Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

aggregation Related Abstracts

15 The Effect of Proper Drainage on the Cost of Building and Repairing Roads

Authors: Seyed Abbas Tabatabaei, Saeid Amini, Hamid Reza Ghafouri


One of the most important factors in flexible pavement failure is the lack of proper drainage along the roads. Water on the Paving Systems is one of the main parameters of pavement failure. Though, if water is discharged without delay and prior to discharge in order to prevent damaging the pavement the lifetime of the pavement will be considerably increased. In this study, duration of water stay and materials properties in pavement systems and the effects of aggregate gradation, and hydraulic conductivity of the drainage rate and Effects of subsurface drainage systems, drainage and reduction in the lifetime of the pavement have been studied. The study conducted in accordance with the terms offered can be concluded as under. The more hydraulic conductivity the less drainage time and the use of sub-surface drainage system causes two to three times of the pavement lifetime. In this research it has been tried by study and calculate the drained and undrained pavements lifetime by considering the effectiveness of water and drainage coefficient on flexible materials modulus and by using KENLAYER software to compare the present value cost of these pavements has been paid for a 20 year lifetime design. In this study, 14 pavement sections have been considered, of which 7 sections have been drained and 7 other not. Results show that drained pavements have more initial costs but the failure severity is so little in them and have longer lifetime for a 20 year lifetime design, the drained pavements seem so economic.

Keywords: aggregation, Drainage, base and sub-base, elasticity modulus

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14 Predicting Aggregation Propensity from Low-Temperature Conformational Fluctuations

Authors: Hamza Javar Magnier, Robin Curtis


There have been rapid advances in the upstream processing of protein therapeutics, which has shifted the bottleneck to downstream purification and formulation. Finding liquid formulations with shelf lives of up to two years is increasingly difficult for some of the newer therapeutics, which have been engineered for activity, but their formulations are often viscous, can phase separate, and have a high propensity for irreversible aggregation1. We explore means to develop improved predictive ability from a better understanding of how protein-protein interactions on formulation conditions (pH, ionic strength, buffer type, presence of excipients) and how these impact upon the initial steps in protein self-association and aggregation. In this work, we study the initial steps in the aggregation pathways using a minimal protein model based on square-well potentials and discontinuous molecular dynamics. The effect of model parameters, including range of interaction, stiffness, chain length, and chain sequence, implies that protein models fold according to various pathways. By reducing the range of interactions, the folding- and collapse- transition come together, and follow a single-step folding pathway from the denatured to the native state2. After parameterizing the model interaction-parameters, we developed an understanding of low-temperature conformational properties and fluctuations, and the correlation to the folding transition of proteins in isolation. The model fluctuations increase with temperature. We observe a low-temperature point, below which large fluctuations are frozen out. This implies that fluctuations at low-temperature can be correlated to the folding transition at the melting temperature. Because proteins “breath” at low temperatures, defining a native-state as a single structure with conserved contacts and a fixed three-dimensional structure is misleading. Rather, we introduce a new definition of a native-state ensemble based on our understanding of the core conservation, which takes into account the native fluctuations at low temperatures. This approach permits the study of a large range of length and time scales needed to link the molecular interactions to the macroscopically observed behaviour. In addition, these models studied are parameterized by fitting to experimentally observed protein-protein interactions characterized in terms of osmotic second virial coefficients.

Keywords: Protein Folding, aggregation, native-ensemble, conformational fluctuation

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13 Investigations of Protein Aggregation Using Sequence and Structure Based Features

Authors: M. Michael Gromiha, A. Mary Thangakani, Sandeep Kumar, D. Velmurugan


The main cause of several neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzhemier, Parkinson, and spongiform encephalopathies is formation of amyloid fibrils and plaques in proteins. We have analyzed different sets of proteins and peptides to understand the influence of sequence-based features on protein aggregation process. The comparison of 373 pairs of homologous mesophilic and thermophilic proteins showed that aggregation-prone regions (APRs) are present in both. But, the thermophilic protein monomers show greater ability to ‘stow away’ the APRs in their hydrophobic cores and protect them from solvent exposure. The comparison of amyloid forming and amorphous b-aggregating hexapeptides suggested distinct preferences for specific residues at the six positions as well as all possible combinations of nine residue pairs. The compositions of residues at different positions and residue pairs have been converted into energy potentials and utilized for distinguishing between amyloid forming and amorphous b-aggregating peptides. Our method could correctly identify the amyloid forming peptides at an accuracy of 95-100% in different datasets of peptides.

