Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 115

Agriculture Related Abstracts

115 Measurement of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Sugarcane Plantation Soil in Thailand

Authors: Wilaiwan Sornpoon, Sébastien Bonnet, Savitri Garivait

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Continuous measurements of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emitted from soils are required to understand diurnal and seasonal variations in soil emissions and related mechanism. This understanding plays an important role in appropriate quantification and assessment of the overall change in soil carbon flow and budget. This study proposes to monitor GHGs emissions from soil under sugarcane cultivation in Thailand. The measurements were conducted over 379 days. The results showed that the total net amount of GHGs emitted from sugarcane plantation soil amounts to 36 Mg CO2eq ha-1. Carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) were found to be the main contributors to the emissions. For methane (CH4), the net emission was found to be almost zero. The measurement results also confirmed that soil moisture content and GHGs emissions are positively correlated.

Keywords: Agriculture, Soil, Thailand, GHG emission, sugarcane

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114 A Framework for Vacant City-Owned Land to Be Utilised for Urban Agriculture: The Case of Cape Town, South Africa

Authors: P. S. Van Staden, M. M. Campbell

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Vacant City of Cape Town-owned land lying un-utilized and -productive could be developed for land uses such as urban agriculture that may improve the livelihoods of low income families. The new City of Cape Town zoning scheme includes an Urban Agriculture zoning for the first time. Unstructured qualitative interviews among town planners revealed their optimism about this inclusion as it will provide low-income residents with opportunities to generate an income. An existing farming community at Philippi, located within the municipal boundary of the city, was approached and empirical data obtained through questionnaires provided proof that urban agriculture could be viable in a coastal metropolitan city such as Cape Town even if farmers only produce for their own households. The lease method proposed for urban agriculture is a usufruct agreement conferring the right to another party, other than the legal owner, to enjoy the use and advantages of the property.

Keywords: Food Engineering, Agriculture, Urban Agriculture, land uses

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113 Cesium 137 Leaching from Soils of Territories, Polluted by Radionuclides

Authors: S. V. Vasilenkov, O. N. Demina

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Chernobyl NPP accident is the biggest in history of nuclear energetic. Bryansk region of Russia was exposed by the most intensive radiation pollution. For that, we made some researches in order to find the methods of soil rehabilitation on territories, polluted by radionuclides with the means of Cesium 137 leaching by watering. For experiments we took the soil from the upper more polluted 10 cm layer of different species. Cesium 137 leaching was made by different methods in washing columns. Washout of Cesium was made by periodical cycles in terms of 4-6 days. In experiments with easy argillaceous soil with start specific radioactivity 4158 bk/kg through 17 cycles the effective reducing was achieved and contained 1512 bk/kg. Besides, results of researches showed, that in the first 6-10 cycles we can see reducing of washing rate but after application of intensificators: ultrasound water processing, aerification, application of fertilizers (KCl), lime, freezing, we can see increasing of Cesium 137 leaching. The experimental investigations in washout of Cesium (Cs) – 137 from the soil were carried out in the field and laboratorial conditions during its freezing and melting. The experiments showed, that washout of Cesium (Cs) – 137 from the soil is rather high after freezing, than non-frozen soil is. And it conforms to washout of Cesium, made under the influence of the intensificaters. This fact allows to recommend chip and easy to construct technically arrangement for regulation of the snow-melt runoff for rehabilitation of the radioactive impoundment.

Keywords: Agriculture, Radiation, Pollution, Cesium 137 leaching

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112 Determination of Yield and Yield Components of Fodder Beet (Beta vulgaris L. var. rapacea Koch.) Cultivars under the Konya Region Conditions

Authors: A. Ozkose

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This study was conducted to determination of yield and yield components of some fodder beet types (Amarilla Barres, Feldherr, Kyros, Magnum, and Rota) under the Konya region conditions. Fodder beet was obtained from the Selcuk University, Faculty of Agriculture, at 2006-2007 season and the experiment was established in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. Differences among the averages of the fodder beet cultivars are statistically important in terms of all the characteristics investigated. Leaf attitude value was 1.2–2.2 (1=erect; 5= prostrate), root shape scale value was (1=spheroidal – 9=cylindrical), root diameter 11.0–12.2 cm, remaining part of root on the ground was 6.3–13.7 cm, root length was 21.4 – 29.6 cm, leaf yield 1592 – 1917 kg/da, root yield was 10083–12258 kg/da, root dry matter content was %8.2– 18.6 and root dry matter yield was 889–1887 kg/da. As a result of the study, it was determined that fodder beet cultivars are different conditions in terms of yield and yield components. Therefore, determination of appropriate cultivars for each region affect crop yield importantly.

Keywords: Agriculture, Konya, fedder beet, root yield, yield components

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111 Legal Issues of Food Security in Republic of Kazakhstan

Authors: G. T. Aigarinova

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This article considers the legal issues of food security as a major component of national security of the republic. The problem of food security is the top priority of the economic policy strategy of any state, the effectiveness of this solution influences social, political, and ethnic stability in society. Food security and nutrition is everyone’s business. Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. By analyzing the existing legislation in the area of food security, the author identifies weaknesses and gaps, suggesting ways to improve it.

