Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Aerospace Related Abstracts

13 Analysis of Total Quality Management (TQM) and Six Sigma in the Aerospace Industry

Authors: Masimuddin Mohd Khaled

Abstract:

From the past couple of years, focus has been done on the quality management theories and has been pertained to various firms. The core quality management theories are Total Quality Management (TQM) and Six Sigma where a number of documents have already been presented regarding these theories. The purpose of this paper is to study in detail about these theories and how the theories are applied in the aerospace industry. A methodical literature review, comparison of TQM and Six Sigma as well as a case study of each has been carried out in this paper thus providing a clear understanding of the theories.

Keywords: Aerospace, Innovation, Six Sigma, Research, Total Quality Management

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12 Technology of Thermal Spray Coating Machining

Authors: Robert CEP, Jana Petrů, Lenka Cepova, Tomas Zlamal

Abstract:

This article is focused on the thermal spray coating machining issue. Those are irreplaceable in many areas of nowadays industrial branches such as aerospace industry, mostly thanks to their excellent qualities in production and also in renovation of machinery parts. The principals of thermal spraying and elementary diversification are described in introduction. Plasma coating method of composite materials -cermets- is described more thoroughly. The second part describes thermal spray coating machining and grinding in detail. This part contains suggestion of appropriate grinding tool and assessment of cutting conditions used for grinding a given part. Conclusion describes a problem which occurred while grinding a cermet thermal spray coating with a specially designed grindstone and a way to solve this problem.

Keywords: Aerospace, plasma, Coating, Grinding

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11 Analysis of Six Sigma in the Aerospace Industry

Authors: Masimuddin Mohd Khaled

Abstract:

This paper subsidizes to the discussion of Six Sigma in the Aerospace Industry. The main aim of this report is to study the literature review of Six Sigma emphasizing on the aerospace industry. The implementation of Six Sigma stages are studied and how the improvement cycle ‘Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control cycle’ (DMAIC) and the design process is ‘Define, Measure, Analyze, Design, and Verify Cycle’ (DMADV) is used. The focus is also done by studying how the implementation of Six Sigma on an aerospace company has brought a positive effect to the company.

Keywords: Aerospace, Six Sigma, DMAIC, DMADV

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10 Repair of Thermoplastic Composites for Structural Applications

Authors: Philippe Castaing, Thomas Jollivet

Abstract:

As a result of their advantages, i.e. recyclability, weld-ability, environmental compatibility, long (continuous) fiber thermoplastic composites (LFTPC) are increasingly used in many industrial sectors (mainly automotive and aeronautic) for structural applications. Indeed, in the next ten years, the environmental rules will put the pressure on the use of new structural materials like composites. In aerospace, more than 50% of the damage are due to stress impact and 85% of damage are repaired on the fuselage (fuselage skin panels and around doors). With the arrival of airplanes mainly of composite materials, replacement of sections or panels seems difficult economically speaking and repair becomes essential. The objective of the present study is to propose a solution of repair to prevent the replacement the damaged part in thermoplastic composites in order to recover the initial mechanical properties. The classification of impact damage is not so not easy : talking about low energy impact (less than 35 J) can be totally wrong when high speed or weak thicknesses as well as thermoplastic resins are considered. Crash and perforation with higher energy create important damages and the structures are replaced without repairing, so we just consider here damages due to impacts at low energy that are as follows for laminates : − Transverse cracking; − Delamination; − Fiber rupture. At low energy, the damages are barely visible but can nevertheless reduce significantly the mechanical strength of the part due to resin cracks while few fiber rupture is observed. The patch repair solution remains the standard one but may lead to the rupture of fibers and consequently creates more damages. That is the reason why we investigate the repair of thermoplastic composites impacted at low energy. Indeed, thermoplastic resins are interesting as they absorb impact energy through plastic strain. The methodology is as follows: - impact tests at low energy on thermoplastic composites; - identification of the damage by micrographic observations; - evaluation of the harmfulness of the damage; - repair by reconsolidation according to the extent of the damage ; -validation of the repair by mechanical characterization (compression). In this study, the impacts tests are performed at various levels of energy on thermoplastic composites (PA/C, PEEK/C and PPS/C woven 50/50 and unidirectional) to determine the level of impact energy creating damages in the resin without fiber rupture. We identify the extent of the damage by US inspection and micrographic observations in the plane part thickness. The samples were in addition characterized in compression to evaluate the loss of mechanical properties. Then the strategy of repair consists in reconsolidating the damaged parts by thermoforming, and after reconsolidation the laminates are characterized in compression for validation. To conclude, the study demonstrates the feasibility of the repair for low energy impact on thermoplastic composites as the samples recover their properties. At a first step of the study, the “repair” is made by reconsolidation on a thermoforming press but we could imagine a process in situ to reconsolidate the damaged parts.

