Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 34

age Related Abstracts

34 Effects of the Age, Education, and Mental Illness Experience on Depressive Disorder Stigmatization

Authors: Soowon Park, Min-Ji Kim, Jun-Young Lee


Motivation: The stigma of mental illness has been studied in many disciplines, including social psychology, counseling psychology, sociology, psychiatry, public health care, and related areas, because individuals labeled as ‘mentally ill’ are often deprived of their rights and their life opportunities. To understand the factors that deepen the stigma of mental illness, it is important to understand the influencing factors of the stigma. Problem statement: Depression is a common disorder in adults, but the incidence of help-seeking is low. Researchers have believed that this poor help-seeking behavior is related to the stigma of mental illness, which results from low mental health literacy. However, it is uncertain that increasing mental health literacy decreases mental health stigmatization. Furthermore, even though decreasing stigmatization is important, the stigma of mental illness is still a stable and long-lasting phenomenon. Thus, factors other than knowledge about mental disorders have the power to maintain the stigma. Investigating the influencing factors that facilitate the stigma of psychiatric disease could help lower the social stigmatization. Approach: Face-to-face interviews were conducted with a multi-clustering sample. A total of 700 Korean participants (38% male), ranging in age from 18 to 78 (M(SD)age= 48.5(15.7)) answered demographical questions, Korean version of Link’s Perceived Devaluation and Discrimination (PDD) scale for the assessment of social stigmatization against depression, and the Korean version of the WHO-Composite International Diagnostic Interview for the assessment of mental disorders. Multiple-regression was conducted to find the predicting factors of social stigmatization against depression. Ages, sex, years of education, income, living location, and experience of mental illness were used as the predictors. Results: Predictors accounted for 14% of the variance in the stigma of depressive disorders (F(6, 693) = 20.27, p < .001). Among those, only age, years of education, and experience of mental illness significantly predicted social stigmatization against depression. The standardized regression coefficient of age had a negative association with stigmatization (β = -.20, p < .001), but years of education (β = .20, p < .001) and experience of mental illness (β = .08, p < .05) positively predicted depression stigmatization. Conclusions: The present study clearly demonstrates the association between personal factors and depressive disorder stigmatization. Younger age, more education, and self-stigma appeared to increase the stigmatization. Young, highly educated, and mentally ill people tend to reject patients with depressive disorder as friends, teachers, or babysitters; they also tend to think that those patients have lower intelligence and abilities. These results suggest the possibility that people from a high social class, or highly educated people, who have the power to make decisions, help maintain the social stigma against mental illness patients. To increase the awareness that people from high social classes have more stigmatization against depressive disorders will help decrease the biased attitudes against mentally ill patients.

Keywords: Education, age, depressive disorder stigmatization, self-stigma

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33 Diversity Management of Gender, Age and Disability in the Banking Sector in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Nada Azhar


As a developing country, The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) needs to make the best possible use of its workforce for social and economic reasons. The workforce is diverse, calling for appropriate diversity management (DM). The thesis focuses on the banking sector in KSA. To date, there have been no studies on DM in the banking sector in this country. Many organizations have introduced specific policies and programmes to improve the recruitment, inclusion, promotion, and retention of diverse employees, in addition to the legal requirements existing in many countries. However, Western-centric models of DM may not be applicable, at least not in their entirety, in other regions. The aim of the study is to devise a framework for understanding gender, age and disability DM in the banking sector in KSA in order to enhance DM in this sector. A sample of 24 managers, 2 from each of the 12 banks, was interviewed to obtain their views on DM in the banking sector in KSA. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. These themes were used to develop the questionnaire, which was administered to 10 managers in each of the 12 banks. After analysis of these data, and completion of the study, the research will make a theoretical contribution to the knowledge on DM and a practical contribution to the management of diversity in Saudi banks. This paper concerns a work in progress.

Keywords: Gender, Diversity, Disability, age, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

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32 Effect of Age and Physiological Status on Some Serum Energy Metabolites and Progesterone in Ouled Djellal Breed Ewes in Algeria

Authors: B. Safsaf, M. Tlidjane, B. Mamache, M. A. Dehimi, H. Boukrous, Aly A. Hassan


The aim of this study is to determine the effect of age and physiological status on progesterone and energy metabolism of Ouled Djellal (O.D) breed ewes. 40 healthy ewes were divided into two groups, primiparous and multiparous, with 20 ewes in each group. The body weights (BW) (kg) were 46.6 ± 4.20 and 59.2 ± 3.02, and consuming less 25 to 30% of their basal energetic requirements. The values of serum glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol were lower in pregnant than in non-pregnant ewes. The high to very high significant differences were found during the 15th week of pregnancy for glycaemia and triglyceridemia respectively. Concerning serum progesterone, a very highly significant difference (p < 0.001) was noted in the pregnant group, and the values were higher in MP than in PP. After lambing, the triglyceridemia values were slightly lower in primiparous than in multiparous pregnant ewes. In order to prevent imbalance during critical periods of reproduction, we can use the serum metabolic profile.

Keywords: age, progesterone, energy metabolites, ouled djellal breed ewes, physiologic status

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31 Evaluation of Biochemical Parameters in the Blood of Dromedary (Camelus Dromedarius)

Authors: M. Titaouine, T. Meziane, K. Deghnouche


The purpose of this study was to determine reference serum biochemistry values from dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) in Algeria and to evaluate potential sources of physiological variability such as the sex, age and season on serum data. Usual serum biochemistry values were determined in blood samples from 26 apparently healthy dromedaries, 11 males and 15 females, divided into 3 lots (ender 4years), (between 5 and 10 years), (up 10 years). Parametric reference ranges and physiological variations are determined for calcium (Ca), organic phosphate (P), magnesium (Mg), natrium (Na), potassium (K), iron (Fe), glucose, triglycerides (TG), cholesterol, urea, creatinine, total proteins and albumin. The results demonstrate: * Values which agreed with literature * Significant statistically differences (Anova test, p < 0.05) depending on: -the sex for Na, glucose, TG, cholesterol, urea, creatinine, albumin, -the age for Ca, P, K, Mg, glucose, TG, b and g globulin, -and season for Fe, urea, total proteins, TG, cholesterol and glucose. These reference ranges for serum biochemical analysis can be used for metabolic and nutritional disorders detection in dromedary.

