secondary tropical forest (P1), 3-year-old native species reforestation (P2) and bare soil (P3). Information was collected systematically after each rain to assess the average rainfall, water runoff and soil eroded. The results indicate that variance in land cover has a strong impact on the level of soil erosion. In our study, it was found that P1, P2 and P3 had erosion rates of 92 kg/ha/yr, 11 tons/ha/yr and 59,7 tons/ha/year respectively. Using a replacement cost method, the potential of limiting erosion by reforesting bare soil was estimated to be 561 $/ha/yr after three years and 687 $/ha/yr after ten years. Finally, the results of the study allow us to assess the potential soil services provided by vegetation, which could be an important building block for a payment for ecosystems services (PES) scheme. The latter has been increasingly spread all over the world through Public-Private Partnerships (PPP).

Keywords: Water Conservation, Agroforestry, ecosystem services, erosion, Public Private Partnership (PPP), payment for ecosystem services (PES)

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10 Indoor and Outdoor Forest Farming for Year-Round Food and Medicine Production, Carbon Sequestration, Soil-Building, and Climate Change Mitigation

Authors: Jerome Osentowski


The objective at Central Rocky Mountain Permaculture Institute has been to put in practice a sustainable way of life while growing food, medicine, and providing education. This has been done by applying methods of farming such as agroforestry, forest farming, and perennial polycultures. These methods have been found to be regenerative to the environment through carbon sequestration, soil-building, climate change mitigation, and the provision of food security. After 30 years of implementing carbon farming methods, the results are agro-diversity, self-sustaining systems, and a consistent provision of food and medicine. These results are exhibited through polyculture plantings in an outdoor forest garden spanning roughly an acre containing about 200 varieties of fruits, nuts, nitrogen-fixing trees, and medicinal herbs, and two indoor forest garden greenhouses (one Mediterranean and one Tropical) containing about 50 varieties of tropical fruits, beans, herbaceous plants and more. While the climate zone outside the greenhouse is 6, the tropical forest garden greenhouse retains an indoor climate zone of 11 with near-net-zero energy consumption through the use of a climate battery, allowing the greenhouse to serve as a year-round food producer. The effort to source food from the forest gardens is minimal compared to annual crop production. The findings at Central Rocky Mountain Permaculture Institute conclude that agroecological methods are not only beneficial but necessary in order to revive and regenerate the environment and food security.

Keywords: Food Security, Agroforestry, Agroecology, Carbon Sequestration, Greenhouse, Forest Farming, carbon farming, climate battery, forest garden, near-net-zero, perennial polycultures

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9 The Role of Agroforestry Practices in Climate Change Mitigation in Western Kenya

Authors: Humphrey Agevi, Harrison Tsingalia, Richard Onwonga, Shem Kuyah


Most of the world ecosystems have been affected by the effects of climate change. Efforts have been made to mitigate against climate change effects. While most studies have been done in forest ecosystems and pure plant plantations, trees on farms including agroforestry have only received attention recently. Agroforestry systems and tree cover on agricultural lands make an important contribution to climate change mitigation but are not systematically accounted for in the global carbon budgets. This study sought to: (i) determine tree diversity in different agroforestry practices; (ii) determine tree biomass in different agroforestry practices. Study area was determined according to the Land degradation surveillance framework (LSDF). Two study sites were established. At each of the site, a 5km x 10km block was established on a map using Google maps and satellite images. Way points were then uploaded in a GPS helped locate the blocks on the ground. In each of the blocks, Nine (8) sentinel clusters measuring 1km x 1km were randomized. Randomization was done in a common spreadsheet program and later be downloaded to a Global Positioning System (GPS) so that during surveys the researchers were able to navigate to the sampling points. In each of the sentinel cluster, two farm boundaries were randomly identified for convenience and to avoid bias. This led to 16 farms in Kakamega South and 16 farms in Kakamega North totalling to 32 farms in Kakamega Site. Species diversity was determined using Shannon wiener index. Tree biomass was determined using allometric equation. Two agroforestry practices were found; homegarden and hedgerow. Species diversity ranged from 0.25-2.7 with a mean of 1.8 ± 0.10. Species diversity in homegarden ranged from 1-2.7 with a mean of 1.98± 0.14. Hedgerow species diversity ranged from 0.25-2.52 with a mean of 1.74± 0.11. Total Aboveground Biomass (AGB) determined was 13.96±0.37 Mgha-1. Homegarden with the highest abundance of trees had higher above ground biomass (AGB) compared to hedgerow agroforestry. This study is timely as carbon budgets in the agroforestry can be incorporated in the global carbon budgets and improve the accuracy of national reporting of greenhouse gases.

