Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

agro-industrial waste Related Abstracts

3 Alternative Energy and Carbon Source for Biosurfactant Production

Authors: Akram Abi, Mohammad Hossein Sarrafzadeh

Abstract:

Because of their several advantages over chemical surfactants, biosurfactants have given rise to a growing interest in the past decades. Advantages such as lower toxicity, higher biodegradability, higher selectivity and applicable at extreme temperature and pH which enables them to be used in a variety of applications such as: enhanced oil recovery, environmental and pharmaceutical applications, etc. Bacillus subtilis produces a cyclic lipopeptide, called surfactin, which is one of the most powerful biosurfactants with ability to decrease surface tension of water from 72 mN/m to 27 mN/m. In addition to its biosurfactant character, surfactin exhibits interesting biological activities such as: inhibition of fibrin clot formation, lyses of erythrocytes and several bacterial spheroplasts, antiviral, anti-tumoral and antibacterial properties. Surfactin is an antibiotic substance and has been shown recently to possess anti-HIV activity. However, application of biosurfactants is limited by their high production cost. The cost can be reduced by optimizing biosurfactant production using cheap feed stock. Utilization of inexpensive substrates and unconventional carbon sources like urban or agro-industrial wastes is a promising strategy to decrease the production cost of biosurfactants. With suitable engineering optimization and microbiological modifications, these wastes can be used as substrates for large-scale production of biosurfactants. As an effort to fulfill this purpose, in this work we have tried to utilize olive oil as second carbon source and also yeast extract as second nitrogen source to investigate the effect on both biomass and biosurfactant production improvement in Bacillus subtilis cultures. Since the turbidity of the culture was affected by presence of the oil, optical density was compromised and no longer could be used as an index of growth and biomass concentration. Therefore, cell Dry Weight measurements with applying necessary tactics for removing oil drops to prevent interference with biomass weight were carried out to monitor biomass concentration during the growth of the bacterium. The surface tension and critical micelle dilutions (CMD-1, CMD-2) were considered as an indirect measurement of biosurfactant production. Distinctive and promising results were obtained in the cultures containing olive oil compared to cultures without it: more than two fold increase in biomass production (from 2 g/l to 5 g/l) and considerable reduction in surface tension, down to 40 mN/m at surprisingly early hours of culture time (only 5hr after inoculation). This early onset of biosurfactant production in this culture is specially interesting when compared to the conventional cultures at which this reduction in surface tension is not obtained until 30 hour of culture time. Reducing the production time is a very prominent result to be considered for large scale process development. Furthermore, these results can be used to develop strategies for utilization of agro-industrial wastes (such as olive oil mill residue, molasses, etc.) as cheap and easily accessible feed stocks to decrease the high costs of biosurfactant production.

Keywords: Fermentation, biosurfactant, Bacillus subtilis, surfactin, agro-industrial waste, second carbon and nitrogen source

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2 Physicochemical Characterization of Waste from Vegetal Extracts Industry for Use as Briquettes

Authors: Noeli Sellin, Maíra O. Palm, Cintia Marangoni, Ozair Souza

Abstract:

Wastes from a vegetal extracts industry (cocoa, oak, Guarana and mate) were characterized by particle size, proximate and ultimate analysis, lignocellulosic fractions, high heating value, thermal analysis (Thermogravimetric analysis – TGA, and Differential thermal analysis - DTA) and energy density to evaluate their potential as biomass in the form of briquettes for power generation. All wastes presented adequate particle sizes to briquettes production. The wastes showed high moisture content, requiring previous drying for use as briquettes. Cocoa and oak wastes had the highest volatile matter contents with maximum mass loss at 310 ºC and 450 ºC, respectively. The solvents used in the aroma extraction process influenced in the moisture content of the wastes, which was higher for mate due to water has been used as solvent. All wastes showed an insignificant loss mass after 565 °C, hence resulting in low ash content. High carbon and hydrogen contents and low sulfur and nitrogen contents were observed ensuring a low generation of sulfur and nitrous oxides. Mate and cocoa exhibited the highest carbon and lignin content, and high heating value. The dried wastes had high heating value, from 17.1 MJ/kg to 20.8 MJ/kg. The results indicate the energy potential of wastes for use as fuel in power generation.

Keywords: Combustion, biomass, briquettes, agro-industrial waste

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1 Carbohydrates Quantification from Agro-Industrial Waste and Fermentation with Lactic Acid Bacteria

Authors: Prittesh Patel, Bhavika Patel, Ramar Krishnamurthy

Abstract:

Present study was conducted to isolate lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from Oreochromis niloticus and Nemipterus japonicus fish gut. The LAB isolated were confirmed through 16s rRNA sequencing. It was observed that isolated Lactococcus spp. were able to tolerate NaCl and bile acid up to certain range. The isolated Lactococcus spp. were also able to survive in acidic and alkaline conditions. Further agro-industrial waste like peels of pineapple, orange, lemon, sugarcane, pomegranate; sweet lemon was analyzed for their polysaccharide contents and prebiotic properties. In the present study, orange peels, sweet lemon peels, and pineapple peels give maximum indigestible polysaccharide. To evaluate synbiotic effect combination of probiotic and prebiotic were analyzed under in vitro conditions. Isolates Lactococcus garvieae R3 and Lactococcus sp. R4 reported to have better fermentation efficiency with orange, sweet lemon and pineapple compare to lemon, sugarcane and pomegranate. The different agro-industrial waste evaluated in this research resulted in being a cheap and fermentable carbon source by LAB.

Keywords: Lactic Acid Bacteria, probiotic, prebiotic, synbiotic, agro-industrial waste

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