Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Agricultural waste Related Abstracts

9 Effect of Ramp Rate on the Preparation of Activated Carbon from Saudi Date Tree Fronds (Agro Waste) by Physical Activation Method

Authors: Muhammad Shoaib, Hassan M Al-Swaidan

Abstract:

Saudi Arabia is the major date producer in the world. In order to maximize the production from date tree, pruning of the date trees is required annually. Large amount of this agriculture waste material (palm tree fronds) is available in Saudi Arabia and considered as an ideal source as a precursor for production of activated carbon (AC). The single step procedure for the preparation of micro porous activated carbon (AC) from Saudi date tree fronds using mixture of gases (N2 and CO2) is carried out at carbonization/activation temperature at 850°C and at different ramp rates of 10, 20 and 30 degree per minute. Alloy 330 horizontal reactor is used for tube furnace. Flow rate of nitrogen and carbon dioxide gases are kept at 150 ml/min and 50 ml/min respectively during the preparation. Characterization results reveal that the BET surface area, pore volume, and average pore diameter of the resulting activated carbon generally decreases with the increase in ramp rate. The activated carbon prepared at a ramp rate of 10 degrees/minute attains larger surface area and can offer higher potential to produce activated carbon of greater adsorption capacity from agriculture wastes such as date fronds. The BET surface areas of the activated carbons prepared at a ramp rate of 10, 20 and 30 degree/minute after 30 minutes activation time are 1094, 1020 and 515 m2/g, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for surface morphology, and FTIR for functional groups was carried out that also verified the same trend. Moreover, by increasing the ramp rate from 10 and 20 degrees/min the yield remains same, i.e. 18%, whereas at a ramp rate of 30 degrees/min the yield increases from 18 to 20%. Thus, it is feasible to produce high-quality micro porous activated carbon from date frond agro waste using N2 carbonization followed by physical activation with CO2 and N2 mixture. This micro porous activated carbon can be used as adsorbent of heavy metals from wastewater, NOx SOx emission adsorption from ambient air and electricity generation plants, purification of gases, sewage treatment and many other applications.

Keywords: Applied Chemistry, Agricultural waste, activated carbon, date tree fronds

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8 Agricultural Solid Wastes Generation in Nigeria and Their Recycling Potentials into Building Materials

Authors: Usman Aliyu Jalam, Shuaibu Alolo Sumaila, Sa’adiya Iliyasu Muhammed

Abstract:

Modern building industry lays much emphasis on sophisticated materials that have high embodied energy with intrinsic distinctiveness for damaging the environment. But today, advances in solid waste management have resulted in alternative building materials as partial or complete replacement of the conventional materials like cement, aggregate etc particularly for low cost housing. Investigations carried out revealed that an estimated 18.0 million tonnes of agricultural solid wastes are being generated in Nigeria annually. This constitutes a problem not only to the natural environment but also to the built environment more particularly with the way the wastes are being dispose of. The paper has discussed the present status on the generation and utilisation of agricultural solid wastes, their recycling potentials and environmental implications. It further discovered that although considerable quantity of these wastes were found to have the potentials of being recycled as building materials, the availability of the appropriate technology remains a big challenge in the country. Moreover, majority of the wastes type have gained popularity as fuel. As such, the economic and environmental benefits of recycling the wastes and the use of the wastes as fuel need further investigation.

Keywords: Materials, Building, Environment, Agricultural waste, Nigeria

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7 Impact of Compost Application with Different Rates of Chemical Fertilizers on Corn Growth and Production

Authors: Reda Abdel-Aziz

Abstract:

Agricultural activities in Egypt generate annually around 35 million tons of waste. Composting is one of the most promising technologies to turnover waste in a more economical way, for many centuries. Composting has been used as a mean of recycling organic matter back into the soil to improve soil structure and fertility. Field experiments were conducted in two governorates, Giza and Al-Monofia, to find out the effect of compost with different rates of chemical fertilizers on growth and yield of corn (Zea mays L.) during two constitutive seasons of 2012 and 2013. The experiment, laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD), was carried out on five farmers’ fields in each governorate. The treatments were: unfertilized control, full dose of NPK (120, 30, and 50 kg/acre, respectively), compost at rate of 20 ton/acre, compost at rate of 10 ton/acre + 25% of chemical fertilizer, compost at rate of 10 ton/acre + 50% of chemical fertilizer and compost at rate of 10 ton/acre + 75% of chemical fertilizer. Results revealed a superiority of the treatment of compost at rate of 10 ton/acre + 50% of NPK that caused significant improvement in growth, yield and nutrient uptakes of corn in the two governorates during the two constitutive seasons. Results showed that agricultural waste could be composted into value added soil amendment to enhance efficiency of chemical fertilizer. Composting of agricultural waste could also reduce the chemical fertilizers potential hazard to the environment.

Keywords: Environment, Agricultural waste, chemical fertilizers, compost, corn production

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6 Sustainable Use of Agricultural Waste to Enhance Food Security and Conserve the Environment

Authors: M. M. Tawfik, Ezzat M. Abd El Lateef, B. B. Mekki, Amany A. Bahr, Magda H. Mohamed, Gehan S. Bakhoom

Abstract:

The rapid increase in the world’s population coupled by decrease the arable land per capita has resulted into an increased demand for food which has in turn led to the production of large amounts of agricultural wastes, both at the farmer, municipality and city levels. Agricultural wastes can be a valuable resource for improving food security. Unfortunately, agricultural wastes are likely to cause pollution to the environment or even harm to human health. This calls for increased public awareness on the benefits and potential hazards of agricultural wastes, especially in developing countries. Agricultural wastes (residual stalks, straw, leaves, roots, husks, shells etcetera) and animal waste (manures) are widely available, renewable and virtually free, hence they can be an important resource. They can be converted into heat, steam, charcoal, methanol, ethanol, bio diesel as well as raw materials (animal feed, composting, energy and biogas construction etcetera). agricultural wastes are likely to cause pollution to the environment or even harm to human health, if it is not used in a sustainable manner. Organic wastes could be considered an important source of biofertilizer for enhancing food security in the small holder farming communities that would not afford use of expensive inorganic fertilizers. Moreover, these organic wastes contain high levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and organic matter important for improving nutrient status of soils in urban agriculture. Organic compost leading to improved crop yields and its nutritional values as compared with inorganic fertilization. This paper briefly reviews how agricultural wastes can be used to enhance food security and conserve the environment.

Keywords: Environment, Agricultural waste, organic compost, valuable resources

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5 Synthesis of Amorphous Nanosilica Anode Material from Philippine Waste Rice Hull for Lithium Battery Application

Authors: Rinlee Butch M. Cervera, Emie A. Salamangkit-Mirasol

Abstract:

Rice hull or rice husk (RH) is an agricultural waste obtained from milling rice grains. Since RH has no commercial value and is difficult to use in agriculture, its volume is often reduced through open field burning which is an environmental hazard. In this study, amorphous nanosilica from Philippine waste RH was prepared via acid precipitation method. The synthesized samples were fully characterized for its microstructural properties. X-ray diffraction pattern reveals that the structure of the prepared sample is amorphous in nature while Fourier transform infrared spectrum showed the different vibration bands of the synthesized sample. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and particle size analysis (PSA) confirmed the presence of agglomerated silica particles. On the other hand, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed an amorphous sample with grain sizes of about 5 to 20 nanometer range and has about 95 % purity according to EDS analyses. The elemental mapping also suggests that leaching of rice hull ash effectively removed the metallic impurity such as potassium element in the material. Hence, amorphous nanosilica was successfully prepared via a low-cost acid precipitation method from Philippine waste rice hull. In addition, initial electrode performance of the synthesized samples as an anode material in Lithium Battery have been investigated.