Keywords: Aerospace, Automotive, Composites, Damages, Compression, repair, Structural Applications, thermoplastic

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9 Improvement of Realization Quality of Aerospace Products Using Augmented Reality Technology

Authors: Nuran Bahar, Mehmet A. Akcayol

Abstract:

In the aviation industry, many faults may occur frequently during the maintenance processes and assembly operations of complex structured aircrafts because of their high dependencies of components. These faults affect the quality of aircraft parts or developed modules adversely. Technical employee requires long time and high labor force while checking the correctness of each component. In addition, the person must be trained regularly because of the ever-growing and changing technology. Generally, the cost of this training is very high. Augmented Reality (AR) technology reduces the cost of training radically and improves the effectiveness of the training. In this study, the usage of AR technology in the aviation industry has been investigated and the effectiveness of AR with heads-up display glasses has been examined. An application has been developed for comparison of production process with AR and manual one.

Keywords: Aerospace, Augmented Reality, assembly quality, heads-up display

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8 Operational Software Maturity: An Aerospace Industry Analysis

Authors: Raúl González Muñoz, Essam Shehab, Martin Weinitzke, Chris Fowler, Paul Baguley

Abstract:

Software applications have become crucial to the aerospace industry, providing a wide range of functionalities and capabilities used during the design, manufacturing and support of aircraft. However, as this criticality increases, so too does the risk for business operations when facing a software failure. Hence, there is a need for new methodologies to be developed to support aerospace companies in effectively managing their software portfolios, avoiding the hazards of business disruption and additional costs. This paper aims to provide a definition of operational software maturity, and how this can be used to assess software operational behaviour, as well as a view on the different aspects that drive software maturity within the aerospace industry. The key research question addressed is, how can operational software maturity monitoring assist the aerospace industry in effectively managing large software portfolios? This question has been addressed by conducting an in depth review of current literature, by working closely with aerospace professionals and by running an industry case study within a major aircraft manufacturer. The results are a software maturity model composed of a set of drivers and a prototype tool used for the testing and validation of the research findings. By utilising these methodologies to assess the operational maturity of software applications in aerospace, benefits in maintenance activities and operations disruption avoidance have been observed, supporting business cases for system improvement.

Keywords: Aerospace, Software Maintenance, Software Lifecycle, software maturity

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7 Phase Optimized Ternary Alloy Material for Gas Turbines

Authors: Mayandi Ramanathan

Abstract:

Gas turbine blades see the most aggressive thermal stress conditions within the engine, due to Turbine Entry Temperatures in the range of 1500 to 1600°C, but in synchronization with other functional components, they must readily deliver efficient performance, whilst incurring minimal overhaul and repair costs during its service life up to 5 million flying miles. The blades rotate at very high rotation rates and remove significant amount of thermal power from the gas stream. At high temperatures the major component failure mechanism is creep. During its service over time under high temperatures and loads, the blade will deform, lengthen and rupture. High strength and stiffness in the longitudinal direction up to elevated service temperatures are certainly the most needed properties of turbine blades. The proposed advanced Ti alloy material needs a process that provides strategic orientation of metallic ordering, uniformity in composition and high metallic strength. 25% Ta/(Al+Ta) ratio ensures TaAl3 phase formation, where as 51% Al/(Al+Ti) ratio ensures formation of α-Ti3Al and γ-TiAl mixed phases fand the three phase combination ensures minimal Al excess (~1.4% Al excess), unlike Ti-47Al-2Cr-2Nb which has significant excess Al (~5% Al excess) that could affect the service life of turbine blades. This presentation will involve the summary of additive manufacturing and heat treatment process conditions to fabricate turbine blade with Ti-43Al matrix alloyed with optimized amount of refractory Ta metal. Summary of thermo-mechanical test results such as high temperature tensile strength, creep strain rate, thermal expansion coefficient and fracture toughness will be presented. Improvement in service temperature of the turbine blades and corrosion resistance dependence on coercivity of the alloy material will be reported. Phase compositions will be quantified, and a summary of its correlation with creep strain rate will be presented.