Keywords: Climate Change, biomass, Agroforestry, allometric equations

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8 Lessons from Farmers Performing Agroforestry for Reclamation of Gold Mine Spoils in Colombia

Authors: Bibiana Betancur-Corredor, Juan Carlos Loaiza, Manfred Denich, Christian Borgemeister


Alluvial gold mining generates a vast amount of deposits that cover the natural soil and negatively impacts riverbeds and valleys, causing loss of livelihood opportunities for farmers of these regions. In Colombia, more than 79,000 ha are affected by alluvial gold mining, therefore developing strategies to return this land to productivity is of crucial importance for the country. A novel restoration strategy has been created by a mining company, where the land is restored through the establishment of agroforestry systems, in which agricultural crops and livestock are combined to complement reforestation in the area. The purpose of this study is to capture the knowledge of farmers who perform agroforestry in areas with deposits created by alluvial gold mining activities. Semi structured interviews were conducted with farmers with regard to the following: indicators of soil fertility, management practices, soil heterogeneity, pest outbreaks and weeds. In order to compare the perceptions of soil fertility of farmers with physicochemical properties of soils, the farmers were asked to identify spots within their farms that have exhibited good and poor yields. Soil samples were collected in order to correlate farmer’s perceptions with soil physicochemical properties. The findings suggest that the main challenge that farmers face is the identification of fertile soil for crop establishment. They identify the fertile soil through visually analyzing soil color and compaction as well as the use of spontaneous growth of specific plants as indicator of soil fertility. For less fertile areas, nitrogen fixing plants are used as green manure to restore soil fertility for crop establishment. The findings of this study imply that if gold mining is followed by reclamation practices that involve the successful establishment of productive farmlands, agricultural productivity of these lands might improve, increasing food security of the affected communities.

Keywords: Knowledge, Mining, Agroforestry, Restoration

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7 Socioeconomic Benefits in Agroforestry Practices by Rural Community: Case Study in Paitan District, Sabah, Malaysia

Authors: J. Kodoh, H. L. Dumil, M. Maid


Agroforestry system has been widely documented that provide benefits to rural livelihoods and improved socioeconomic status. This study concerns on agroforestry practices in generating local socioeconomic livelihoods. The general approach is to survey local community involvement in the agroforestry activities at four selected rural villages in Paitan district, using a structured questionnaire through personal interview technique. A total of 200 respondents were interviewed where the largest age group of the respondents was more than 50 years old (31%). Almost all respondents had former education (76%), and majority of them were employed (97%) either in the government and private sectors or self-employed. All respondents (100%) were involved in agroforestry activities where agroforestry products as their source of income (Hevea brasiliensis, Durio zibethinus, Elaeis guinensis) and foods (Manihot esculenta, Mangifera sp., Musa sp.) The mean monthly income from selling agroforestry products contributed 16.6% (USD130.37) of the mean total monthly income of the respondents (r=0.407, r²=0.166, p < 0.01). This study also showed that the main driven factor for the respondents (93%) to adopt and sustain the agroforestry practices is their traditional ways of farming that transferred from generation to generation.

