Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Agricultural Production Related Abstracts

5 RNA Interference Technology as a Veritable Tool for Crop Improvement and Breeding for Biotic Stress Resistance

Authors: M. Yusuf

Abstract:

The recent discovery of the phenomenon of RNA interference has led to its application in various aspects of plant improvement. Crops can be modified by engineering novel RNA interference pathways that create small RNA molecules to alter gene expression in crops or plant pests. RNA interference can generate new crop quality traits or provide protection against insects, nematodes and pathogens without introducing new proteins into food and feed products. This is an advantage in contrast with conventional procedures of gene transfer. RNA interference has been used to develop crop varieties resistant to diseases, pathogens and insects. Male sterility has been engineered in plants using RNA interference. Better quality crops have been developed through the application of RNA interference etc. The objective of this paper is to highlight the application of RNA interference in crop improvement and to project its potential future use to solve problems of agricultural production in relation to plant breeding.

Keywords: Agricultural Production, Application, RNA Interference, Crop Improvement

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4 A Multicriteria Mathematical Programming Model for Farm Planning in Greece

Authors: Basil Manos, Parthena Chatzinikolaou, Fedra Kiomourtzi

Abstract:

This paper presents a Multicriteria Mathematical Programming model for farm planning and sustainable optimization of agricultural production. The model can be used as a tool for the analysis and simulation of agricultural production plans, as well as for the study of impacts of various measures of Common Agriculture Policy in the member states of European Union. The model can achieve the optimum production plan of a farm or an agricultural region combining in one utility function different conflicting criteria as the maximization of gross margin and the minimization of fertilizers used, under a set of constraints for land, labor, available capital, Common Agricultural Policy etc. The proposed model was applied to the region of Larisa in central Greece. The optimum production plan achieves a greater gross return, a less fertilizers use, and a less irrigated water use than the existent production plan.

Keywords: Agricultural Production, sustainable optimization, multicriteria analysis, farm planning

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3 Assessment of Rural Youth Adoption of Cassava Production Technologies in Southwestern Nigeria

Authors: J. O. Ayinde, S. O. Olatunji

Abstract:

This study assessed rural youth adoption of cassava production technologies in Southwestern, Nigeria. Specifically, it examine the level of awareness and adoption of cassava production technologies by rural youth, determined the extent of usage of cassava production technologies available to the rural youth, examined constrains to the adoption of cassava production technologies by youth and suggested possible solutions. Multistage sampling procedure was adopted for the study. In the first stage, two states were purposively selected in southwest, Nigeria which are Osun and Oyo states due to high level of cassava production and access to cassava production technology in the areas. In the second stage, purposive sampling technique was used to select two local governments each from the states selected which are Ibarapa central (Igbo-Ora) and Ibarapa East (Eruwa) Local Government Areas (LGAs) in Oyo state; and Ife North (Ipetumodu) and Ede South (Oke Ireesi) LGAs in Osun State. In the third stage, proportionate sampling technique was used to randomly select five, four, six and four communities from the selected LGAs respectively representing 20 percent of the rural communities in them, in all 19 communities were selected. In the fourth stage, Snow ball sampling technique was used to select about 7 rural youths in each community selected to make a total of 133 respondents. Validated structured interview schedule was used to elicit information from the respondents. The data collected were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics to summarize and test the hypotheses of the study. The results show that the average age of rural youths participating in cassava production in the study area is 29 ± 2.6 years and 60 percent aged between 30 and 35 years. Also, more male (67.4 %) were involved in cassava production than females (32.6 %). The result also reveals that the average size of farm land of the respondents is 2.5 ± 0.3 hectares. Also, more male (67.4 %) were involved in cassava production than females (32.6 %). Also, extent of usage of the technologies (r = 0.363, p ≤ 0.01) shows significant relationship with level of adoption of the technologies. Household size (b = 0.183; P ≤ 0.01) and membership of social organizations were significant at 0.01 (b = 0.331; P ≤ 0.01) while age was significant at 0.10 (b = 0.097; P ≤ 0.05). On the other hand 0.01, years of residence (b = - 0.063; P ≤ 0.01) and income (b = - 0.204; P ≤ 0.01) had negative values and implies that a unit increase in each of these variables would decrease extent of usage of the Cassava production technologies. It was concluded that the extent of usage of the technologies in the communities will affect the rate of adoption positively and this will change the negative perception of youths on cassava production thereby ensure food security in the study area.