Keywords: Aerospace, Alloys, high temperature materials, Gas Turbine, Creep, specific strength, phase optimization

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6 Statistical Analysis of Failure Cases in Aerospace

Authors: W. Z. Wang, J. H. Lv, S.W. Liu

Abstract:

The major concern in the aviation industry is the flight safety. Although great effort has been put onto the development of material and system reliability, the failure cases of fatal accidents still occur nowadays. Due to the complexity of the aviation system, and the interaction among the failure components, the failure analysis of the related equipment is a little difficult. This study focuses on surveying the failure cases in aviation, which are extracted from failure analysis journals, including Engineering Failure Analysis and Case studies in Engineering Failure Analysis, in order to obtain the failure sensitive factors or failure sensitive parts. The analytical results show that, among the failure cases, fatigue failure is the largest in number of occurrence. The most failed components are the disk, blade, landing gear, bearing, and fastener. The frequently failed materials consist of steel, aluminum alloy, superalloy, and titanium alloy. Therefore, in order to assure the safety in aviation, more attention should be paid to the fatigue failures.

Keywords: Aerospace, Fatigue, Failure analysis, disk

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5 Effect of Zirconium (Zr) Amount on Mechanical and Metallurgical Behavior of ZE41A Magnesium Alloy

Authors: Emrah Yaliniz, Ali Kalkanli

Abstract:

ZE41A magnesium alloy has been extensively used in aerospace industry, especially for use in rotorcraft transmission casings. Due to the improved mechanical properties, the latest generation of magnesium casting alloy EV31A-T6 (Elektron 21® specified in AMS 4429) is seen as a potential replacement for ZE41A in terms of strength. Therefore, the necessity of enhancement has been arisen for ZE41A in order to avoid fully replacement. The main element affecting the strength of ZE41A is Zirconium (Zr), which acts as a grain refiner. The specified range of Zr element for ZE41A alloy is between 0.4 wt % and 1.0 wt % (unless otherwise stated by weight percentage after this point) as stated in AMS 4439. This paper investigates the effects of Zr amount on tensile and metallurgical properties of ZE41A magnesium alloy. The Zr alloying amount for the research has been chosen as 0.5 % and 1 %, which are standard amounts in a commercial alloy (average of 0.4-0.6%) and maximum percent in the standard, separately. 1 % Zr amount has been achieved via Zirmax (66.7 Mg-33.3 Zr) master alloy addition. The ultimate tensile strength of ZE41A with 1% Zr has been increased up to about 220-225 MPa in comparison to 200 MPa given in AMS 4439. The reason for the increase in strength with the addition of Zirmax is based on the decrease in grain size, which was measured about 30 µm. Optical microscope, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) were used to detect the change in the microstructural futures via alloying. The zirconium rich coring at the center of the grains was observed in addition to the grain boundary intermetallic phases and bulk Mg-rich matrix. The solidification characteristics were also identified by using the cooling curve obtained from the sand casting mold during cooling of the alloys.

Keywords: Aerospace, Magnesium, grain refinement, sand casting, ZE41A

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4 Aircraft Components, Manufacturing and Design: Opportunities, Bottlenecks, and Challenges

Authors: Ionel Botef

Abstract:

Aerospace products operate in very aggressive environments characterized by high temperature, high pressure, large stresses on individual components, the presence of oxidizing and corroding atmosphere, as well as internally created or externally ingested particulate materials that induce erosion and impact damage. Consequently, during operation, the materials of individual components degrade. In addition, the impact of maintenance costs for both civil and military aircraft was estimated at least two to three times greater than initial purchase values, and this trend is expected to increase. As a result, for viable product realisation and maintenance, a spectrum of issues regarding novel processing technologies, innovation of new materials, performance, costs, and environmental impact must constantly be addressed. One of these technologies, namely the cold-gas dynamic-spray process has enabled a broad range of coatings and applications, including many that have not been previously possible or commercially practical, hence its potential for new aerospace applications. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to summarise the state of the art of this technology alongside its theoretical and experimental studies, and explore how the cold-gas dynamic-spray process could be integrated within a framework that finally could lead to more efficient aircraft maintenance. Based on the paper's qualitative findings supported by authorities, evidence, and logic essentially it is argued that the cold-gas dynamic-spray manufacturing process should not be viewed in isolation, but should be viewed as a component of a broad framework that finally leads to more efficient aerospace operations.