Keywords: Agroforestry, Rural Community, socioeconomic, Paitan district

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6 Investigation and Comprehensive Benefit Analysis of 11 Typical Polar-Based Agroforestry Models Based on Analytic Hierarchy Process in Anhui Province, Eastern China

Authors: Zhihua Cao, Hongfei Zhao, Zhongneng Wu


The development of polar-based agroforestry was necessary due to the influence of the timber market environment in China, which can promote the coordinated development of forestry and agriculture, and gain remarkable ecological, economic and social benefits. The main agroforestry models of the main poplar planting area in Huaibei plain and along the Yangtze River plain were carried out. 11 typical management models of poplar were selected to sum up: pure poplar forest, poplar-rape-soybean, poplar-wheat-soybean, poplar-rape-cotton, poplar-wheat, poplar-chicken, poplar-duck, poplar-sheep, poplar-Agaricus blazei, poplar-oil peony, poplar-fish, represented by M0-M10, respectively. 12 indexes related with economic, ecological and social benefits (annual average cost, net income, ratio of output to investment, payback period of investment, land utilization ratio, utilization ratio of light energy, improvement and system stability of ecological and production environment, product richness, labor capacity, cultural quality of labor force, sustainability) were screened out to carry on the comprehensive evaluation and analysis to 11 kinds of typical agroforestry models based on analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The results showed that the economic benefit of each agroforestry model was in the order of: M8 > M6 > M9 > M7 > M5 > M10 > M4 > M1 > M2 > M3 > M0. The economic benefit of poplar-A. blazei model was the highest (332, 800 RMB / hm²), followed by poplar-duck and poplar-oil peony model (109, 820RMB /hm², 5, 7226 RMB /hm²). The order of comprehensive benefit was: M8 > M4 > M9 > M6 > M1 > M2 > M3 > M7 > M5 > M10 > M0. The economic benefit and comprehensive benefit of each agroforestry model were higher than that of pure poplar forest. The comprehensive benefit of poplar-A. blazei model was the highest, and that of poplar-wheat model ranked second, while its economic benefit was not high. Next were poplar-oil peony and poplar-duck models. It was suggested that the model of poplar-wheat should be adopted in the plain along the Yangtze River, and the whole cycle mode of poplar-grain, popalr-A. blazei, or poplar-oil peony should be adopted in Huaibei plain, northern Anhui. Furthermore, wheat, rape, and soybean are the main crops before the stand was closed; the agroforestry model of edible fungus or Chinese herbal medicine can be carried out when the stand was closed in order to maximize the comprehensive benefit. The purpose of this paper is to provide a reference for forest farmers in the selection of poplar agroforestry model in the future and to provide the basic data for the sustainable and efficient study of poplar agroforestry in Anhui province, eastern China.

Keywords: Agroforestry, model, poplar, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), comprehensive benefit

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5 Assessing the Financial Potential of an Agroforestry-Based Farming Practice in a Labor Scarce Subsistence Economy

Authors: Arun Dhakal, Rajesh Kumar Rai


Agroforestry is long practiced in Nepal as a means of subsistence livelihoods. Given its potential to climate change mitigation, this practice is being recommended as a climate-smart farming practice in the recent years. However, the financial attractiveness of this practice is not well-documented in a labor scarce economy such as Nepal. This study attempts to examine the financial suitability of an agroforestry-based farming practice in the present socio-economic context of Nepal where labor is in short supply. A total of 200 households were randomly selected for household surveys in Dhanusha district during April to July 2015. Two farming practices were found to be dominant in the study area: 1) conventional farming (field crops only) in which at least two field crops are annually grown, and 2) agroforestry-based farming (agroforest, home garden and field crops combined) practice (ABFP). The ABFP was found to be less labor intensive than the conventional farming (137 Man days/yr/ha vs 218 Man days/yr/ha). The ex-ante financial analysis indicated that both the farming practices generated positive NPVs (Net Present Values) and B/C (Benefit-Cost) ratios greater than one, indicating both are financially attractive farming enterprises under the base discount rate of 12%. However, the ABFP generated higher NPV and greater B/C ratio than the conventional farming, indicating the former was financially more attractive than the later. The sensitivity analysis showed that the conventional farming was more sensitive to change in labor wage rate than that of the ABFP. Up to the 24% discount rate, the ABFP generated higher NPV and in case of B/C ratio, the ratio was found greater for ABFP even in 50% discount rate.