Keywords: Food Security, Agriculture, National Security, Economic Security, public resources

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110 The Composting Process from a Waste Management Method to a Remediation Procedure

Authors: G. Petruzzelli, F. Pedron, M. Grifoni, F. Gorini, I. Rosellini, B. Pezzarossa

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Composting is a controlled technology to enhance the natural aerobic process of organic wastes degradation. The resulting product is a humified material that is principally recyclable for agricultural purpose. The composting process is one of the most important tools for waste management, by the European Community legislation. In recent years composting has been increasingly used as a remediation technology to remove biodegradable contaminants from soil, and to modulate heavy metals bioavailability in phytoremediation strategies. An optimization in the recovery of resources from wastes through composting could enhance soil fertility and promote its use in the remediation biotechnologies of contaminated soils.

Keywords: Agriculture, Waste Recycling, compost, biopile, soil clean-up

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
109 Insurance of Agricultural Activities as the Basis for Food Security

Authors: J. B. Akshataeva, G. T. Aigarinova, A. Amankulova, D. S. Kalkanova

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This article examines some aspects of the insurance of agricultural activities, strategic documents on deepening investment opportunities. Insurance market development is before the society and the state. It also examines problems of agricultural insurance development in the market economy of Kazakhstan as the basis for food security.

Keywords: Food Safety, Agriculture, Insurance, Privacy issues

Procedia PDF Downloads 368
108 Evaluation of Weather Risk Insurance for Agricultural Products Using a 3-Factor Pricing Model

Authors: O. Benabdeljelil, A. Karioun, S. Amami, R. Rouger, M. Hamidine

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A model for preventing the risks related to climate conditions in the agricultural sector is presented. It will determine the yearly optimum premium to be paid by a producer in order to reach his required turnover. The model is based on both climatic stability and 'soft' responses of usually grown species to average climate variations at the same place and inside a safety ball which can be determined from past meteorological data. This allows the use of linear regression expression for dependence of production result in terms of driving meteorological parameters, the main ones of which are daily average sunlight, rainfall and temperature. By simple best parameter fit from the expert table drawn with professionals, optimal representation of yearly production is determined from records of previous years, and yearly payback is evaluated from minimum yearly produced turnover. The model also requires accurate pricing of commodity at N+1. Therefore, a pricing model is developed using 3 state variables, namely the spot price, the difference between the mean-term and the long-term forward price, and the long-term structure of the model. The use of historical data enables to calibrate the parameters of state variables, and allows the pricing of commodity. Application to beet sugar underlines pricer precision. Indeed, the percentage of accuracy between computed result and real world is 99,5%. Optimal premium is then deduced and gives the producer a useful bound for negotiating an offer by insurance companies to effectively protect its harvest. The application to beet production in French Oise department illustrates the reliability of present model with as low as 6% difference between predicted and real data. The model can be adapted to almost any agricultural field by changing state parameters and calibrating their associated coefficients.

Keywords: Agriculture, production model, optimal price, meteorological factors, parameter calibration, forward price

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107 Optimal Evaluation of Weather Risk Insurance for Wheat

Authors: Slim Amami

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A model is developed to prevent the risks related to climate conditions in the agricultural sector. It will determine the yearly optimum premium to be paid by a farmer in order to reach his required turnover. The model is mainly based on both climatic stability and 'soft' responses of usually grown species to average climate variations at the same place and inside a safety ball which can be determined from past meteorological data. This allows the use of linear regression expression for dependence of production result in terms of driving meteorological parameters, main ones of which are daily average sunlight, rainfall and temperature. By a simple best parameter fit from the expert table drawn with professionals, optimal representation of yearly production is deduced from records of previous years, and yearly payback is evaluated from minimum yearly produced turnover. Optimal premium is then deduced, and gives the producer a useful bound for negotiating an offer by insurance companies to effectively protect their harvest. The application to wheat production in the French Oise department illustrates the reliability of the present model with as low as 6% difference between predicted and real data. The model can be adapted to almost every agricultural field by changing state parameters and calibrating their associated coefficients.

Keywords: Agriculture, Database, production model, optimal price, meteorological factors

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
106 Poverty Alleviation and Agricultural Management Policies in Nasarawa State of Nigeria: Lessons from the Roots and Tuber Crops Expansion for Increased Food Production (1996-2011)

Authors: Yahaya Abdullahi Adadu, Canice Erunke Esidene

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The problems of socio-economic development have been a major challenge bedeviling the Nigerian post-colonial state since her political independence from Britain in October I,1960. Critics have argued that the dilemma of Nigeria’s economic survival started since the early 1970s when the agricultural sector which supposedly was the economic mainstay has been literally substituted with the gains of the oil petro-dollars coming from the foreign exchange earnings. Agriculture therefore, which used to be a major player in terms of human and national upliftment in Nigeria have been given a back seat while oil and gas has taken over the front burner in virtually every aspect of Nigeria’s national life. This study is therefore an exposition of the efforts of the Nasarawa state government in reversing the dangerous trend in which the over reliance on oil wealth has caused to persons, individuals and groups in terms of the prevailing levels of poverty and other attendant vices therein. The study focuses on the management policies of the various regimes in the state since its inception in 1996, with particular reference to the regime types-military and civilian alike in propelling the needed policy change, which could transform the economy in line with international best practices. Particular emphasis will be paid to the BADA-KOSHI agricultural scheme whose interest was to recover the lost glory of rural agriculture through series of roots and tuber expansion, and particularly such crops as yam minissetts, cassava, sweet potatoes and coco-yam, respectively. The paper covers the period between 1996 -2011, a period considered to be critical in the agricultural revolution of the state. The study adopts a theoretical approach via secondary methods of analysis for the efficient explanations of the burning issues under consideration. The paper sums up with policy recommendations and conclusion.