Keywords: Biochemistry, Sex, age, season, dromadery

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30 Thyroid Malignancy Concurrent with Hyperthyroidism: Variations with Thyroid Status and Age

Authors: N. J. Nawarathna, N. R. Kmarasinghe, D. Chandrasekara, B. M. R. S. Balasooriya, R. A. A. Shaminda, R. J. K. Senevirathne


Introduction: Thyroid malignancy associated with hyperthyroidism is considered rare. Retrospective studies have shown the incidence of thyroid malignancy in hyperthyroid patients to be low (0.7-8.5%). To assess the clinical relevance of this association, thyroid status in a cohort of patients with thyroid malignancy were analyzed. Method: Thyroid malignancies diagnosed histologically in 56 patients, over a 18 month period beginning from April 2013, in a single surgical unit at Teaching Hospital Kandy were included. Preoperative patient details and progression of thyroid status were asessed with Thyroid Stimulating Hormone, free Thyroxin and free Triiodothyronine levels. Results: Amongst 56 patients Papillary carcinoma was diagnosed in 44(78.6%), follicular carcinomas in 7(12.5%) and 5(8.9%) with medullary and anaplastic carcinomas. 12(21.4%) were males and 44(78.6%) were females. 20(35.7%) were less than 40years, 29(51.8%) were between 40 to 59years and 7(12.5%) were above 59years. Cross tabulation of Type of carcinoma with Gender revealed likelihood ratio of 6.908, Significance p = 0.032. Biochemically 12(21.4%) were hyperthyroid. Out of them 5(41.7%) had primary hyperthyroidism and 7(58.3%) had secondary hyperthyroidism. Mean age of euthyroid patients was 43.77years (SD 10.574) and hyperthyroid patients was 53.25years(SD 16.057). Independent Samples Test t is -2.446, two tailed significance p =0.018. When cross tabulate thyroid status with Age group Likelihood Ratio was 9.640, Significance p = 0.008. Conclusion: Papillary carcinoma is seen more among females. Among the patients with thyroid carcinomas, those with biochemically proven hyperthyroidism were more among the older age group than those who were euthyroid. Hence careful evaluation of elderly hyperthyroid patients to select the most suitable therapeutic approach is justified.

Keywords: age, Hyperthyroidism, thyroid malignancy, thyroid status

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29 Effects of Age and Energy Expenditure on Obesity Among Adults in Abeokuta, Nigeria

Authors: Adeniyi Samuel Adekoya


The study assessed the independent effects of age and energy expenditure on the risks of obesity among adults (20-64 years). A cross-sectional study with changes in age, changes in work and leisure-time, and physical activities information played roles, with cut-off for energy expenditure and BMI in rural and urban localities. Physical activity information determined the energy expenditure, while the BMI determined the risk of obesity among the subjects. Statistically, age has a strong and direct association with obesity in both rural and urban settings, while energy expenditure was inverse in its association. Findings from the this study showed that in developing societies, age tends to be a risk factor for obesity, whereas energy expenditure is to be protective. Level of education and economic development are also relevant modifiers of the influences exerted by these variables.

Keywords: age, Energy Expenditure, BMI, rural/urban

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28 The Use of a Rabbit Model to Evaluate the Influence of Age on Excision Wound Healing

Authors: I. Hussain, S. Bilal, S. A. Bhat, J. D. Parrah, S. P. Ahmad, M. R. Mir


Background: The wound healing involves a highly coordinated cascade of cellular and immunological response over a period including coagulation, inflammation, granulation tissue formation, epithelialization, collagen synthesis and tissue remodeling. Wounds in aged heal more slowly than those in younger, mainly because of comorbidities that occur as one age. The present study is about the influence of age on wound healing. 1x1cm^2 (100 mm) wounds were created on the back of the animal. The animals were divided into two groups; one group had animals in the age group of 3-9 months while another group had animals in the age group of 15-21 months. Materials and Methods: 24 clinically healthy rabbits in the age group of 3-21 months were used as experimental animals and divided into two groups viz A and B. All experimental parameters, i.e., Excision wound model, Measurement of wound area, Protein extraction and estimation, Protein extraction and estimation and DNA extraction and estimation were done by standard methods. Results: The parameters studied were wound contraction, hydroxyproline, glucosamine, protein, and DNA. A significant increase (p<0.005) in the hydroxyproline, glucosamine, protein and DNA and a significant decrease in wound area (p<0.005) was observed in the age group of 3-9 months when compared to animals of an age group of 15-21 months. Wound contraction together with hydroxyproline, glucosamine, protein and DNA estimations suggest that advanced age results in retarded wound healing. Conclusion: The decrease wound contraction and accumulation of hydroxyproline, glucosamine, protein and DNA in group B animals may be associated with the reduction or delay in growth factors because of the advancing age.

Keywords: age, Wound Healing, excision wound, hydroxyproline, glucosamine

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27 Age and Population Structure of the Goby Parapocryptes Serperaster in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, Based on Length-Frequency and Otolith Analyses

Authors: Quang Minh Dinh, Jian Guang Qin, Sabine Dittmann, Dinh Dac Tran


The age and population structure the dermal gopy Parapocryptes serperaster were studied using length distributions, otolith and von Bertalanffy model in the Mekong Delta over a whole year through monthly sampling. The sex ratio of P. serperaster was near 1:1, and von Bertalanffy growth parameters were L∞= 25.2 cm, K = 0.74 yr-1, and t0 = -0.22 yr-1. Fish size at first entry to fishery was 14.6 cm, and fishing mortality (1.57 yr-1) and natural mortality (1.51 yr-1) accounted for 51% and 49% of the total mortality (3.07 yr-1), respectively. Relative yield-per-recruit and biomass-per-recruit analyses revealed the levels of maximum exploitation yield (Emax = 0.83), maximum economic yield (E0.1 = 0.71) and the yield at 50% reduction of exploitation (E0.5 = 0.37). Otoliths from 164 female and 196 male gobies were readable, and the otolith morphometry data were used for age identification. The mean age estimated by reading otolith annual rings and by analysing length frequency distribution was consistent. This study shows that the otolith morphometry is a reliable method for aging this goby and possibly also applicable for other tropical gobies. The fishery analysis indicates that this goby stock has not been overexploited in the Mekong Delta.