Keywords: aggregation, Machine Learning Techniques, amyloids, thermophilic proteins, amino acid residues

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12 Mechanisms Leading to the Protective Behavior of Ethanol Vapour Drying of Probiotics

Authors: Shahnaz Mansouri, Xiao Dong Chen, Meng Wai Woo


A new antisolvent vapour precipitation approach was used to make ultrafine submicron probiotic encapsulates. The approach uses ethanol vapour to precipitate submicron encapsulates within relatively large droplets. Surprisingly, the probiotics (Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus) showed relatively high survival even under destructive ethanolic conditions within the droplet. This unusual behaviour was deduced to be caused by the denaturation and aggregation of the milk protein forming an ethanolic protective matrix for the probiotics. Skim milk droplets which is rich in casein and contains naturally occurring minerals provided higher ethanolic protection when compared whey protein isolate and lactose droplets.

Keywords: Precipitation, aggregation, encapsulation, probiotic, whey, skim milk, antisolvent, denaturation

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11 Comparative Analysis of Data Gathering Protocols with Multiple Mobile Elements for Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Bhat Geetalaxmi Jairam, D. V. Ashoka


Wireless Sensor Networks are used in many applications to collect sensed data from different sources. Sensed data has to be delivered through sensors wireless interface using multi-hop communication towards the sink. The data collection in wireless sensor networks consumes energy. Energy consumption is the major constraints in WSN .Reducing the energy consumption while increasing the amount of generated data is a great challenge. In this paper, we have implemented two data gathering protocols with multiple mobile sinks/elements to collect data from sensor nodes. First, is Energy-Efficient Data Gathering with Tour Length-Constrained Mobile Elements in Wireless Sensor Networks (EEDG), in which mobile sinks uses vehicle routing protocol to collect data. Second is An Intelligent Agent-based Routing Structure for Mobile Sinks in WSNs (IAR), in which mobile sinks uses prim’s algorithm to collect data. Authors have implemented concepts which are common to both protocols like deployment of mobile sinks, generating visiting schedule, collecting data from the cluster member. Authors have compared the performance of both protocols by taking statistics based on performance parameters like Delay, Packet Drop, Packet Delivery Ratio, Energy Available, Control Overhead. Authors have concluded this paper by proving EEDG is more efficient than IAR protocol but with few limitations which include unaddressed issues likes Redundancy removal, Idle listening, Mobile Sink’s pause/wait state at the node. In future work, we plan to concentrate more on these limitations to avail a new energy efficient protocol which will help in improving the life time of the WSN.

Keywords: Efficiency, Data gathering, aggregation, consumption

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10 DNAJB6 Chaperone Prevents the Aggregation of Intracellular but not Extracellular Aβ Peptides Associated with Alzheimer’s Disease

Authors: Rasha M. Hussein, Reem M. Hashem, Laila A. Rashed


Alzheimer’s disease is the most common dementia disease in the elderly. It is characterized by the accumulation of extracellular amyloid β (Aβ) peptides and intracellular hyper-phosphorylated tau protein. In addition, recent evidence indicates that accumulation of intracellular amyloid β peptides may play a role in Alzheimer’s disease pathogenesis. This suggests that intracellular Heat Shock Proteins (HSP) that maintain the protein quality control in the cell might be potential candidates for disease amelioration. DNAJB6, a member of DNAJ family of HSP, effectively prevented the aggregation of poly glutamines stretches associated with Huntington’s disease both in vitro and in cells. In addition, DNAJB6 was found recently to delay the aggregation of Aβ42 peptides in vitro. In the present study, we investigated the ability of DNAJB6 to prevent the aggregation of both intracellular and extracellular Aβ peptides using transfection of HEK293 cells with Aβ-GFP and recombinant Aβ42 peptides respectively. We performed western blotting and immunofluorescence techniques. We found that DNAJB6 can prevent Aβ-GFP aggregation, but not the seeded aggregation initiated by extracellular Aβ peptides. Moreover, DNAJB6 required interaction with HSP70 to prevent the aggregation of Aβ-GFP protein and its J-domain was essential for this anti-aggregation activity. Interestingly, overexpression of other DNAJ proteins as well as HSPB1 suppressed Aβ-GFP aggregation efficiently. Our findings suggest that DNAJB6 is a promising candidate for the inhibition of Aβ-GFP mediated aggregation through a canonical HSP70 dependent mechanism.