Keywords: Agriculture, Poverty, Badakoshi, rural policy management

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105 Rapid Proliferation of Tissue Culture Using of Olive (Olea Europea L.) cv.Zard

Authors: Majid Gharaipour Abbasabad

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This research is studying the effects that various densities of Zeatin, and BA hormones may have on the scale of transformation of plant nodes to new shoots, among seedlings produced by seed germination, and also surveys the amount of produced shoots and their lengths, inside the specific Olive seed lab medium (OM). It is also concerned with the effects that various densities of IBA hormone, and inoculating the shoots with Agrobacterium Rhizogenez A4 can have on shoots' root production. This is a totally random research, and each attendance group has had three occurrences, and ten samples per a hectare. The average amounts have been compared using Duncan's test method, which was done in 5% level. The results indicated that the highest rate of transformation of micro samples to shoots happened in the seed germination environments, containing Zetain with 5 mg, and also 15 mg per a liter densities. (respectively, 95% and 94%), while the highest rate of plants' stem production ,in micro samples, happened in the lab medium environments with 5mg per a liter Zetain density (4.5). In lab medium environments with 15 mg Zetain per liter, a decrease was observed in the number of produced stems (3.88). According to the produced stems' lenght, the longest stem length was observed in environments with 5 mg and also 15 mg per a liter Zetain, and 25 mg per a liter BA densities (respectively, 8.45 cm, 45.66 cm, 8.53 cm). Meanwhile, the lowest amount of transformation of micro samples to shoots, the lowest number of produced shoots, and the shortest shoots were observed in the environments without any hormones (respectively, 3.32 cm, 1.13, 19.66%). The results of root production in Olive indicated that attendance groups which were exposed to different hormones did not vary, and Agrobacterium Rhizogenez A4 had no effect on them, as well. The lowest root's growth rate (22%) happened in environments without any hormones and also, in environment with Agrobacterium Rhizogenez A4 (19.66%). The largest number of roots was observed in the environments, containing Agrobacterium Rhizogenez A4 plus IBA (10 mg/l) and Agrobacterium Rhizogenez A4 plus IBA (10 mg/l), (respectively, 8.46 and 8.70), which had a significant difference with environments merely containing 10 mg and 20 mg of IBA per a litre (respectively, 3.06 and 3.2). So it can be concluded that even though Agrobacterium Rhizogenez A4 had no impact on root's growth among shoots, it had an impact on the number of produced roots. It should be noted that even when the environment contained merely Agrobacterium Rhizogenez A4 without any hormones, only (1.16) roots were produced, which is significantly different from the attendance group with hormones (1.06).

Keywords: Agriculture, olive-effect of hormones-germination of seed, densities of zeatin, BA hormones

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104 Spatial Pattern of Farm Mechanization: A Micro Level Study of Western Trans-Ghaghara Plain, India

Authors: Zafar Tabrez, Nizamuddin Khan

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Agriculture in India in the pre-green revolution period was mostly controlled by terrain, climate and edaphic factors. But after the introduction of innovative factors and technological inputs, green revolution occurred and agricultural scene witnessed great change. In the development of India’s agriculture, speedy, and extensive introduction of technological change is one of the crucial factors. The technological change consists of adoption of farming techniques such as use of fertilisers, pesticides and fungicides, improved variety of seeds, modern agricultural implements, improved irrigation facilities, contour bunding for the conservation of moisture and soil, which are developed through research and calculated to bring about diversification and increase of production and greater economic return to the farmers. The green revolution in India took place during late 60s, equipped with technological inputs like high yielding varieties seeds, assured irrigation as well as modern machines and implements. Initially the revolution started in Punjab, Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh. With the efforts of government, agricultural planners, as well as policy makers, the modern technocratic agricultural development scheme was also implemented and introduced in backward and marginal regions of the country later on. Agriculture sector occupies the centre stage of India’s social security and overall economic welfare. The country has attained self-sufficiency in food grain production and also has sufficient buffer stock. Our first Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru said ‘everything else can wait but not agriculture’. There is still a continuous change in the technological inputs and cropping patterns. Keeping these points in view, author attempts to investigate extensively the mechanization of agriculture and the change by selecting western Trans-Ghaghara plain as a case study and block a unit of the study. It includes the districts of Gonda, Balrampur, Bahraich and Shravasti which incorporate 44 blocks. It is based on secondary sources of data by blocks for the year 1997 and 2007. It may be observed that there is a wide range of variations and the change in farm mechanization, i.e., agricultural machineries such as ploughs, wooden and iron, advanced harrow and cultivator, advanced thrasher machine, sprayers, advanced sowing instrument, and tractors etc. It may be further noted that due to continuous decline in size of land holdings and outflux of people for the same nature of works or to be employed in non-agricultural sectors, the magnitude and direction of agricultural systems are affected in the study area which is one of the marginalized regions of Uttar Pradesh, India.