Keywords: age, Vietnam, Parapcryptes serperaster, otolith, pulation structure

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26 Descriptive Epidemiology of Mortality in Certain Species of Captive Deer in Pakistan

Authors: Umer Farooq, Musadiq Idris, Sajjad Ali, Syed A. Khaliq


Postmortem record of 217 captive ungulates including Black-buck (n=31), Chinkara (n=20), Hog deer (n=116), Spotted deer (n=35), Red Deer n=(04), and Rusa deer (n=11) submitted to the Veterinary Research Institute, Lahore, Pakistan was analyzed to determine the primary cause of mortality in these animals. The submissions included temporal distribution from Government wildlife captive farms, zoo, and private ownerships, over a three year period (2007-2009). The most common cause of death was found to be trauma (20.27%), followed by parasitic diseases (15.67%), bacterial diseases (11.98%), stillbirths (9.21%), snakebites (2.76%), gut affections (2.30%), neoplasia (1.38%) and starvation (0.92%). The exact cause of death could not be determined in 77 of 217 animals. Pneumonia (8.29%) and tuberculosis (3.69%) were the most common bacterial diseases. Analyses for parasitic infestation revealed tapeworms to be highest (11.05%), followed by roundworms (8.29%) and hemoparasitism (5.07%) (babesiosis and theileriosis). The mortality rate in young ungulates was lower as compared to adults (32.26% and 67.74%). Gender wise data presented higher mortality in females (55.30%) compared to males (44.70%). In conclusion, highest mortality factor in captive ungulates was trauma, followed by parasitic and bacterial infestations/infections of tapeworms and pneumonia, respectively. Furthermore, necropsies provided substantial information on etiology of death and other related epidemiological aspects.

Keywords: Epidemiology, Gender, age, Mortality, ungulates

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25 Vertebral Pain Features in Women of Different Age Depending on Body Mass Index

Authors: Vladyslav Povoroznyuk, Nataliia Dzerovych, Tetiana Orlуk


Introduction: Back pain is an extremely common health care problem worldwide. Many studies show a link between an obesity and risk of lower back pain. The aim is to study correlation and peculiarities of vertebral pain in women of different age depending on their anthropometric indicators. Materials: 1886 women aged 25-89 years were examined. The patients were divided into groups according to age (25-44, 45-59, 60-74, 75-89 years old) and body mass index (BMI: to 18.4 kg/m2 (underweight), 18.5-24.9 kg/m2 (normal), 25-30 kg/m2 (overweight) and more than 30.1 kg/m2 (obese). Methods: The presence and intensity of pain was evaluated in the thoracic and lumbar spine using a visual analogue scale (VAS). BMI is calculated by the standard formula based on body weight and height measurements. Statistical analysis was performed using parametric and nonparametric methods. Significant changes were considered as p <0.05. Results: The intensity of pain in the thoracic spine was significantly higher in the underweight women in the age groups of 25-44 years (p = 0.04) and 60-74 years (p=0.005). The intensity of pain in the lumbar spine was significantly higher in the women of 45-59 years (p = 0.001) and 60-74 years (p = 0.0003) with obesity. In the women of 45-74 years BMI was significantly positively correlated with the level of pain in the lumbar spine. Obesity significantly increases the relative risk of pain in the lumbar region (RR=0.07 (95% CI: 1.03-1.12; p=0.002)), while underweight significantly increases the risk of pain in the thoracic region (RR=1.21 (95% CI: 1.00-1.46; p=0.05)). Conclusion: In women, vertebral pain syndrome may be related to the anthropometric characteristics (e.g., BMI). Underweight may indirectly influence the development of pain in the thoracic spine and increase the risk of pain in this part by 1.21 times. Obesity influences the development of pain in the lumbar spine increasing the risk by 1.07 times.

Keywords: Women, age, body mass index, pain in thoracic and lumbar spine

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24 Accidents and Close Call Situations Connected to the Use of Mobile Phones in Working-Age People ≥ 50 Years Old

Authors: Leena Korpinen, Rauno Pääkkönen, Fabriziomaria Gobba


The aim of this paper is to investigate accidents and close call situations connected to the use of mobile phones in working-age people ≥ 50 years old. The paper is part of a cross-sectional study that was carried out in 2002 in 15,000 working-age Finns. The study showed that mobile-phone-related accidents and close call situations, both at work and at leisure, are more common in people under 50 years that in people ≥ 50 years old. However, people under 50 use mobile phones more than those aged ≥ 50.

Keywords: age, accident, mobile phone, close call situation

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23 Short-Term and Working Memory Differences Across Age and Gender in Children

Authors: Farzaneh Badinloo, Niloufar Jalali-Moghadam, Reza Kormi-Nouri


The aim of this study was to explore the short-term and working memory performances across age and gender in school aged children. Most of the studies have been interested in looking into memory changes in adult subjects. This study was instead focused on exploring both short-term and working memories of children over time. Totally 410 school child participants belonging to four age groups (approximately 8, 10, 12 and 14 years old) among which were 201 girls and 208 boys were employed in the study. digits forward and backward tests of the Wechsler children intelligence scale-revised were conducted respectively as short-term and working memory measures. According to results, there was found a general increment in both short-term and working memory scores across age (p ˂ .05) by which whereas short-term memory performance was shown to increase up to 12 years old, working memory scores showed no significant increase after 10 years old of age. No difference was observed in terms of gender (p ˃ .05). In conclusion, this study suggested that both short-term and working memories improve across age in children where 12 and 10 years of old are likely the crucial age periods in terms of short-term and working memories development.

