Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Aflatoxin B1 Related Abstracts

4 Comparison of Aflatoxin B1 Levels in Iranian and Indian Spices by ELISA Method

Authors: Amir Sasan Mozaffari Nejad

Abstract:

This study was carried out to detect the presence of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in 36 samples of spices from Iran and India that was included of chilli powder (n=12), black pepper powder (n=12) and whole black pepper (n=12). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method was used for analysing the samples. Aflatoxin B1 was found in all the spices samples, the concentration of AFB1 in Iranian samples was ranged from 63.16 to 626.81 ng/kg and in Indian samples was ranged from 31.15 to 245.94 ng/kg. The mean of AFB1 concentration in the chilli powder was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the whole and powdered black pepper. However, none of the samples exceeded the maximum prescribed limit i.e. 5 µg/kg of European Union regulations for aflatoxin B1. The occurrence of AFB1 in spices samples could be a potential hazard for public health.

Keywords: India, ELISA, Iran, Aflatoxin B1, chilli, black pepper

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3 Determination of Aflatoxins in Edible-Medicinal Plant Samples by HPLC with Fluorescence Detector and KOBRA-Cell

Authors: Isil Gazioglu, Abdulselam Ertas

Abstract:

Aflatoxins (AFs) are secondary toxic metabolites of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. AFs can be absorbed through the skin. Potent carcinogens like AFs should be completely absent from cosmetics, this can be achieved by careful quality control of the raw plant materials. Regulatory limits for aflatoxins have been established in many countries, and reliable testing methodology is needed to implement and enforce the regulatory limits. In this study, ten medicinal plant samples (Bundelia tournefortti, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Carduus tenuiflorus, Cardaria draba, Malva neglecta, Malvella sharardiana, Melissa officinalis, Sideritis libanotica, Stakys thirkei, Thymus nummularius) were investigated for aflatoxin (AF) contaminations by employing an HPLC assay for the determination of AFB1, B2, G1 and G2. The samples were extracted with 70% (v/v) methanol in water before further cleaned up with an immunoaffinity column and followed by the detection of AFs by using an electrochemically post-column derivatization with Kobra-Cell and fluorescence detector. The extraction procedure was optimized in order to obtain the best recovery. The method was successfully carried out with all medicinal plant samples. The results revealed that five (50%) of samples were contaminated with AFs. The association between particular samples and the AF contaminated could not be determined due to the low frequency of positive samples.

Keywords: Mycotoxin, Aflatoxin B1, HPLC-FLD, KOBRA-Cell

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2 Detection of Aflatoxin B1 Producing Aspergillus flavus Genes from Maize Feed Using Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) Technique

Authors: Sontana Mimapan, Phattarawadee Wattanasuntorn, Phanom Saijit

Abstract:

Aflatoxin contamination in maize, one of several agriculture crops grown for livestock feeding, is still a problem throughout the world mainly under hot and humid weather conditions like Thailand. In this study Aspergillus flavus (A. Flavus), the key fungus for aflatoxin production especially aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), isolated from naturally infected maize were identified and characterized according to colony morphology and PCR using ITS, Beta-tubulin and calmodulin genes. The strains were analysed for the presence of four aflatoxigenic biosynthesis genes in relation to their capability to produce AFB1, Ver1, Omt1, Nor1, and aflR. Aflatoxin production was then confirmed using immunoaffinity column technique. A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) was applied as an innovative technique for rapid detection of target nucleic acid. The reaction condition was optimized at 65C for 60 min. and calcein flurescent reagent was added before amplification. The LAMP results showed clear differences between positive and negative reactions in end point analysis under daylight and UV light by the naked eye. In daylight, the samples with AFB1 producing A. Flavus genes developed a yellow to green color, but those without the genes retained the orange color. When excited with UV light, the positive samples become visible by bright green fluorescence. LAMP reactions were positive after addition of purified target DNA until dilutions of 10⁻⁶. The reaction products were then confirmed and visualized with 1% agarose gel electrophoresis. In this regards, 50 maize samples were collected from dairy farms and tested for the presence of four aflatoxigenic biosynthesis genes using LAMP technique. The results were positive in 18 samples (36%) but negative in 32 samples (64%). All of the samples were rechecked by PCR and the results were the same as LAMP, indicating 100% specificity. Additionally, when compared with the immunoaffinity column-based aflatoxin analysis, there was a significant correlation between LAMP results and aflatoxin analysis (r= 0.83, P < 0.05) which suggested that positive maize samples were likely to be a high- risk feed. In conclusion, the LAMP developed in this study can provide a simple and rapid approach for detecting AFB1 producing A. Flavus genes from maize and appeared to be a promising tool for the prediction of potential aflatoxigenic risk in livestock feedings.

Keywords: Aflatoxin B1, maize, loop-mediated isothermal amplification, Aspergillus flavus genes

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1 Activity of Resveratrol on the Influence of Aflatoxin B1 on the Testes of Sprague Dawley Rats

Authors: Ali D. Omur, Betul Apaydin Yildirim, Yavuz S. Saglam, Selim Comakli, Mustafa Ozkaraca

Abstract:

Twenty-eight male Sprague Dawley rats (aged 3 months) were used in the study. The animals were given feed and water as ad libitum. Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups as 7 rats in each group. Aflatoxin B1 (7.5 μg/200 g), resveratrol (60 mg/kg) was administered to rats in groups other than the control group. At the end of the 16th day, blood, semen and tissue specimens were taken by decapitation under ether anesthesia. The effects of aflatoxin B1 and resveratrol on spermatological, pathological and biochemical parameters were determined in rats. When we evaluate the spermatological parameters, it is understood that resveratrol has a statistically significant difference in terms of sperm motility and viability (membrane integrity) compared to the control group and aflatoxin B1 administration groups, indicating a protective effect on spermatological parameters (groups: control, resveratrol, aflatoxin B1 and Afb1 + res; respectively, values of motility: 71,42 ± 0,52b, 72,85 ± 1, 48c , 60,71 ± 1,30a, 57,14 ± 2, 40a; values of viability: 63,85 ± 1,33b, 70,42 ± 2,61c, 55,00 ± 1,54a, 56,57 ± 0,89a. In terms of pathological parameters -histopathological examination- in the control and resveratrol groups, seminiferous tubules were observed to be in normal structure. In the group treated with aflatoxin, the regular structure of the spermatogenic cells deteriorated, and the seminiferous tubules became necrotic and degenerative. In the group treated with Afb1 + res, the decreasing of necrotic and degenerative changes were determined compared with in the group treated with aflatoxin. As immunohistochemical examination, cleaved caspase 3 expression was found to be very low in the control and resveratrol groups. Cleaved caspase 3 expression was severely exacerbated in seminiferous tubules in aflatoxin group but cleaved caspase 3 expression level decreased in Afb1 + res. In the biochemical direction, resveratrol has been shown to inhibit the adverse effects of aflatoxin on antioxidant levels (GSH-mmol/L, CAT-kU/L, GPx-U/mL, SOD-EU/mL) and to show a protective effect. For this purpose, the use of resveratrol with antioxidant activity was investigated in preventing or ameliorating damage to aflatoxin B1. It has been concluded that resveratrol effectively prevents the aflatoxin-induced testicular damage and lipid peroxidation. It has also been shown that resveratrol has protective effects on sperm motility and viability.

Keywords: Resveratrol, rat, Aflatoxin B1, sperm

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