Keywords: Agriculture, food production, technological inputs, farm mechanization, cropping pattern

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103 The Role of ICT in Engaging Youth in Agricultural Transformation of Africa

Authors: Adebola Adedugbe

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Agriculture is the mainstay of most countries in Africa. It employs up to 90 percent of the rural workforce, who are mostly youth and women. Engaging youths in Information and Communications Technology (ICT) in agriculture is critical to economic and agricultural development of the African continent. The objective of this paper is to identify and mobilize the potentials of young Africans in agriculture through ICT and recognize their role as the dominant driver for sustainable agricultural development in Africa. This paper identifies the role of ICT as a tool for attracting youths to agriculture. The development of ICT is important in stimulating youths in SME’s to compete favorably and effectively as a way to fight poverty through job and wealth creation. It is one of the strategies for promoting entrepreneurship by increasing the availability and diversity of online information.

Keywords: Agriculture, ICT, Youth, Africa, tool

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102 Engaging African Youth in Agribusiness through ICT

Authors: Adebola Adedugbe

Abstract:

Agriculture is the mainstay of most countries in Africa. It employs up to 90 per cent of the rural workforce, who are mostly youths and women. Engaging youths in Information and Communications Technology (ICT) in agriculture is critical to economic and agricultural development of the African continent. The objective of this paper is to identify and mobilize the potentials of young Africans in agriculture through ICT and recognize their role as the dominant driver for sustainable agricultural development in Africa. The youth is vibrant, energetic, creative, and innovative and has the potential to play a significant role sustainable agriculture. This paper identifies the role of ICT as a tool for attracting youths in agriculture. The development of ICT is important in stimulating youths in SME’s to compete favorably and effectively as a way to fight poverty through job and wealth creation. It is one of the strategies for promoting entrepreneurship by increasing the availability and diversity of online information. ICT has become a key factor in economic development in most developing countries. The exchange of information is essential for stakeholders in the agricultural sector, as it is the tool to establish, develop and manage efforts to improve performance, productivity and economic competitiveness in local and international markets. In this regard, Information and Communications Technology (ICT) is a powerful tool, fast and innovative to facilitate the exchange of information among all stakeholders in the agricultural sector.

Keywords: Agriculture, ICT, Youth, Africa, tool

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101 Detection of Transgenes in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) by using Biotechnology/Molecular Biological Techniques

Authors: Ahmad Ali Shahid, M Shakil Shaukat

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Agriculture is the backbone of economy of Pakistan and Cotton is the major agricultural export and supreme source of raw fiber for our textile industry. To combat against the developing resistance in the target insects and combating these challenges wholesomely, a novel combination of pyramided/stacked genes was conceptualized and later realized, through the means of biotechnology i.e., transformation of three genes namely, Cry1Ac, Cry2A, and EPSP synthase (glyphosate tolerant) genes in the locally cultivated cotton variety. The progenies of the transformed plants were successfully raised and screened under the tunnel conditions for two generations and the present study focused on the screening of plants which were confirmed for containing all of these three genes and their expressions. Initially, the screening was done through glyphosate spray assay and the plants which were healthy and showed no damage on leaves were selected after 07 days of spray. In the laboratory, the DNA of these plants were isolated and subjected to amplification of the three genes. Thus, seventeen out of twenty were confirmed positive for Cry1Ac gene and ten out of twenty were positive for Cry2A gene and all twenty were positive for presence of EPSP synthase gene. Then, the ten plant samples which were confirmed with presence of all three genes were subjected to expression analysis of these proteins through ELISA. The results showed that eight out of ten plants were actively expressing the three transgenes. Real-time PCR was also done to quantify the expression levels of the EPSP synthase gene. Finally, eight plants were confirmed for the presence and active expression of all three genes in T3 generation of the triple gene transformed cotton. These plants may be subjected to T4 generation to develop a new stable variety in due course of time.

Keywords: Agriculture, Transformation, Cotton, ELISA, PCR, cry genes

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100 Data Integration in a GIS Geographic Information System Mapping of Agriculture in Semi-Arid Region of Setif, Algeria

Authors: W. Riahi, M. L. Mansour

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Using tools of data processing such as geographic information system (GIS) for the contribution of the space management becomes more and more frequent. It allows collecting and analyzing diverse natural information relative to the same territory. Space technologies play crucial role in agricultural phenomenon analysis. For this, satellite images treatment were used to classify vegetation density and particularly agricultural areas in Setif province by making recourse to the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). This step was completed by mapping agricultural activities of the province by using ArcGIS.10 software in order to display an overall view and to realize spatial analysis of various themes combined between them which are chosen according to their strategic importance in different thematic maps. The synthesis map elaborately showed that geographic information system can contribute significantly to agricultural management by describing potentialities and development opportunities of production systems and agricultural sectors.