Keywords: Gender, Working memory, age, short-term memory

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22 Well-being of Lagos Urban Mini-bus Drivers: The Influence of Age and Marital Status

Authors: Bolajoko I. Malomo, Maryam O. Yusuf


Lagos urban mini-bus drivers play a critical role in the transportation sector. The current major mode of transportation within Lagos metropolis remains road transportation and this confirms the relevance of urban mini-bus drivers in transporting the populace to their various destinations. Other modes of transportation such as the train and waterways are currently inadequate. Various threats to the well-being of urban bus drivers include congested traffic typical of modern day lifestyles, dwindling financial returns due to long hours in traffic, fewer hours of sleep, inadequate diet, time pressure, and assaults related to fare disputes. Several health-related problems have been documented to be associated with urban bus driving. For instance, greater rates of hypertension, obesity and cholesterol level has been reported. Research studies are yet to identify the influence of age and marital status on the well-being of urban mini-bus drivers in Lagos metropolis. A study of this nature is necessary as it is culturally perceived in Nigeria that older and married people are especially influenced by family affiliation and would behave in ways that would project positive outcomes. The study sample consisted of 150 urban mini-bus drivers who were conveniently sampled from six (6) different terminuses where their journey begins and terminates. The well-being questionnaire was administered to participants. The criteria for inclusion in the study included the ability to read in English language and the confirmation that interested participants were on duty and suited to be driving mini-buses. Due to the nature of the job of bus driving, the researcher administered the questionnaires on participants who were free and willing to respond to the survey. All participants were males of various age groups and of different marital statuses. Results of analyses conducted revealed no significant influence of age and marital status on the well-being of urban mini-bus drivers. This indicates that the well-being of urban mini-bus drivers is not influenced by age nor marital status. The findings of this study have cultural implications. It negates the popularly held belief that older and married people care more about their well-being than younger and single people. It brings to fore the need to also identify and consider other factors when certifying people for the job of urban bus driving.

Keywords: age, marital status, Lagos metropolis, well-being of urban mini bus drivers

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21 Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Nutrition Related Non-Communicable Diseases in a Cohort of Males in the Central Province of Sri Lanka

Authors: N. W. I. A. Jayawardana, W. A. T. A. Jayalath, W. M. T. Madhujith, U. Ralapanawa, R. S. Jayasekera, S. A. S. B. Alagiyawanna, A. M. K. R. Bandara, N. S. Kalupahana


There is mounting evidence to the effect that dietary and lifestyle changes affect the incidence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). This study was conducted to investigate the association of diet, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and duration of sleep with overweight, obesity, hypertension and diabetes in a cohort of males from the Central Province of Sri Lanka. A total of 2694 individuals aged between 17 – 68 years (Mean = 31) were included in the study. Body Mass Index cutoff values for Asians were used to categorize the participants as normal, overweight and obese. The dietary data were collected using a food frequency questionnaire [FFQ] and data on the level of physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and sleeping hours were obtained using a self-administered validated questionnaire. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, random blood glucose levels were measured to determine the incidence of hypertension and diabetes. Among the individuals, the prevalence of overweight and obesity were 34% and 16.4% respectively. Approximately 37% of the participants suffered from hypertension. Overweight and obesity were associated with older age men (P<0.0001), frequency of smoking (P=0.0434), alcohol consumption level (P=0.0287) and the quantity of lipid intake (P=0.0081). Consumption of fish (P=0.6983) and salty snacks (P=0.8327), sleeping hours (P=0.6847) and the level of physical activity were not significantly (P=0.3301) associated with the incidence of overweight and obesity. Based on the fitted model, only age was significantly associated with hypertension (P < 0.001). Further, age (P < 0.0001), sleeping hours (P=0.0953) and consumption of fatty foods (P=0.0930) were significantly associated with diabetes. Age was associated with higher odds of pre diabetes (OR:1.089;95% CI:1.053,1.127) and diabetes (OR:1.077;95% CI:1.055,1.1) whereas 7-8 hrs. of sleep per day was associated with lesser odds of diabetes (OR:0.403;95% CI:0.184,0.884). High prevalence of overweight, obesity and hypertension in working-age males is a threatening sign for this area. As this population ages in the future and urbanization continues, the prevalence of above risk factors will likely to escalate.

Keywords: Obesity, Non-communicable diseases, age, Males

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20 Systolic Blood Pressure and Its Determinants: Study in a Population Attending Pharmacies in a Portuguese Coastal City

Authors: M. J. Reis Lima, J. Oliveira, M. Brito, C. Lemos, A. Mascarenhas, E. Teixeira Lemos


Hypertension is a common condition causing cardio and cerebrovascular complications. Portugal has one of the highest mortality rates from stroke and a high prevalence of hypertension. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) is an important risk factor for cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction and stroke) and premature mortality, particularly in the elderly population. The present study aims to estimate the prevalence of hypertension in a Portuguese population living in a coastal city and to identify some of its determinants (namely gender, age, the body mass index and physical activity frequency). A total of 91 adults who attended three pharmacies of a coastal city in the center of Portugal, between May and August of 2013 were evaluated. Attendants who reported to have diabetes or taking antihypertensive drugs in the 2 previous weeks were excluded from the study. Sociodemographic factors, BMI, habits of exercise and BP were assessed. Hypertension was defined as blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg. The majority of the studied population was constituted by women (75.8%), with a mean age of 54.2±1.6 years old, married or living in civil union and that had completed secondary school or had higher education (40%). They presented a mean BMI of 26.2±4.76 Kg/m2. and were sedentary. The mean BP was 127.0±17.77mmHg- 74.69 ± 9.53. In this population, we found 4.3% of people with hypertension and 16.1% with normal high blood pressure. Men exhibit a tendency to present higher systolic blood pressure values than women. Of all the factors considered, SBP values also tended to be higher with age and higher BMI values. Despite the fact that the mean values of SBP did not present values higher than 140 mmHg we must be concerned because the studied population is undiagnosed for hypertension. Our study even with some limitations might be a prelude to the upcoming research about the underlying factors responsible for the occurrence of SBP.