Keywords: Agroforestry, Conventional Farming, net present value, benefit-cost analysis

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4 The Use of Drones in Measuring Environmental Impacts of the Forest Garden Approach

Authors: Andrew J. Zacharias


The forest garden approach (FGA) was established by Trees for the Future (TREES) over the organization’s 30 years of agroforestry projects in Sub-Saharan Africa. This method transforms traditional agricultural systems into highly managed gardens that produce food and marketable products year-round. The effects of the FGA on food security, dietary diversity, and economic resilience have been measured closely, and TREES has begun to closely monitor the environmental impacts through the use of sensors mounted on unmanned aerial vehicles, commonly known as 'drones'. These drones collect thousands of pictures to create 3-D models in both the visible and the near-infrared wavelengths. Analysis of these models provides TREES with quantitative and qualitative evidence of improvements to the annual above-ground biomass and leaf area indices, as measured in-situ using NDVI calculations.

Keywords: biomass, Agroforestry, Drones, NDVI

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3 Temporal Changes Analysis (1960-2019) of a Greek Rural Landscape

Authors: Stamatia Nasiakou, Dimitrios Chouvardas, Michael Vrahnakis, Vassiliki Kleftoyanni


Recent research in the mountainous and semi-mountainous rural landscapes of Greece shows that they have been significantly changed over the last 80 years. These changes have the form of structural modification of land cover/use patterns, with the main characteristic being the extensive expansion of dense forests and shrubs at the expense of grasslands and extensive agricultural areas. The aim of this research was to study the 60-year changes (1960-2019) of land cover/ use units in the rural landscape of Mouzaki (Karditsa Prefecture, central Greece). Relevant cartographic material such as forest land use maps, digital maps (Corine Land Cover -2018), 1960 aerial photos from Hellenic Military Geographical Service, and satellite imagery (Google Earth Pro 2014, 2016, 2017 and 2019) was collected and processed in order to study landscape evolution. ArcGIS v 10.2.2 software was used to process the cartographic material and to produce several sets of data. Main product of the analysis was a digitized photo-mosaic of the 1960 aerial photographs, a digitized photo-mosaic of recent satellite images (2014, 2016, 2017 and 2019), and diagrams and maps of temporal transformation of the rural landscape (1960 – 2019). Maps and diagrams were produced by applying photointerpretation techniques and a suitable land cover/ use classification system on the two photo-mosaics. Demographic and socioeconomic inventory data was also collected mainly from diachronic census reports of the Hellenic Statistical Authority and local sources. Data analysis of the temporal transformation of land cover/ use units showed that they are mainly located in the central and south-eastern part of the study area, which mainly includes the mountainous part of the landscape. The most significant change is the expansion of the dense forests that currently dominate the southern and eastern part of the landscape. In conclusion, the produced diagrams and maps of the land cover/ use evolution suggest that woody vegetation in the rural landscape of Mouzaki has significantly increased over the past 60 years at the expense of the open areas, especially grasslands and agricultural areas. Demographic changes, land abandonment and the transformation of traditional farming practices (e.g. agroforestry) were recognized as the main cause of the landscape change. This study is part of a broader research project entitled “Perspective of Agroforestry in Thessaly region: A research on social, environmental and economic aspects to enhance farmer participation”. The project is funded by the General Secretariat for Research and Technology (GSRT) and the Hellenic Foundation for Research and Innovation (HFRI).

Keywords: Agroforestry, Forest expansion, Land cover/ use changes, Mountainous and semi-mountainous areas

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2 Scaling out Sustainable Land Use Systems in Colombia: Some Insights and Implications from Two Regional Case Studies

Authors: Martha Lilia Del Rio Duque, Michelle Bonatti, Katharina Loehr, Marcos Lana, Tatiana Rodriguez, Stefan Sieber