Keywords: Agriculture, GIS, satellite image, NDVI, thematic map

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99 Agriculture and Global Economy vis-à-vis the Climate Change

Authors: Assaad Ghazouani, Ati Abdessatar

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In the world, agriculture maintains a social and economic importance in the national economy. Its importance is distinguished by its ripple effects not only downstream but also upstream vis-à-vis the non-agricultural sector. However, the situation is relatively fragile because of weather conditions. In this work, we propose a model to highlight the impacts of climate change (CC) on economic growth in the world where agriculture is considered as a strategic sector. The CC is supposed to directly and indirectly affect economic growth by reducing the performance of the agricultural sector. The model is tested for Tunisia. The results validate the hypothesis that the potential economic damage of the CC is important. Indeed, an increase in CO2 concentration (temperatures and disruption of rainfall patterns) will have an impact on global economic growth particularly by reducing the performance of the agricultural sector. Analysis from a vector error correction model also highlights the magnitude of climate impact on the performance of the agricultural sector and its repercussions on economic growth

Keywords: Climate Change, Agriculture, Economic growth, World, cointegration, VECM

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98 An Empirical Analysis of Farmers Field Schools and Effect on Tomato Productivity in District Malakand Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Pakistan

Authors: Mahmood Iqbal, Khalid Nawab, Tachibana Satoshi

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Farmer Field School (FFS) is constantly aims to assist farmers to determine and learn about field ecology and integrated crop management. The study was conducted to examine the change in productivity of tomato crop in the study area; to determine increase in per acre yield of the crop, and find out reduction in per acre input cost. A study of tomato crop was conducted in ten villages namely Jabban, Bijligar Colony, Palonow, Heroshah, Zara Maira, Deghar Ghar, Sidra Jour, Anar Thangi, Miangano Korona and Wartair of district Malakand. From each village 15 respondents were selected randomly on the basis of identical allocation making sample size of 150 respondents. The research was based on primary as well as secondary data. Primary data was collected from farmers while secondary data were taken from Agriculture Extension Department Dargai, District Malakand. Interview schedule was planned and each farmer was interviewed personally. The study was based on comparison of cost, yield and income of tomato before and after FFS. Paired t-test and Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used for analysis; outcome of the study show that integrated pest management project has brought a positive change in the attitude of farmers of the project area through FFS approach. In district Malakand 66.0% of the respondents were between the age group of 31-50 years, 11.3% of respondents had primary level of education, 12.7% of middle level, 28.7% metric level, 3.3% of intermediate level and 2.0% of graduate level of education while 42.0% of respondents were illiterate and have no education. Average land holding size of farmers was 6.47 acres, cost of seed, crop protection from insect pest and crop protection from diseases was reduced by Rs. 210.67, Rs. 2584.43 and Rs. 3044.16 respectively, the cost of fertilizers and cost of farm yard manure was increased by Rs.1548.87 and Rs. 1151.40 respectively while tomato yield was increased by 1585.03 kg/acre from 7663.87 to 9248.90 kg/acre. The role of FFS initiate by integrated pest management project through department of agriculture extension for the development of agriculture was worth mentioning. It has brought enhancement in crop yield of tomato and their income through FFS approach. On the basis of results of the research studies, integrated pest management project should spread their developmental activities for maximum participation of the complete rural masses through participatory FFS approach.

Keywords: Agriculture, tomato, Farmers field schools, extension education

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97 The Common Agricultural Policy in a Czech Context

Authors: Markéta Slováková

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The largest share of policy and money within the European Union goes to agriculture. The Union’s Common Agricultural Policy has undergone several transformations in the last five decades, with the main change taking place in the 1990's. This change influenced agriculture in the Czech Republic, inasmuch as the fledgling republic was preparing to join the European Union and adopt its policies. In the 1990s, Czech agriculture passed from a centrally planned economy to a market economy and subsequently adopted the terms of the Common Agricultural Policy. The Czech Republic is also characterized by a significant landscape sphere diversification. Agricultural entrepreneurs in the Czech Republic are still not used the possibility of grants from the European Union. They focus rather on national or regional subsidy titles. Only half of all agricultural entrepreneurs in the Czech Republic use European subsidies. This article focuses on the introduction of the Common Agricultural Policy to the Czech Republic and its subsequent influence on Czech agriculture. It is demonstrated on the implementation rate of the CAP in the EU Member States and the closer focus is on the Czech integration.

Keywords: Agriculture, Transformation, European Union, common agricultural policy

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96 RF Propagation Analysis in Outdoor Environments Using RSSI Measurements Applied in ZigBee Sensor Networks

Authors: Teles de Sales Bezerra, Saulo Aislan da Silva Eleuterio, José Anderson Rodrigues de Souza, Jeronimo Silva Rocha

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Propagation in radio frequency is a constant concern in the application of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), the behavior of an environment determines how good the quality of signal reception. The objective of this paper is to analyze the behavior of a WSN in an environment for agriculture where environmental variables are present and correlate the capture of values received signal strength (RSSI) with a propagation model.