Keywords: Exercise, Hypertension, age, obesity and gender

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19 Effect of Provitamin a Biofortified Maize Inclusion Diet on Consumers' Acceptability of Ovambo Chicken Meat

Authors: Muthulisi Siwela, Feyisayo Odunitan-Wayas, Unathi Kolanisi, Micheal Chimonyo


Consumers’ surveys have indicated low acceptability of provitamin A biofortified maize (PABM), a high vitamin A (HVA) maize in Southern Africa to curb vitamin A deficiency (VAD). Indigenous chickens are reared and consumed by almost all rural households which are the major VAD prone areas in southern Africa. The objective of this study was to determine if HVA diet fed to the Ovambo indigenous chicken breed will influence consumers’ acceptability of the meat. The leg (thigh and drumstick) of the male birds (21 weeks old) were used for the sensory characteristics. 52 consumer panellists evaluated the sensory characteristics on based on a 5-point hedonic scale and preference test. There was no significant difference (P<0.05) in the preference test between the two diets. There were no significant differences (P<0.05) between the diets based on all sensory characteristics. Age and gender of the consumers and their interactions had no effect (P<0.05) on the acceptability and sensory characteristic ratings. It was concluded that indigenous chickens fed provitamin A biofortified maize can be a possible tool for curbing VAD in southern Africa regions where there is low acceptability of the human consumption of provitamin A biofortified maize. It was concluded that PABM diet fed to indigenous chickens will not influence the acceptability of the chicken meat by VAD vulnerable consumers.

Keywords: Gender, age, chicken meat, biofortified pro-vitamin a maize, ovambo, sensory characteristics

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18 The Colorectal Cancer in Patients of Eastern Algeria

Authors: S. Tebibel, C. Mechati, S. Messaoudi


Algeria is currently experiencing the same rate of cancer progression as that registered these last years in the western countries. Colorectal cancer, constituting increasingly a major public health problem, is the most common form of cancer after breast and Neck-womb cancer at the woman and prostate cancer at the man. Our work is based on a retrospective study to determine the cases of colorectal cancer through eastern Algeria. Our goal is to carry out an epidemiological, histological and immune- histochemical study to investigate different techniques for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer and their interests and specific in detecting the disease. The study includes 110 patients (aged between 20 to 87 years) with colorectal cancer where the inclusions and exclusions criteria were established. In our study, colorectal cancer, expresses a male predominance, with a sex ratio of 1, 99 and the most affected age group is between 50 and 59 years. We noted that the colon cancer rate is higher than rectal cancer rate, whose frequencies are respectively 60,91 % and 39,09 %. In the series of colon cancer, the ADK lieberkunien is histological the most represented type, or 85,07 % of all cases. In contrast, the proportion of ADK mucinous (colloid mucous) is only 1,49% only. Well-differentiated ADKS, are very significant in our series, they represent 83,58 % of cases. Adenocarcinoma moderately and poorly differentiated, whose proportions are respectively 2,99 % and 0.05 %. For histological varieties of rectal ADK, we see in our workforce that ADK lieberkunien represent the most common histological form, or 76,74%, while the mucosal colloid is 13,95 %. Research of the mutation on the gene encoding K-ras, a major step in the targeted therapy of colorectal cancers, is underway in our study. Colorectal cancer is the subject of much promising research concern: the evaluation of new therapies (antiangiogenic monoclonal antibodies), the search for predictors of sensitivity to chemotherapy and new prognostic markers using techniques of molecular biology and proteomics.

Keywords: Epidemiology, Sex, age, colorectal cancer, adenocarcinoma, histological section

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17 Prevalence of Oral Tori in Malaysia: A Teaching Hospital Based Cross Sectional Study

Authors: Renjith George, Preethy Mary Donald


Oral tori are localized non-neoplastic protuberances of maxilla and mandible. Torus palatinus (TP) is found on the midline of the roof of mouth existing as single growth or in clusters. Torus mandibularis(TM) is located on the lingual aspect of the mandible commonly between canine and premolar region. Etiology of their presence was not clear and was found to be multifactorial. Their variations in relation to age, gender, ethnicity and also the characteristics of TP and TM have become the interest of multiple studies. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of torus palatinus (TP) and torus mandibularis (TM) among patients who have visited outpatient department, Faculty of Dentistry, Melaka Manipal Medical College. 108 patients were examined for the presence of oral tori at the outpatient department, Faculty of Dentistry, Melaka-Manipal Medical College. Factors such as age, gender, ethnicity of the patients and size, shape, location of the oral tori were studied. For TP, Malays (62.96%) have been found to have the highest prevalence than Chinese (43.3%) and Indians (35.71%). For TM, Chinese (7.46%) had predominated compared to Malays (7.41%) and Indians (0%). There is no significant association between occurrence of TP and TM with age, gender and ethnicity. For Torus palatinus, the most common size was Grade 1(1-3mm), most common location was molar region, and the most common shape was spindle. For Torus mandibularis, the most frequent location was canine premolar region and exists in unilateral single or bilateral single fashion. The overall prevalence rates were 47.2% for TP and 6.48% for TM. However, there is no significant association between occurrence of TP and TM with age, gender and ethnicity. The results showed variations in clinical characteristics and support the findings that occurrence of tori is a dynamic phenomenon which is multifactorial owing to the environmental factors such as stress from occlusion and dietary habits. It could be due to the genetic make-up of the individual.

Keywords: Gender, age, torus palatinus, torus mandibularis

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16 Age and Sex Identification among Egyptian Population Using Fingerprint Ridge Density

Authors: Nazih Ramadan, Manal Mohy-Eldine, Amani Hanoon, Alaa Shehab


Background and Aims: The study of fingerprints is widely used in providing a clue regarding identity. Age and gender identification from fingerprints is an important step in forensic anthropology in order to minimize the list of suspects search. The aim of this study was to determine finger ridge density and patterns among Egyptians, and to estimate age and gender using ridge densities. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 177 randomly-selected healthy Egyptian subjects (90 males and 87 females). They were divided into three age groups; Group (a): from 6-< 12 years, group (b) from 12-< 18 years and group (c) ≥ 18 years. Bilateral digital prints, from every subject, were obtained by the inking procedure. Ridge count per 25 mm² was determined together with assessment of ridge pattern type. Statistical analysis was done with references to different age and sex groups. Results: There was a statistical significant difference in ridge density between the different age groups; where younger ages had significantly higher ridge density than older ages. Females proved to have significantly higher ridge density than males. Also, there was a statistically significant negative correlation between age and ridge density. Ulnar loops were the most frequent pattern among Egyptians then whorls then arches then radial loops. Finally, different regression models were constructed to estimate age and gender from fingerprints ridge density. Conclusion: fingerprint ridge density can be used to identify both age and sex of subjects. Further studies are recommended on different populations, larger samples or using different methods of fingerprint recording and finger ridge counting.