Keywords: Agricultural waste, Nanosilica, anode material, rice hull

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4 Removal of Nitrate and Phosphates from Waste Water Using Activated Bio-Carbon Produced from Agricultural Waste

Authors: Tumisang Seodigeng, Hilary Rutto, Kgomotso Matobole, Natania De Wet, Tefo Mbambo

Abstract:

Nitrogen and phosphorus are nutrients which are required in the ecosystem, however, at high levels, these nutrients contribute to the process of eutrophication in the receiving water bodies, which threatens aquatic organisms. Hence it is vital that they are removed before the water is discharged. This phenomenon increases the cost related to wastewater treatment. This raises the need for the development of processes that are cheaper. Activated biocarbon was used in batch and filtration system to remove nitrates and phosphates. The batch system has higher nutrients removal capabilities than the filtration system. For phosphate removal, 93 % removal is achieved at the adsorbent of 300 g while for nitrates, 84 % removal is achieved when 200 g of activated carbon is loaded.

Keywords: Agricultural waste, Waste Water Treatment, nitrates, activated carbon, phosphates

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3 Management of Soil Borne Plant Diseases Using Agricultural Waste Residues as Green Waste and Organic Amendment

Authors: Temitayo Tosin Alawiye

Abstract:

Plant disease control is important in maintaining plant vigour, grain quantity, abundance of food, feed, and fibre produced by farmers all over the world. Farmers make use of different methods in controlling these diseases but one of the commonly used method is the use of chemicals. However, the continuous and excessive usages of these agrochemicals pose a danger to the environment, man and wildlife. The more the population growth the more the food security challenge which leads to more pressure on agronomic growth. Agricultural waste also known as green waste are the residues from the growing and processing of raw agricultural products such as fruits, vegetables, rice husk, corn cob, mushroom growth medium waste, coconut husk. They are widely used in land bioremediation, crop production and protection which include disease control. These agricultural wastes help the crop by improving the soil fertility, increase soil organic matter and reduce in many cases incidence and severity of disease. The objective was to review the agricultural waste that has worked effectively against certain soil-borne diseases such as Fusarium oxysporum, Pythiumspp, Rhizoctonia spp so as to help minimize the use of chemicals. Climate change is a major problem of agriculture and vice versa. Climate change and agriculture are interrelated. Change in climatic conditions is already affecting agriculture with effects unevenly distributed across the world. It will increase the risk of food insecurity for some vulnerable groups such as the poor in Sub Saharan Africa. The food security challenge will become more difficult as the world will need to produce more food estimated to feed billions of people in the near future with Africa likely to be the biggest hit. In order to surmount this hurdle, smallholder farmers in Africa must embrace climate-smart agricultural techniques and innovations which includes the use of green waste in agriculture, conservative agriculture, pasture and manure management, mulching, intercropping, etc. Training and retraining of smallholder farmers on the use of green energy to mitigate the effect of climate change should be encouraged. Policy makers, academia, researchers, donors, and farmers should pay more attention to the use of green energy as a way of reducing incidence and severity of soilborne plant diseases to solve looming food security challenges.

Keywords: Climate Change, Green Energy, Agricultural waste, soil borne plant disease

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2 Orange Leaves and Rice Straw on Methane Emission and Milk Production in Murciano-Granadina Dairy Goat Diet

Authors: Tamara Romero, Manuel Romero-Huelva, Jose V. Segarra, Jose Castro, Carlos Fernandez

Abstract:

Many foods resulting from processing and manufacturing end up as waste, most of which is burned, dumped into landfills or used as compost, which leads to wasted resources, and environmental problems due to unsuitable disposal. Using residues of the crop and food processing industries to feed livestock has the advantage to obviating the need for costly waste management programs. The main residue generated in citrus cultivations and rice crop are pruning waste and rice straw, respectively. Within Spain, the Valencian Community is one of the world's oldest citrus and rice production areas. The objective of this experiment found out the effects of including orange leaves and rice straw as ingredients in the concentrate diets of goats, on milk production and methane (CH₄) emissions. Ten Murciano-Granadina dairy goats (45 kg of body weight, on average) in mid-lactation were selected in a crossover design experiment, where each goat received two treatments in 2 periods. Both groups were fed with 1.7 kg pelleted mixed ration; one group (n= 5) was a control (C) and the other group (n= 5) used orange leaves and rice straw (OR). The forage was alfalfa hay, and it was the same for the two groups (1 kg of alfalfa was offered by goat and day). The diets employed to achieve the requirements during lactation period for caprine livestock. The goats were allocated to individual metabolism cages. After 14 days of adaptation, feed intake and milk yield were recorded daily over a 5 days period. Physico-chemical parameters and somatic cell count in milk samples were determined. Then, gas exchange measurements were recorded individually by an open-circuit indirect calorimetry system using a head box. The data were analyzed by mixed model with diet and digestibility as fixed effect and goat as random effect. No differences were found for dry matter intake (2.23 kg/d, on average). Higher milk yield was found for C diet than OR (2.3 vs. 2.1 kg/goat and day, respectively) and, greater milk fat content was observed for OR than C (6.5 vs. 5.5%, respectively). The cheese extract was also greater in OR than C (10.7 vs. 9.6%). Goats fed OR diet produced significantly fewer CH₄ emissions than C diet (27 vs. 30 g/d, respectively). These preliminary results (LIFE Project LOWCARBON FEED LIFE/CCM/ES/000088) suggested that the use of these waste by-products was effective in reducing CH₄ emission without detrimental effect on milk yield.

Keywords: Agricultural waste, Goat, milk production, methane emission

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1 Mechanical Properties of Enset Fibers Obtained from Different Breeds of Enset Plant

Authors: Diriba T. Balcha, Boris Kuling, Oliver Hensel, Eyassu Woldesenbet

Abstract:

Abstract— Enset fiber is agricultural waste and available in a surplus amount in Ethiopia. However, the hypothesized variation in properties of this fiber due to diversity of its plant source breed, fiber position within plant stem and chemical treatment duration had not proven that its application for the development of composite products is problematic. Currently, limited data is known on the functional properties of the fiber as a potential functional fiber. Thus, an effort is made in this study to narrow the knowledge gaps by characterizing it. The experimental design was conducted using Design-Expert software and the tensile test was conducted on Enset fiber from 10 breeds: Dego, Dirbo, Gishera, Itine, Siskela, Neciho, Yesherkinke, Tuzuma, Ankogena, and Kucharkia. The effects of 5% Na-OH surface treatment duration and fiber location along and across the plant pseudostem was also investigated. The test result shows that the rupture stress variation is not significant among the fibers from 10 Enset breeds. However, strain variation is significant among the fibers from 10 Enset breeds that breed Dego fiber have the highest strain before failure. Surface treated fibers showed improved rupture strength and elastic modulus per 24 hours of treatment duration. Also, the result showed that chemical treatment can deteriorate the load-bearing capacity of the fiber. The raw fiber has the highest load-bearing capacity than the treated fiber. And, it was noted that both the rupture stress and strain increases in the top to bottom gradient whereas there is no significant variation across the stem. Elastic modulus variation both along and across the stem was insignificant. The rupture stress, elastic modulus and strain result of Enset fiber are 360.11±181.86 Mpa, 12.80 ± 6.85 GPa and 0.04±0.02 mm/mm respectively. These results show that Enset fiber is comparable to other natural fibers such as abaca, banana and sisal fibers and can be used as alternatives natural fiber for composites application. Besides, the insignificant variation of properties among breeds and across stem is essential for all breeds and all leaf sheath of the Enset fiber plant for fiber extraction. The use of short natural fiber over the long is preferable to reduce the significant variation of properties along the stem or fiber direction. In conclusion, Enset fiber application for composite product design and development is mechanically feasible.

Keywords: Natural Fiber, Agricultural waste, Chemical Treatment, Fiber characteristics

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