Keywords: Agriculture, Quality, propagation, WSN

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95 Isolation and Characterization of Cotton Infecting Begomoviruses in Alternate Hosts from Cotton Growing Regions of Pakistan

Authors: M. Irfan Fareed, Muhammad Tahir, Alvina Gul Kazi

Abstract:

Castor bean (Ricinus communis; family Euphorbiaceae) is cultivated for the production of oil and as an ornamental plant throughout tropical regions. Leaf samples from castor bean plants with leaf curl and vein thickening were collected from areas around Okara (Pakistan) in 2011. PCR amplification using diagnostic primers showed the presence of a begomovirus and subsequently the specific pair (BurNF 5’- CCATGGTTGTGGCAGTTGATTGACAGATAC-3’, BurNR 5’- CCATGGATTCACGCACAGGGGAACCC-3’) was used to amplify and clone the whole genome of the virus. The complete nucleotide sequence was determined to be 2,759 nt (accession No. HE985227). Alignments showed the highest levels of nucleotide sequence identity (98.8%) with Cotton leaf curl Burewala virus (CLCuBuV; accession No. JF416947) No. JF416947). The virus in castor beans lacks on intact C2 gene, as is typical of CLCuBuV in cotton. An amplification product of ca. 1.4 kb was obtained in PCR with primers for betasatellites and the complete nucleotide sequence of a clone was determined to be 1373 nt (HE985228). The sequence showed 96.3% nucleotide sequence identity to the recombinant Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB; JF502389). This is the first report of CLCuBuV and its betasatellite infecting castor bean, showing this plant species as an alternate host of the virus. Already many alternate host have been reported from different alternate host like tobacco, tomato, hibiscus, okra, ageratum, Digera arvensis, habiscus, Papaya and now in Ricinus communis. So, it is suggested that these alternate hosts should be avoided to grow near cotton growing regions.

Keywords: Agriculture, Ricinus communis, begomovirus, betasatellite

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94 Effective Microorganisms as a Sustainable Environment Product and Their Application: A Study in Pakistan

Authors: Jaffar Hussain, Farman Ali Shah

Abstract:

As we know that Pakistan is the developing country so it adopts new technologies for progress. In last three decays, some new technologies were introduced in the world in which Effective Microorganism was one of them. Microorganisms are one of the most power full living forces on earth. Originally, EM was developed as an odor control, farm, and animal health, human health many industrial treatments. Effective Microorganism is an organic fertilizer that contains a mixture of co-existing valuable microorganism composed from the environment. There are vast application of the EM in the world in which the researchers are explained in literature .In Pakistan work on EM technologies are under process, researcher are doing work to make them most valuable. At that time the application of EM are in agriculture, water treatment, to increase Cement strength, improving saline soil etc. Effective microorganisms are environmentally friendly , not-naturally organized, not chemically synthesized, not dangerous and not pathogenic.

Keywords: Agriculture, technologies, Pakistan, developing country, researchers, effective microorganism

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93 Climate Change Vulnerability and Agrarian Communities: Insights from the Composite Vulnerability Index of Indian States of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka

Authors: G. Sridevi, Amalendu Jyotishi, Sushanta Mahapatra, G. Jagadeesh, Satyasiba Bedamatta

Abstract:

Climate change is a main challenge for agriculture, food security and rural livelihoods for millions of people in India. Agriculture is the sector most vulnerable to climate change due to its high dependence on climate and weather conditions. Among India’s population of more than one billion people, about 68% are directly or indirectly involved in the agricultural sector. This sector is particularly vulnerable to present-day climate variability. In this contest this paper examines the Socio-economic and climate analytical study of the vulnerability index in Indian states of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. Using secondary data; it examines the vulnerability through five different sub-indicator of socio-demographic, agriculture, occupational, common property resource (CPR), and climate in respective states among different districts. Data used in this paper has taken from different sources, like census in India 2011, Directorate of Economics and Statistics of respective states governments. Rainfall data was collected from the India Meteorological Department (IMD). In order to capture the vulnerability from two different states the composite vulnerability index (CVI) was developed and used. This indicates the vulnerability situation of different districts under two states. The study finds that Adilabad district in Andhra Pradesh and Chamarajanagar in Karnataka had highest level of vulnerability while Hyderabad and Bangalore in respective states have least level of vulnerability.

Keywords: Climate Change, Agriculture, Global Warming, Vulnerability

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92 Nanotechnology: A New Revolution to Increase Agricultural Production

Authors: Reshu Chaudhary, R. S. Sengar

Abstract:

To increase the agricultural production Indian farmer needs to aware of the latest technology i.e. precision farming to maximize the crop yield and minimize the input (fertilizer, pesticide etc.) through monitoring the environmental factors. Biotechnology and information technology have provided lots of opportunities for the development of agriculture. But, still we have to do much more for increasing our agricultural production in order to achieve the target growth of agriculture to secure food, to eliminate poverty and improve living style, to enhance agricultural exports and national income and to improve quality of agricultural products. Nanotechnology can be a great element to satisfy these requirements and to boost the multi-dimensional development of agriculture in order to fulfill the dream of Indian farmers. Nanotechnology is the most rapidly growing area of science and technology with its application in physical science, chemical science, life science, material science and earth science. Nanotechnology is a part of any nation’s future. Research in nanotechnology has extremely high potential to benefit society through application in agricultural sciences. Nanotechnology has greater potential to bring revolution in the agricultural sector.