Keywords: age, Fingerprints, sex identification, Egyptian population, ridge density

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15 Age and Second Language Acquisition: A Case Study from Maldives

Authors: Aaidha Hammad


The age a child to be exposed to a second language is a controversial issue in communities such as the Maldives where English is taught as a second language. It has been observed that different stakeholders have different viewpoints towards the issue. Some believe that the earlier children are exposed to a second language, the better they learn, while others disagree with the notion. Hence, this case study investigates whether children learn a second language better when they are exposed at an earlier age or not. The spoken and written data collected confirm that earlier exposure helps in mastering the sound pattern and speaking fluency with more native-like accent, while a later age is better for learning more abstract and concrete aspects such as grammar and syntactic rules.

Keywords: Second language acquisition, age, fluency, development of language skills

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14 Diapause Incidence in Zygogramma bicolorata Pallister Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae

Authors: Fazil Hasan, M. Shafiq Ansari, Mohammad Muslim


Zygogramma bicolorata Pallister (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is an exotic insect and effective biocontrol agent of Parthenium hysterophorus L. (Asteraceae). Our study aimed to determine the induction and termination of diapause, in response to abiotic (temperature and moisture) and biotic factors (age and reproductive status) and the effect of diapause on adult longevity and female fecundity. The adults burrowed into the soil about 1–6 cm below the surface for diapause at any time from July to December with a peak of 70% in the 2nd week of December at Aligarh region, India. The termination of diapause took place in May and June with the commencement of monsoon rains. Non-diapausing adults were also capable of breeding during winter under laboratory conditions. There was a significantly increased in the percentage of diapaused adults in subsequent generation i.e. 4% in F1 generation and 90% in F7 generation. The percentage of diapause was also significantly increased with age of adults. It has a positive effect on female fecundity as compared to the fecundity in pre-diapaused duration. Experiments proved that soil moisture played an important role in providing the conditions for initiation and termination of diapause. The adults which undergone diapause in January and February were continuously exposed to 35º, 40º and 45º C for one week and a daily dose of 10 and 8 hours for 6 and 5 days, respectively resulting in termination of diapause. This method may be used to initiate mass multiplication for carrying out releases early in the season. Exposure of adults to extremely low temperatures i.e. 5º and 10º C induced 94.3% and 92.5% diapause, respectively with no adult mortality. Therefore, low temperatures can also be used as a medium for the storage of mass reared beetles for a long time without having negative effect on their longevity and fecundity. Thus, our findings are of great utility in the biological suppression of P. hysterophorus as it will enhance the effectiveness of this beetle through manipulation of diapause.

Keywords: Sex, age, Biocontrol, Environmental Factors, Zygogramma bicolorata, diapause, Parthenium hysterophorus

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13 Shocks and Flows - Employing a Difference-In-Difference Setup to Assess How Conflicts and Other Grievances Affect the Gender and Age Composition of Refugee Flows towards Europe

Authors: Christian Bruss, Simona Gamba, Davide Azzolini, Federico Podestà


In this paper, the authors assess the impact of different political and environmental shocks on the size and on the age and gender composition of asylum-related migration flows to Europe. With this paper, the authors contribute to the literature by looking at the impact of different political and environmental shocks on the gender and age composition of migration flows in addition to the size of these flows. Conflicting theories predict different outcomes concerning the relationship between political and environmental shocks and the migration flows composition. Analyzing the relationship between the causes of migration and the composition of migration flows could yield more insights into the mechanisms behind migration decisions. In addition, this research may contribute to better informing national authorities in charge of receiving these migrant, as women and children/the elderly require different assistance than young men. To be prepared to offer the correct services, the relevant institutions have to be aware of changes in composition based on the shock in question. The authors analyze the effect of different types of shocks on the number, the gender and age composition of first time asylum seekers originating from 154 sending countries. Among the political shocks, the authors consider: violence between combatants, violence against civilians, infringement of political rights and civil liberties, and state terror. Concerning environmental shocks, natural disasters (such as droughts, floods, epidemics, etc.) have been included. The data on asylum seekers applying to any of the 32 Schengen Area countries between 2008 and 2015 is on a monthly basis. Data on asylum applications come from Eurostat, data on shocks are retrieved from various sources: georeferenced conflict data come from the Uppsala Conflict Data Program (UCDP), data on natural disasters from the Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED), data on civil liberties and political rights from Freedom House, data on state terror from the Political Terror Scale (PTS), GDP and population data from the World Bank, and georeferenced population data from the Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC). The authors adopt a Difference-in-Differences identification strategy, exploiting the different timing of several kinds of shocks across countries. The highly skewed distribution of the dependent variable is taken into account by using count data models. In particular, a Zero Inflated Negative Binomial model is adopted. Preliminary results show that different shocks - such as armed conflict and epidemics - exert weak immediate effects on asylum-related migration flows and almost non-existent effects on the gender and age composition. However, this result is certainly affected by the fact that no time lags have been introduced so far. Finding the correct time lags depends on a great many variables not limited to distance alone. Therefore, finding the appropriate time lags is still a work in progress. Considering the ongoing refugee crisis, this topic is more important than ever. The authors hope that this research contributes to a less emotionally led debate.