Keywords: Food Security, Assessment, Agricultural Production, rural youths’, Cassava production technologies

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2 Geographic Information System-Based Map for Best Suitable Place for Cultivating Permanent Trees in South-Lebanon

Authors: Allaw Kamel, Al-Chami Leila

Abstract:

It is important to reduce the human influence on natural resources by identifying an appropriate land use. Moreover, it is essential to carry out the scientific land evaluation. Such kind of analysis allows identifying the main factors of agricultural production and enables decision makers to develop crop management in order to increase the land capability. The key is to match the type and intensity of land use with its natural capability. Therefore; in order to benefit from these areas and invest them to obtain good agricultural production, they must be organized and managed in full. Lebanon suffers from the unorganized agricultural use. We take south Lebanon as a study area, it is the most fertile ground and has a variety of crops. The study aims to identify and locate the most suitable area to cultivate thirteen type of permanent trees which are: apples, avocados, stone fruits in coastal regions and stone fruits in mountain regions, bananas, citrus, loquats, figs, pistachios, mangoes, olives, pomegranates, and grapes. Several geographical factors are taken as criterion for selection of the best location to cultivate. Soil, rainfall, PH, temperature, and elevation are main inputs to create the final map. Input data of each factor is managed, visualized and analyzed using Geographic Information System (GIS). Management GIS tools are implemented to produce input maps capable of identifying suitable areas related to each index. The combination of the different indices map generates the final output map of the suitable place to get the best permanent tree productivity. The output map is reclassified into three suitability classes: low, moderate, and high suitability. Results show different locations suitable for different kinds of trees. Results also reflect the importance of GIS in helping decision makers finding a most suitable location for every tree to get more productivity and a variety in crops.

Keywords: Agricultural Production, Geographic Information System, GIS, Crop management, geographical factors, land capability, permanent trees, suitable location

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1 Effect of Climate Variability on Children Health Outcomes in Rural Uganda

Authors: Emily Injete Amondo, Alisher Mirzabaev, Emmanuel Rukundo

Abstract:

Children in rural farming households are often vulnerable to a multitude of risks, including health risks associated with climate change and variability. Cognizant of this, this study empirically traced the relationship between climate variability and nutritional health outcomes in rural children while identifying the cause-and-effect transmission mechanisms. We combined four waves of the rich Uganda National Panel Survey (UNPS), part of the World Bank Living Standards Measurement Studies (LSMS) for the period 2009-2014, with long-term and high-frequency rainfall and temperature datasets. Self-reported drought and flood shock variables were further used in separate regressions for triangulation purposes and robustness checks. Panel fixed effects regressions were applied in the empirical analysis, accounting for a variety of causal identification issues. The results showed significant negative outcomes for children’s anthropometric measurements due to the impacts of moderate and extreme droughts, extreme wet spells, and heatwaves. On the contrary, moderate wet spells were positively linked with nutritional measures. Agricultural production and child diarrhea were the main transmission channels, with heatwaves, droughts, and high rainfall variability negatively affecting crop output. The probability of diarrhea was positively related to increases in temperature and dry spells. Results further revealed that children in households who engaged in ex-ante or anticipatory risk-reducing strategies such as savings had better health outcomes as opposed to those engaged in ex-post coping such as involuntary change of diet. These results highlight the importance of adaptation in smoothing the harmful effects of climate variability on the health of rural households and children in Uganda.

Keywords: Agricultural Production, Diarrhea, extreme weather events, undernutrition, gridded weather data

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