Keywords: Biotechnology, Nanotechnology, Agriculture, crop yield

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91 Co-Operation in Hungarian Agriculture

Authors: Eszter Hamza

Abstract:

The competitiveness of economic operators is based on interoperability, which is relatively low in Hungary. The development of co-operation is high priority in Common Agricultural Policy 2014-2020. The aim of the paper to assess co-operations in Hungarian agriculture, estimate the economic outputs and benefits of co-operations, based on statistical data processing and literature. Further objective is to explore the potential of agricultural co-operation with the help of interviews and questionnaire survey. The research seeks to answer questions as to what fundamental factors play role in the development of co-operation, and what are the motivations of the actors and the key success factors and pitfalls. The results were analysed using econometric methods. In Hungarian agriculture we can find several forms of co-operation: cooperatives, producer groups (PG) and producer organizations (PO), machinery cooperatives, integrator companies, product boards and interbranch organisations. Despite the several appearance of the agricultural co-operation, their economic weight is significantly lower in Hungary than in western European countries. Considering the agricultural importance, the integrator companies represent the most weight among the co-operations forms. Hungarian farmers linked to co-operations or organizations mostly in relation to procurement and sales. Less than 30 percent of surveyed farmers are members of a producer organization or cooperative. The trust level is low among farmers. The main obstacle to the development of formalized co-operation, is producers' risk aversion and the black economy in agriculture. Producers often prefer informal co-operation instead of long-term contractual relationships. The Hungarian agricultural co-operations are characterized by non-dynamic development, but slow qualitative change. For the future, one breakout point could be the association of producer groups and organizations, which in addition to the benefits of market concentration, in the dissemination of knowledge, advisory network operation and innovation can act more effectively.

Keywords: Agriculture, co-operation, producer organisation, trust level

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90 Risk and Vulnerability Assessment of Agriculture on Climate Change: Bangnampriao District, Thailand

Authors: Charuvan Kasemsap

Abstract:

This research was studied in Bangnampriao District, Chachernsao Province, Thailand. The primary data relating to flooding, drought, and saline intrusion problem on agriculture were collected by surveying, focus group, and in-depth interview with agricultural officers, technical officers of irrigation department, and local government leader of Bangnampriao District. The likelihood and consequence of risk were determined the risk index by risk assessment matrix. In addition, the risk index and the total coping capacity scores were investigated the vulnerability index by vulnerability matrix. It was found that the high-risk drought and saline intrusion was dramatically along Bang Pakong River owing to the end destination of Chao Phraya Irrigation system of Central Thailand. This leads yearly the damage of rice paddy, mango tree, orchard, and fish pond. Therefore, some agriculture avoids rice growing during January to May, and also pumps fresh water from a canal into individual storage pond. However, Bangnampriao District will be strongly affected by the impacts of climate change. Monthly precipitations are expected to decrease in number; dry seasons are expected to be more in number and longer in duration. Thus, the risk and vulnerability of agriculture are also increasing. Adaptation strategies need to be put in place in order to enhance the resilience of the agriculture.

Keywords: Climate Change, Agriculture, Risk Assessment, bangnampriao

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89 Physico-Chemical Analysis of the Reclaimed Land Area of Kasur

Authors: Shiza Zafar

Abstract:

The tannery effluents contaminated about 400 acres land area in Kasur, Pakistan, has been reclaimed by removing polluted water after the long term effluent logging from the nearby tanneries. In an effort to describe the status of reclaimed soil for agricultural practices, the results of physicochemical analysis of the soil are reported in this article. The concentrations of the parameters such as pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Organic Matter (OM), Organic Carbon (OC), Available Phosphorus (P), Potassium (K), and Sodium (Na) were determined by standard methods of analysis and results were computed and compared with various international standards for agriculture recommended by international organizations, groups of experts and or individual researchers. The results revealed that pH, EC, OM, OC, K, and Na are in accordance with the prescribed limits but P in soil exceeds the satisfactory range of P in agricultural soil. Thus, the reclaimed soil in Kasur can be inferred fit for the purpose of agricultural activities.

Keywords: Agriculture, soil toxicity, reclaimed land, physico-chemical analysis

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88 Assessment of Heavy Metal Bioaccumulation by Tissues of Ipomoea Batatas and Manihot Esculenta Irrigated with Water from Muhammad Ayuba Dam, Kazaure, Jigawa State, Nigeria

Authors: Sa’idu A. Abdullah, Jafar Lawan, A. U. Adamu, Fowotade, S. A., Hamisu Abdu

Abstract:

Scarcity of quality water in many communities compels inhabitants to use any available water resources for domestic, recreational, industrial and agricultural purposes. Global concern on the potential health hazards of anthropogenic inputs into our ecosystems imposes the need for constant monitoring of levels of pollutants in order to ensure compliance with internationally acceptable criteria. In this research, assessment of bioaccumulation of Cd, Co, Cu, Pb and Zn was carried out using tissues of Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato) and Manihot esculenta (cassava) irrigated with water from Muhammad Ayuba Dam in Kazaure, Jigawa State. The metal concentrations were determined using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (FAAS). The result of the analysis revealed the presence of the metals in varying concentrations. Cd and Co showed higher concentrations in the tubers of Manihot esculenta but all the other investigated metals were more concentrated in the leaves of the plant. Cd and Cu on the other hand showed higher concentration in the root of Ipomoea batatas while the remaining investigated metals were concentrated more in the leaves of the plant. The result of analysis of water samples from five sampling stations in the Dam showed the presence of the metals as follows: Cd, (0.063±0.02 mg/L), Co (0.086±0.03 mg/L), Cu (0.167±0.08 mg/L), Pb (0.22±0.01 mg/L) and Zn (0.047±0.01 mg/L) respectively. The results of bioaccumulation studies using the Bioaccumulation Factors (BAF) index indicated Ipomoea batatas to have higher bioaccumulation potential for Cd, Co and Cu while Pb and Zn were more accumulated in Manihot esculenta. The levels of the metals in both the water samples and plant tissues were all below the WHO permissible limit. This is indicative that the inhabitants of the community under investigation are not at any health risk.

Keywords: Agriculture, heavy metal, bioaccumulation, plant tissues

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87 Accessibility of Institutional Credit and Its Impact on Agricultural Output: A Case Study

Authors: Showkat Ahmad Bhat, M. S. Bhatt

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The study evaluates the ex-post impact of institutional credit on agricultural output. It first examines the key factors that influence the accessibility of institutional credit by farm households. For quantitative analysis both program participant and non-participant respondents were drawn and cross-sectional survey data were collected from 412 households in Pulwama District of Jammu & Kashmir (India). Propensity Score Matching Method was employed to analyze the impact of the institutional credit on agricultural output. Results show that institutional credit has a positive and significant impact on the agricultural output measured in terms of farm income and crop productivity. To estimate the accessibility of credit, an examination of both demand side and supply side factors were carried out. The demand for credit was measured with respect to respondents who applied for credit. Supply side credit allocation measured in terms of the proportion of ‘credit amount’ farmers obtained. Logit and Two-limit Tobit Regression Models were used to investigate the determinants that influence the accessibility of formal credit for Demand for and supply of credit respectively. The estimated results suggested that the demand for credit is positively and significantly affected by the factors such as: age of the household head, formal education, membership, cash crop grown, farm size and saving account. All the variables were found significantly increasing the household’s likelihood to demand for and supply of credit from banks. However, the impact of these factors varies considerably across the credit markets. Factors which were found negatively and significantly influencing the accessibility of credit were: ‘square of the age’, household assets and rate of interest. The credit constraints analysis suggested that square of the age; household assets and rate of interest were the three most important factors that increased the probability of being constrained. The study finally discusses these results in detail and draws some recommendations.

Keywords: Agriculture, institutional credit, propensity score matching logit model, Tobit model

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86 Agricultural Mechanization for Transformation

Authors: Lawrence Gumbe

Abstract:

Kenya Vision 2030 is the country's programme for transformation covering the period 2008 to 2030. Its objective is to help transform Kenya into a newly industrializing, middle-income, exceeding US$10000, country providing a high quality of life to all its citizens by 2030, in a clean and secure environment. Increased agricultural and production and productivity is crucial for the realization of Vision 2030. Mechanization of agriculture in order to achieve greater yields is the only way to achieve these objectives. There are contending groups and views on the strategy for agricultural mechanization. The first group are those who oppose the widespread adoption of advanced technologies (mostly internal combustion engines and tractors) in agricultural mechanization as entirely inappropriate in most situations in developing countries. This group argues that mechanically powered -agricultural mechanization often leads to displacement of labour and hence increased unemployment, and this results in a host of other socio-economic problems, amongst them, rural-urban migration, inequitable distribution of wealth and in many cases an increase in absolute poverty, balance of payments due to the need to import machinery, fuel and sometimes technical assistance to manage them. The second group comprises of those who view the use of the improved hand tools and animal powered technology as transitional step between the most rudimentary step in technological development (characterized by entire reliance on human muscle power) and the advanced technologies (characterized 'by reliance on tractors and other machinery). The third group comprises those who regard these intermediate technologies (ie. improved hand tools and draught animal technology in agriculture) as a ‘delaying’ tactic and they advocate the use of mechanical technologies as-the most appropriate. This group argues that alternatives to the mechanical technologies do not just exist as a practical matter, or, if they are available, they are inefficient and they cannot be compared to the mechanical technologies in terms of economics and productivity. The fourth group advocates a compromise between groups two and third above. This group views the improved hand tools and draught animal technology as more of an 18th century technology and the modem tractor and combine harvester as too advanced for developing countries. This group has been busy designing an ‘intermediate’, ‘appropriate’, ‘mini’, ‘micro’ tractor for use by farmers in developing countries. This paper analyses and concludes on the different agricultural mechanization strategies available to Kenya and other third world countries

Keywords: Agriculture, Transformation, industrialization, mechanazation

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