Keywords: Gender, age, Europe, Forced Migration, asylum

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12 Relationship between Age, Gender, Anthropometrics Characteristics and Dynamic Balance in Children Age Group between 5 to 12 Years Old at Anand City, Gujarat

Authors: Nirav P. Vaghela, Dhruveshi B. Rana, Jigar N. Mehta


Objective: To assess the relationships among age, gender, anthropometrics and dynamic balance in 5 to 12 years of children in Anand city. Method: Cross-sectional study was conducted. 150 school going children of 5-12 (75-girls, 75-boys) years were recruited from the school of the Anand city-Shivam English Medium school, Veer Vithalbhai Patel school, Adarsh Primary school. Height, weight, arm length, and foot length were measured in 150 children of 5 to 12 years. Dynamic balance was assessed using Time Up and Go Test, Functional Reach Test, Pediatric Balance Scale. Results: Positive relationship (r = 0.58 and r= 0.77) were found between increasing age and FRT and PBS scores. A negative relationship (r = - 0.46) was observed between age of boys and TUG test. Significant gender by age group difference was observed in FRT. Arm length and height has the strongest influence on FRT, and age, height, foot length; and arm length has the strongest influence on PBS. Conclusions: Age and arm length have the strongest relationship with the dynamic balance (FRT, PBS). Dynamic balance ability is directly related to the age. It helps the pediatric therapists in selecting dynamic balance test according to the age.

Keywords: Gender, age, dynamic balance, anthropometric

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11 Population and Age Structure of the Goby Stigmatogobius pleurostigma in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

Authors: Quang M. Dinh


Stigmatogobius pleurostigma is a commercial fish being caught increasingly in the Mekong Delta. Although it plays an important role for food supply, little is known about this species including morphology, distribution and growth pattern. Meanwhile, its population and age structure is unknown. The present study was conducted in the Mekong Delta to provide new data on population parameters of this goby species. The von Bertalanffy growth parameters were L∞= 8.6 cm, K = 0.83 yr⁻¹, and t0 = -0.07 yr⁻¹ basing on length frequency data analysis of 601 individuals. The fish total length at first capture was 3.8 cm; and fishing, natural and total mortalities of the fish population were 2.31 yr⁻¹, 1.17 yr⁻¹, and 3.48 yr⁻¹ respectively. The maximum fish yield (Eₘₐₓ), economic yield (E₀.₁) and yield of 50% reduction of exploitation (E₅₀) rates were 0.704, 0.555 and 0.335 based on the relative yield-per-recruit and biomass-per-recruit analyses. The fish longevity was 3.61 yr, and growth performance was 1.79. Three fish age groups were recorded in this study (0+, 1+ and 2+). The species is a potential aquaculture candidate because of its high growth parameter. This goby stock was overexploited in the Mekong Delta as its exploitation rate (E=0.34) was higher than E₅₀ (0.335). The mesh size of gillnets should be increased and avoid catching fish in June, recruitment time, for future sustainable fishery management.

Keywords: age, population structure, Vietnam, Stigmatogobius pleurostigma

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10 Mathematical Modelling for Diesel Consumption of Articulated Vehicle Used in Oyo State, Nigeria

Authors: Ganiyu Samson Okunlola, Ladanu Abiodun Ajala, Olaide Oluwaseun Adegbayo


Since the usefulness of articulated vehicles is becoming more apparent and the diesel consumption of these vehicles constitutes a major portion of operating costs, development of mathematical model for their diesel consumption is of a great importance. Therefore, the present work developed a quantitative relationship between diesel consumption and vehicle age, annual use and cost of maintenance of the different makes of articulated vehicles. The vehicles selected for the study were FIAT 682 T3, IVECO 19036 and M.A.N. Diesel 19.240. The operating parameters for 90 vehicles of different age groups were recorded. Multiple regression models for diesel consumption of articulated vehicles of different makes were developed. From the analysis of results, it can be concluded that as the age of the vehicles increases, the diesel consumption increases. Also, as the diesel consumption increases, the cost of maintenance increases and there is a subsequent decrease in annual use. Moreover, FIAT 682 T3 and IVECO 19036 should be replaced at 7 years of age while M.A.N diesel should be replaced at 8 years of age. These are the ages where the diesel consumption becomes abnormal and uneconomical and they are points of optimal overhaul.

Keywords: Vehicle, age, consumption, diesel, overhaul, uneconomical

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9 Variation of Hedonic Capacity of People According to Age and Its Correlation with Chronotype

Authors: T. Hojageldiyev, Y. Bolmammedov


Increasing evidence suggests late chronotype individuals are at increased risk of developing psychopathological conditions. Our previously conducted study aimed to know the distribution of chronotypes according to age revealed that evening-types reaching a peak at age 14. While there is growing number of studies evaluating associations between chronotype and affective symptoms, to our best knowledge there are no studies addressing the issue of prevalence of anhedonia according to age groups of people. The sample included 545 healthy students between 13-21 years old from secondary schools and universities of Turkmenistan. Self-report 14 item Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS) was used to assess hedonic tone of students. SHAPS score of 3 or higher indicates the criteria for the anhedonia. According to similarity of hedonic capacity participants divided into three age groups. Group I (age 13-14-15) includes 206 students (92 female), group II (age 16-17) includes 256 students (111 female) and group III (age 18-19-20-21) includes 83 (37 female). Statistical analysis was performed using Microsoft Excel 2013 and GraphPad Prism 7.0 programs. According to results average SHAPS scores of group I is 1.93 ± 1.94, group II 1.08 ± 1.43 and group III 1.29 ± 1.62. Students with anhedonia in group I consisted 30.5%, in group II 13,2% and in group III 12.04%. There are no gender differences. According to questionnaire results, higher prevalence of anhedonia is at the age between 13-15 than other age groups, and hedonic capacity increases as the age of students increases (p < 0.05). As a result, distribution of evening-types according to age correlates with hedonic capacity which is evening-types tends to have lower hedonic capacity.

