Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

Aerosol Related Abstracts

11 Evaluation of Bacterial Composition of the Aerosol of Selected Abattoirs in Akure, South Western Nigeria

Authors: Funmilola O. Omoya, Joseph O. Obameso, Titus A. Olukibiti


This study was carried out to reveal the bacterial composition of aerosol in the studied abattoirs. Bacteria isolated were characterized according to microbiological standards. Factors such as temperature and distance were considered as variable in this study. The isolation was carried out at different temperatures such as 27oC, 31oC and 29oC and at various distances of 100meters and 200meters away from the slaughter sites. Result obtained showed that strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Lactobacillus alimentarius and Micrococcus sp. were identified. The total viable counts showed that more microorganisms were present in the morning while the least viable count of 388 cfu was recorded in the evening period of this study. This study also showed that more microbial loads were recorded the further the distance is to the slaughter site. Conclusively, the array of bacteria isolated suggests that abattoir sites may be a potential source of pathogenic organisms to commuters if located within residential environment.

Keywords: Environment, Aerosol, abattoir, bacterial composition

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10 The Effect of PM10 Dispersion from Industrial, Residential and Commercial Areas in Arid Environment

Authors: Meshari Al-Harbi


A comparative area-season-elemental-wise time series analysis by Dust Track monitor (2012-2013) revealed high PM10 dispersion in the outdoor environment in the sequence of industrial> express highways>residential>open areas. Time series analysis from 7AM-6AM (until next day), 30d (monthly), 3600sec. (for any given period of a month), and 12 months (yearly) showed peak PM10 dispersion during 1AM-7AM, 1d-4d and 25d-31d of every month, 1500-3600 with the exception in PM10 dispersion in residential areas, and in the months-March to June, respectively. This time-bound PM10 dispersion suggests the primary influence of human activities (peak mobility and productivity period for a given time frame) besides the secondary influence of meteorological parameters (high temperature and wind action) and, occasional dust storms. Whereas, gravimetric analysis reveals the influence of precipitation, low temperature and low volatility resulting high trace metals in PM10 during winter than in summer and primarily attributes to the influence of nature besides, the secondary attributes of smoke stack emission from various industries and automobiles. Furthermore, our study recommends residents to limit outdoor air pollution exposures and take precautionary measures to inhale PM10 pollutants from the atmosphere.

Keywords: Pollution, Aerosol, respirable particulates, trace-metals

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9 Experimental Simulations of Aerosol Effect to Landfalling Tropical Cyclones over Philippine Coast: Virtual Seeding Using WRF Model

Authors: Bhenjamin Jordan L. Ona


Weather modification is an act of altering weather systems that catches interest on scientific studies. Cloud seeding is a common form of weather alteration. On the same principle, tropical cyclone mitigation experiment follows the methods of cloud seeding with intensity to account for. This study will present the effects of aerosol to tropical cyclone cloud microphysics and intensity. The framework of Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model incorporated with Thompson aerosol-aware scheme is the prime host to support the aerosol-cloud microphysics calculations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) ingested into the tropical cyclones before making landfall over the Philippine coast. The coupled microphysical and radiative effects of aerosols will be analyzed using numerical data conditions of Tropical Storm Ketsana (2009), Tropical Storm Washi (2011), and Typhoon Haiyan (2013) associated with varying CCN number concentrations per simulation per typhoon: clean maritime, polluted, and very polluted having 300 cm-3, 1000 cm-3, and 2000 cm-3 aerosol number initial concentrations, respectively. Aerosol species like sulphates, sea salts, black carbon, and organic carbon will be used as cloud nuclei and mineral dust as ice nuclei (IN). To make the study as realistic as possible, investigation during the biomass burning due to forest fire in Indonesia starting October 2015 as Typhoons Mujigae/Kabayan and Koppu/Lando had been seeded with aerosol emissions mainly comprises with black carbon and organic carbon, will be considered. Emission data that will be used is from NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The physical mechanism/s of intensification or deintensification of tropical cyclones will be determined after the seeding experiment analyses.