Keywords: aggregation, alzheimer’s disease, , chaperone, DNAJB6

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9 Aggregating Buyers and Sellers for E-Commerce: How Demand and Supply Meet in Fairs

Authors: Pierluigi Gallo, Francesco Randazzo, Ignazio Gallo


In recent years, many new and interesting models of successful online business have been developed. Many of these are based on the competition between users, such as online auctions, where the product price is not fixed and tends to rise. Other models, including group-buying, are based on cooperation between users, characterized by a dynamic price of the product that tends to go down. There is not yet a business model in which both sellers and buyers are grouped in order to negotiate on a specific product or service. The present study investigates a new extension of the group-buying model, called fair, which allows aggregation of demand and supply for price optimization, in a cooperative manner. Additionally, our system also aggregates products and destinations for shipping optimization. We introduced the following new relevant input parameters in order to implement a double-side aggregation: (a) price-quantity curves provided by the seller; (b) waiting time, that is, the longer buyers wait, the greater discount they get; (c) payment time, which determines if the buyer pays before, during or after receiving the product; (d) the distance between the place where products are available and the place of shipment, provided in advance by the buyer or dynamically suggested by the system. To analyze the proposed model we implemented a system prototype and a simulator that allows studying effects of changing some input parameters. We analyzed the dynamic price model in fairs having one single seller and a combination of selected sellers. The results are very encouraging and motivate further investigation on this topic.

Keywords: aggregation, fair, auction, group buying, social buying

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8 Preparation of Wireless Networks and Security; Challenges in Efficient Accession of Encrypted Data in Healthcare

Authors: M. Zayoud, S. Oueida, S. Ionescu, P. AbiChar


Background: Wireless sensor network is encompassed of diversified tools of information technology, which is widely applied in a range of domains, including military surveillance, weather forecasting, and earthquake forecasting. Strengthened grounds are always developed for wireless sensor networks, which usually emerges security issues during professional application. Thus, essential technological tools are necessary to be assessed for secure aggregation of data. Moreover, such practices have to be incorporated in the healthcare practices that shall be serving in the best of the mutual interest Objective: Aggregation of encrypted data has been assessed through homomorphic stream cipher to assure its effectiveness along with providing the optimum solutions to the field of healthcare. Methods: An experimental design has been incorporated, which utilized newly developed cipher along with CPU-constrained devices. Modular additions have also been employed to evaluate the nature of aggregated data. The processes of homomorphic stream cipher have been highlighted through different sensors and modular additions. Results: Homomorphic stream cipher has been recognized as simple and secure process, which has allowed efficient aggregation of encrypted data. In addition, the application has led its way to the improvisation of the healthcare practices. Statistical values can be easily computed through the aggregation on the basis of selected cipher. Sensed data in accordance with variance, mean, and standard deviation has also been computed through the selected tool. Conclusion: It can be concluded that homomorphic stream cipher can be an ideal tool for appropriate aggregation of data. Alongside, it shall also provide the best solutions to the healthcare sector.

Keywords: Encryption, aggregation, cipher, homomorphic stream

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7 Automatic Aggregation and Embedding of Microservices for Optimized Deployments

Authors: Pablo Chico De Guzman, Cesar Sanchez


Microservices are a software development methodology in which applications are built by composing a set of independently deploy-able, small, modular services. Each service runs a unique process and it gets instantiated and deployed in one or more machines (we assume that different microservices are deployed into different machines). Microservices are becoming the de facto standard for developing distributed cloud applications due to their reduced release cycles. In principle, the responsibility of a microservice can be as simple as implementing a single function, which can lead to the following issues: - Resource fragmentation due to the virtual machine boundary. - Poor communication performance between microservices. Two composition techniques can be used to optimize resource fragmentation and communication performance: aggregation and embedding of microservices. Aggregation allows the deployment of a set of microservices on the same machine using a proxy server. Aggregation helps to reduce resource fragmentation, and is particularly useful when the aggregated services have a similar scalability behavior. Embedding deals with communication performance by deploying on the same virtual machine those microservices that require a communication channel (localhost bandwidth is reported to be about 40 times faster than cloud vendor local networks and it offers better reliability). Embedding can also reduce dependencies on load balancer services since the communication takes place on a single virtual machine. For example, assume that microservice A has two instances, a1 and a2, and it communicates with microservice B, which also has two instances, b1 and b2. One embedding can deploy a1 and b1 on machine m1, and a2 and b2 are deployed on a different machine m2. This deployment configuration allows each pair (a1-b1), (a2-b2) to communicate using the localhost interface without the need of a load balancer between microservices A and B. Aggregation and embedding techniques are complex since different microservices might have incompatible runtime dependencies which forbid them from being installed on the same machine. There is also a security concern since the attack surface between microservices can be larger. Luckily, container technology allows to run several processes on the same machine in an isolated manner, solving the incompatibility of running dependencies and the previous security concern, thus greatly simplifying aggregation/embedding implementations by just deploying a microservice container on the same machine as the aggregated/embedded microservice container. Therefore, a wide variety of deployment configurations can be described by combining aggregation and embedding to create an efficient and robust microservice architecture. This paper presents a formal method that receives a declarative definition of a microservice architecture and proposes different optimized deployment configurations by aggregating/embedding microservices. The first prototype is based on i2kit, a deployment tool also submitted to ICWS 2018. The proposed prototype optimizes the following parameters: network/system performance, resource usage, resource costs and failure tolerance.