Nowadays, most agricultural practices can reduce the ability of ecosystems to provide goods and services. To enhance environmentally friendly food production and to maximize social and economic benefits, sustainable land use systems (SLUS) are one of the most critical strategies increasingly/strongly promoted by donors organizations, international agencies, and policymakers. This process involves the question of how SLUS can be scaled out also large-scale landscapes and not merely isolated experiments. As SLUS are context-specific strategies, diffusion and replication of successful SLUS in Colombia required the identification of main factors that facilitate this scaling out process. We applied a case study approach to investigate the scaling out process of SLUS in cocoa and livestock sector within peacebuilding territories in Colombia, specifically, in Cesar and Caqueta region. These two regions are contrasting, but both have a current trend of increasing land degradation. Presently in Colombia, Caqueta is one of the most deforested departments, and Cesar has some most degraded soils. Following a qualitative research approach, 19 semi-structured interviews and 2 focus groups were conducted with agroforestry experts in both regions to analyze (1) what does it mean a sustainable land use system in Cocoa/Livestock, specifically in Caqueta or Cesar and (2) to identify the key elements at the level of the following dimensions: biophysical, economic and profitability, market, social, policy and institutions that can explain how and why SLUS are replicated and spread among more producers. The Interviews were coded and analyzed using MAXQDA to identify, analyze and report patterns (themes) within data. As the results show, key themes, among which: premium market, solid regional markets and price stability, water availability and management, generational renewal, land use knowledge and diversification, producer organization and certifications are crucial to understand how the SLUS can have an impact across large-scale landscapes and how the scaling out process can be set up best in order to be successful across different contexts. The analysis further reveals which key factors might affect SLUS efficiency.

Keywords: Agroforestry, Colombia, cocoa sector, livestock sector, sustainable land use system

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1 Operation '1 Household Dry Toilet for Planting 20 Fruit Trees and/or Acacias on Cropland': Strategy for Promoting Adoption of Well-Managed Agroforestry Systems and Prevent Streaming and Soil Erosion

Authors: Stanis Koko Nyalongomo, Benjamin Mputela Bankanza, Moise Kisempa Mahungudi


Several areas in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) experience serious problems of streaming and soil erosion. Erosion leads to degradation of soil health, and the three main causative factors of similar importance are deforestation, overgrazing, and land agricultural mismanagement. Degradation of soil health leads to a decrease in agricultural productivity and carbon dioxide (CO₂), and other greenhouse gas emissions. Agricultural productivity low, and sanitation-related diseases are a concern of a majority of DRC rural people -whose main livelihoods are conventional smallholder agriculture- due to degradation of agricultural soil health and prevalence of inappropriate sanitation in rural areas. Land management practices that increase soil carbon stocks on agricultural lands with practices including conservation agriculture and agroforestry do not only limit CO₂ emissions but also help prevent erosion while enhancing soil health and productivity. Promotion to adopt sustainable land management practices, especially conversion to well-managed agroforestry practices, is a necessity. This needs to be accompanied by incentives. Methods that incite smallholders to adopt practices that increase carbon stocks in agricultural lands and enhance soil health and productivity for social, economic, and environmental benefits, and give them the ability to get and use household dry toilets -included activities to inform and raise smallholder households awareness on the conversion of croplands to well-managed agroforestry systems through planting at least 20 fruit trees and/or acacias, soil carbon and practices that sequester it in soil and ecological sanitation; and offer smallholders technique and material supports and incentives under the form of dry toilets constructed for free for well-managed agroforestry implementation- were carried out to address problems of soil erosion as well as agricultural productivity and sanitation-related diseases. In 2018 and 2019, 19 of 23 targeted smallholder households expressed their satisfaction and converted their croplands to agroforestry through planting 374 trees, and each gotten 1 dry toilet constructed for free. Their neighbors expressed a willingness to participate in the project. Conversion to well-managed agroforestry practices offers many advantages to both farmers and the environment. The strategy of offering smallholders incentives for soil-friendly agricultural practices, especially well-managed agroforestry, is one of the solutions to prevent soil erosion. DRC rural people whose majority are smallholder households, need to be able to get and use dry toilets. So, dry toilets could be offered like incentives for well-managed agroforestry practices. Given the many advantages agroforestry and dry toilet can offer, recommendations are made for funding organizations to support such projects that promote the adoption of soil health practices.

Keywords: Agroforestry, Soil Carbon, Soil health, croplands

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