Keywords: Aerospace, Materials, Cold Spray, aging aircraft

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3 Phase Composition Analysis of Ternary Alloy Materials for Gas Turbine Applications

Authors: Mayandi Ramanathan

Abstract:

Gas turbine blades see the most aggressive thermal stress conditions within the engine, due to high Turbine Entry Temperatures in the range of 1500 to 1600°C. The blades rotate at very high rotation rates and remove a significant amount of thermal power from the gas stream. At high temperatures, the major component failure mechanism is a creep. During its service over time under high thermal loads, the blade will deform, lengthen and rupture. High strength and stiffness in the longitudinal direction up to elevated service temperatures are certainly the most needed properties of turbine blades and gas turbine components. The proposed advanced Ti alloy material needs a process that provides a strategic orientation of metallic ordering, uniformity in composition and high metallic strength. The chemical composition of the proposed Ti alloy material (25% Ta/(Al+Ta) ratio), unlike Ti-47Al-2Cr-2Nb, has less excess Al that could limit the service life of turbine blades. Properties and performance of Ti-47Al-2Cr-2Nb and Ti-6Al-4V materials will be compared with that of the proposed Ti alloy material to generalize the performance metrics of various gas turbine components. This paper will involve the summary of the effects of additive manufacturing and heat treatment process conditions on the changes in the phase composition, grain structure, lattice structure of the material, tensile strength, creep strain rate, thermal expansion coefficient and fracture toughness at different temperatures. Based on these results, additive manufacturing and heat treatment process conditions will be optimized to fabricate turbine blade with Ti-43Al matrix alloyed with an optimized amount of refractory Ta metal. Improvement in service temperature of the turbine blades and corrosion resistance dependence on the coercivity of the alloy material will be reported. A correlation of phase composition and creep strain rate will also be discussed.

Keywords: Aerospace, high temperature materials, Phase Composition, specific strength, creep strain

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2 An Automated Approach to Consolidate Galileo System Availability

Authors: Marie Bieber, Fabrice Cosson, Olivier Schmitt

Abstract:

Europe's Global Navigation Satellite System, Galileo, provides worldwide positioning and navigation services. The satellites in space are only one part of the Galileo system. An extensive ground infrastructure is essential to oversee the satellites and ensure accurate navigation signals. High reliability and availability of the entire Galileo system are crucial to continuously provide positioning information of high quality to users. Outages are tracked, and operational availability is regularly assessed. A highly flexible and adaptive tool has been developed to automate the Galileo system availability analysis. Not only does it enable a quick availability consolidation, but it also provides first steps towards improving the data quality of maintenance tickets used for the analysis. This includes data import and data preparation, with a focus on processing strings used for classification and identifying faulty data. Furthermore, the tool allows to handle a low amount of data, which is a major constraint when the aim is to provide accurate statistics.

Keywords: Aerospace, Availability, Data Quality, system performance, Galileo

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1 Action Research into including Sustainability in [Lean] Product Development: Cases from the European Space Sector

Authors: Rob Dekkers, JoãO Paulo Estevam De Souza

Abstract:

Particularly for the space sector the inclusion of sustainability in product development poses considerable challenges for practitioners. Outcomes of action research at two companies in this sector demonstrate how this contemporary theme could be included in methods for product and process development; this was supported by wider focus groups involving more companies. The working together with practitioners brought to the fore that holistic product life-cycle thinking needs further development, especially when firms are suppliers to original equipment manufacturers. Furthermore, the findings indicate that the social aspect of the triple-bottom-line causes remains elusive for companies; to this purpose, some pathways based on the action research and focus groups are proposed.

Keywords: Aerospace, Product Development, Sustainability, Product Life-Cycle, action research, triple bottom-line

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