Keywords: Resource Allocation, deployment, aggregation, embedding

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6 Simulation of Red Blood Cells in Complex Micro-Tubes

Authors: Ting Ye, Nhan Phan-Thien, Chwee Teck Lim, Lina Peng, Huixin Shi


In biofluid flow systems, often the flow problems of fluids of complex structures, such as the flow of red blood cells (RBCs) through complex capillary vessels, need to be considered. In this paper, we aim to apply a particle-based method, Smoothed Dissipative Particle Dynamics (SDPD), to simulate the motion and deformation of RBCs in complex micro-tubes. We first present the theoretical models, including SDPD model, RBC-fluid interaction model, RBC deformation model, RBC aggregation model, and boundary treatment model. After that, we show the verification and validation of these models, by comparing our numerical results with the theoretical, experimental and previously-published numerical results. Finally, we provide some simulation cases, such as the motion and deformation of RBCs in rectangular, cylinder, curved, bifurcated, and constricted micro-tubes, respectively.

Keywords: deformation, aggregation, red blood cell, smoothed dissipative particle dynamics

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5 Multi Tier Data Collection and Estimation, Utilizing Queue Model in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Amirhossein Mohajerzadeh, Abolghasem Mohajerzadeh


In this paper, target parameter is estimated with desirable precision in hierarchical wireless sensor networks (WSN) while the proposed algorithm also tries to prolong network lifetime as much as possible, using efficient data collecting algorithm. Target parameter distribution function is considered unknown. Sensor nodes sense the environment and send the data to the base station called fusion center (FC) using hierarchical data collecting algorithm. FC builds underlying phenomena based on collected data. Considering the aggregation level, x, the goal is providing the essential infrastructure to find the best value for aggregation level in order to prolong network lifetime as much as possible, while desirable accuracy is guaranteed (required sample size is fully depended on desirable precision). First, the sample size calculation algorithm is discussed, second, the average queue length based on M/M[x]/1/K queue model is determined and it is used for energy consumption calculation. Nodes can decrease transmission cost by aggregating incoming data. Furthermore, the performance of the new algorithm is evaluated in terms of lifetime and estimation accuracy.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network, estimation, aggregation, queuing

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4 Solvent Extraction in Ionic Liquids: Structuration and Aggregation Effects on Extraction Mechanisms

Authors: Sandrine Dourdain, Cesar Lopez, Tamir Sukhbaatar, Guilhem Arrachart, Stephane Pellet-Rostaing


A promising challenge in solvent extraction is to replace the conventional organic solvents, with ionic liquids (IL). Depending on the extraction systems, these new solvents show better efficiency than the conventional ones. Although some assumptions based on ions exchanges have been proposed in the literature, these properties are not predictable because the involved mechanisms are still poorly understood. It is well established that the mechanisms underlying solvent extraction processes are based not only on the molecular chelation of the extractant molecules but also on their ability to form supra-molecular aggregates due to their amphiphilic nature. It is therefore essential to evaluate how IL affects the aggregation properties of the extractant molecules. Our aim is to evaluate the influence of IL structure and polarity on solvent extraction mechanisms, by looking at the aggregation of the extractant molecules in IL. We compare extractant systems that are well characterized in common solvents and show thanks to SAXS and SANS measurements, that in the absence of IL ion exchange mechanisms, extraction properties are related to aggregation.