Keywords: age, anhedonia, chronotype, hedonic capacity

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8 Effect of Tree Age on Fruit Quality of Different Cultivars of Sweet Orange

Authors: Muhammad Imran, Faheem Khadija, Zahoor Hussain, Raheel Anwar, M. Nawaz Khan, M. Raza Salik


Amongst citrus species, sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) occupies a dominant position in the orange producing countries in the world. Sweet orange is widely consumed both as fresh fruit as well as juice and its global demand is attributed due to higher vitamin C and antioxidants. Fruit quality is most important for the external appearance and marketability of sweet orange fruit, especially for fresh consumption. There are so many factors affecting fruit quality, tree age is the most important one, but remains unexplored so far. The present study, we investigated the role of tree age on fruit quality of different cultivars of sweet oranges. The difference between fruit quality of 5-year young and 15-year old trees was discussed in the current study. In case of fruit weight, maximum fruit weight (238g) was recorded in 15-year old sweet orange cv. Sallustiana cultivar while minimum fruit weight (142g) was recorded in 5-year young tree of Succari sweet orange fruit. The results of the fruit diameter showed that the maximum fruit diameter (77.142mm) was recorded in 15-year old Sallustiana orange but the minimum fruit diameter (66.046mm) was observed in 5-year young tree of sweet orange cv. Succari. The minimum value of rind thickness (4.142mm) was noted in 15-year old tree of cv. Red blood. On the other hand maximum value of rind thickness was observed in 5-year young tree of cv. Sallustiana. The data regarding total soluble solids (TSS), acidity (TA), TSS/TA, juice content, rind, flavedo thickness, pH and fruit diameter have also been discussed.

Keywords: Quality, age, Fruit, cultivars, sweet orange (Citrus Sinensis L. Osbeck)

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7 A Retrospective Study of Suicidal Deaths in Madinah for Ten Years

Authors: Ashraf Shebl, Radah Yousuf


Suicide is a tragic event with strong emotional repercussions for its survivors and for families of its victims. There were thousands of cases all over the world. There are many risk factors include mental disorders such as depression, and substance abuse, including alcoholism and use of benzodiazepines. Other suicides are impulsive acts due to stress such as from financial difficulties, troubles with relationships, or from bullying. The aim of work in this study is making a survey from archives of the suicidal cases, which had a medicolegal examination, in forensic medicine center in Al Madinah Almunawarah-KSA, for ten years in the period between 1428-1438h. In each case, some data are collected such as age, sex, time and place of an act, method of suicide, the presence of the witness, medical history. This study demonstrates that suicide is more common in male than female, and the 4th decade was the most period of age. The most common method of suicide was hanging followed by falling from the height. These results indicated that cultural and religious beliefs that discourage suicide and support self-preservation instinct, and suicide education programs provide information to students in high school, builds awareness, one of the most important issues in solving that problem. From the forensic view, circumstantial evidence of every forensic case must take and record, full history about the social, medical and psychological problems, attend the scene of death is a very important, complete medicolegal investigation for every case, and full autopsy with very skilled techniques and facilities can help in diagnosing what type of crimes.

Keywords: Sex, age, Suicide, Hanging

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6 Vitamin D Deficiency and Insufficiency in Postmenopausal Women with Obesity

Authors: Vladyslav Povoroznyuk, Nataliia Dzerovych, Oksana Ivanyk, Anna Musiienko, Roksolana Povoroznyuk


Deficiency and insufficiency of Vitamin D is a pandemic of the 21st century. Obesity patients have a lower level of vitamin D, but the literature data are contradictory. The purpose of this study is to investigate deficiency and insufficiency vitamin D in postmenopausal women with obesity. We examined 1007 women aged 50-89 years. Mean age was 65.74±8.61 years; mean height was 1.61±0.07 m; mean weight was 70.65±13.50 kg; mean body mass index was 27.27±4.86 kg/m2, and mean 25(OH) D levels in serum was 26.00±12.00 nmol/l. The women were divided into the following six groups depending on body mass index: I group – 338 women with normal body weight, II group – 16 women with insufficient body weight, III group – 382 women with excessive body weight, IV group – 199 women with obesity of class I, V group – 60 women with obesity of class II, and VI group – 12 women with obesity of class III. Level of 25(OH)D in serum was measured by means of an electrochemiluminescent method - Elecsys 2010 analyzer (Roche Diagnostics, Germany) and cobas test-systems. 34.4% of the examined women have deficiency of vitamin D and 31.4% insufficiency. Women with obesity of class I (23.60±10.24 ng/ml) and obese of class II (22.38±10.34 ng/ml) had significantly lower levels of 25 (OH) D compared to women with normal body weight (28.24±12.99 ng/ml), p=0.00003. In women with obesity, BMI significantly influences vitamin D level, and this influence does not depend on the season.

Keywords: Obesity, age, body mass index, postmenopausal women, vitamin D deficiency, vitamin D insufficiency

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5 Adult Language Learning in the Institute of Technology Sector in the Republic of Ireland

Authors: Una Carthy


A recent study of third level institutions in Ireland reveals that both age and aptitude can be overcome by teaching methodologies to motivate second language learners. This PhD investigation gathered quantitative and qualitative data from 14 Institutes of Technology over a three years period from 2011 to 2014. The fundamental research question was to establish the impact of institutional language policy on attitudes towards language learning. However, other related issues around second language acquisition arose in the course of the investigation. Data were collected from both lectures and students, allowing interesting points of comparison to emerge from both datasets. Negative perceptions among lecturers regarding language provision were often associated with the view that language learning belongs to primary and secondary level and has no place in third level education. This perception was offset by substantial data showing positive attitudes towards adult language learning. Lenneberg’s Critical Age Theory postulated that the optimum age for learning a second language is before puberty. More recently, scholars have challenged this theory in their studies, revealing that mature learners can and do succeed at learning languages. With regard to aptitude, a preoccupation among lecturers regarding poor literacy skills among students emerged and was often associated with resistance to second language acquisition. This was offset by a preponderance of qualitative data from students highlighting the crucial role which teaching approaches play in the learning process. Interestingly, the data collected regarding learning disabilities reveals that, given the appropriate learning environments, individuals can be motivated to acquire second languages, and indeed succeed at learning them. These findings are in keeping with other recent studies regarding attitudes towards second language learning among students with learning disabilities. Both sets of findings reinforce the case for language policies in the Institute of Technology (IoTs). Supportive and positive learning environments can be created in third level institutions to motivate adult learners, thereby overcoming perceived obstacles relating to age and aptitude.

Keywords: Second language acquisition, age, teaching methodologies, aptitude

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