Keywords: aggregation, SAXS, solvent extraction in Ionic liquid, Ionic liquids structure, SANS

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3 Aggregation of Electric Vehicles for Emergency Frequency Regulation of Two-Area Interconnected Grid

Authors: S. Agheb, G. Ledwich, G.Walker, Z.Tong


Frequency control has become more of concern for reliable operation of interconnected power systems due to the integration of low inertia renewable energy sources to the grid and their volatility. Also, in case of a sudden fault, the system has less time to recover before widespread blackouts. Electric Vehicles (EV)s have the potential to cooperate in the Emergency Frequency Regulation (EFR) by a nonlinear control of the power system in case of large disturbances. The time is not adequate to communicate with each individual EV on emergency cases, and thus, an aggregate model is necessary for a quick response to prevent from much frequency deviation and the occurrence of any blackout. In this work, an aggregate of EVs is modelled as a big virtual battery in each area considering various aspects of uncertainty such as the number of connected EVs and their initial State of Charge (SOC) as stochastic variables. A control law was proposed and applied to the aggregate model using Lyapunov energy function to maximize the rate of reduction of total kinetic energy in a two-area network after the occurrence of a fault. The control methods are primarily based on the charging/ discharging control of available EVs as shunt capacity in the distribution system. Three different cases were studied considering the locational aspect of the model with the virtual EV either in the center of the two areas or in the corners. The simulation results showed that EVs could help the generator lose its kinetic energy in a short time after a contingency. Earlier estimation of possible contributions of EVs can help the supervisory control level to transmit a prompt control signal to the subsystems such as the aggregator agents and the grid. Thus, the percentage of EVs contribution for EFR will be characterized in the future as the goal of this study.

Keywords: Electric Vehicle, aggregation, emergency frequency regulation, Lyapunov energy function

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2 Effect of Alkalinity of Water on the Aggregation of Colloidal Silver Nanoparticles

Authors: Fedda Y. Alzoubi, Ihsan A. Aljarrah


Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are one of the most vital and fascinating nanomaterials among several metallic nanoparticles that are involved in different applications, especially in biomedical applications. Samples of different alkaline water were prepared in order to study the effect of alkalinity of water on the optical properties, size, and morphology of colloidal AgNPs prepared according to the chemical reduction method using the prepared water samples. Ultraviolet-Visible spectrophotometer, Zeta-sizer, and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) have been utilized to carry out this study. Absorption spectra AgNPs in different alkaline water show a surface Plasmon resonance (SPR) peak at the wavelength of 420 nm. The position of this peak is sensitive to the shape of the particles, and in our case, it indicates that the particles are spherical. As the alkalinity increases, the intensity of the SPR peak decreases, indicating the aggregation of particles. Zeta-sizer measurements show that the average diameter for AgNPs in pure water is found to be 53.51 nm, and this value increases as the alkalinity increases. Zeta potential values of samples show that the negatively coated particles are stable in the solution. SEM images insure the spherical shape of the prepared nanoparticles and show that as the alkalinity increases the particles aggregate into larger particles.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, aggregation, Colloid, alkalinity

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1 Analysis of Rural Roads in Developing Countries Using Principal Component Analysis and Simple Average Technique in the Development of a Road Safety Performance Index

Authors: Muhammad Tufail, Jawad Hussain, Hammad Hussain, Imran Hafeez, Naveed Ahmad


Road safety performance index is a composite index which combines various indicators of road safety into single number. Development of a road safety performance index using appropriate safety performance indicators is essential to enhance road safety. However, a road safety performance index in developing countries has not been given as much priority as needed. The primary objective of this research is to develop a general Road Safety Performance Index (RSPI) for developing countries based on the facility as well as behavior of road user. The secondary objectives include finding the critical inputs in the RSPI and finding the better method of making the index. In this study, the RSPI is developed by selecting four main safety performance indicators i.e., protective system (seat belt, helmet etc.), road (road width, signalized intersections, number of lanes, speed limit), number of pedestrians, and number of vehicles. Data on these four safety performance indicators were collected using observation survey on a 20 km road section of the National Highway N-125 road Taxila, Pakistan. For the development of this composite index, two methods are used: a) Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and b) Equal Weighting (EW) method. PCA is used for extraction, weighting, and linear aggregation of indicators to obtain a single value. An individual index score was calculated for each road section by multiplication of weights and standardized values of each safety performance indicator. However, Simple Average technique was used for weighting and linear aggregation of indicators to develop a RSPI. The road sections are ranked according to RSPI scores using both methods. The two weighting methods are compared, and the PCA method is found to be much more reliable than the Simple Average Technique.

Keywords: aggregation, indicators, Principle Component Analysis, weighting, index score

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