Keywords: Aerosol, CCN, tropical cylone

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8 Modeling Aerosol Formation in an Electrically Heated Tobacco Product

Authors: Markus Nordlund, Arkadiusz K. Kuczaj


Philip Morris International (PMI) is developing a range of novel tobacco products with the potential to reduce individual risk and population harm in comparison to smoking cigarettes. One of these products is the Tobacco Heating System 2.2 (THS 2.2), (named as the Electrically Heated Tobacco System (EHTS) in this paper), already commercialized in a number of countries (e.g., Japan, Italy, Switzerland, Russia, Portugal and Romania). During use, the patented EHTS heats a specifically designed tobacco product (Electrically Heated Tobacco Product (EHTP)) when inserted into a Holder (heating device). The EHTP contains tobacco material in the form of a porous plug that undergoes a controlled heating process to release chemical compounds into vapors, from which an aerosol is formed during cooling. The aim of this work was to investigate the aerosol formation characteristics for realistic operating conditions of the EHTS as well as for relevant gas mixture compositions measured in the EHTP aerosol consisting mostly of water, glycerol and nicotine, but also other compounds at much lower concentrations. The nucleation process taking place in the EHTP during use when operated in the Holder has therefore been modeled numerically using an extended Classical Nucleation Theory (CNT) for multicomponent gas mixtures. Results from the performed simulations demonstrate that aerosol droplets are formed only in the presence of an aerosol former being mainly glycerol. Minor compounds in the gas mixture were not able to reach a supersaturated state alone and therefore could not generate aerosol droplets from the multicomponent gas mixture at the operating conditions simulated. For the analytically characterized aerosol composition and estimated operating conditions of the EHTS and EHTP, glycerol was shown to be the main aerosol former triggering the nucleation process in the EHTP. This implies that according to the CNT, an aerosol former, such as glycerol needs to be present in the gas mixture for an aerosol to form under the tested operating conditions. To assess if these conclusions are sensitive to the initial amount of the minor compounds and to include and represent the total mass of the aerosol collected during the analytical aerosol characterization, simulations were carried out with initial masses of the minor compounds increased by as much as a factor of 500. Despite this extreme condition, no aerosol droplets were generated when glycerol, nicotine and water were treated as inert species and therefore not actively contributing to the nucleation process. This implies that according to the CNT, an aerosol cannot be generated without the help of an aerosol former, from the multicomponent gas mixtures at the compositions and operating conditions estimated for the EHTP, even if all minor compounds are released or generated in a single puff.

Keywords: Modeling, Aerosol, nucleation, classical nucleation theory (CNT), electrically heated tobacco product (EHTP), electrically heated tobacco system (EHTS), multicomponent

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7 Heavy Metals in PM2.5 Aerosols in Urban Sites of Győr, Hungary

Authors: Zs. Csanádi, A. Szabó Nagy, J. Szabó, J. Erdős


Atmospheric concentrations of some heavy metal compounds (Pb, Cd, Ni) and the metalloid As were identified and determined in airborne PM2.5 particles in urban sites of Győr, northwest area of Hungary. PM2.5 aerosol samples were collected in two different sampling sites and the trace metal(loid) (Pb, Ni, Cd and As) content were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The concentration of PM2.5 fraction was varied between 12.22 and 36.92 μg/m3 at the two sampling sites. The trend of heavy metal mean concentrations regarding the mean value of the two urban sites of Győr was found in decreasing order of Pb > Ni > Cd. The mean values were 7.59 ng/m3 for Pb, 0.34 ng/m3 for Ni and 0.11 ng/m3 for Cd, respectively. The metalloid As could be detected only in 3.57% of the total collected samples. The levels of PM2.5 bounded heavy metals were determined and compared with other cities located in Hungary.

Keywords: Air quality, Aerosol, Heavy Metals, PM2.5

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6 The Effects of Stoke's Drag, Electrostatic Force and Charge on Penetration of Nanoparticles through N95 Respirators

Authors: Jacob Schwartz, Maxim Durach, Aniruddha Mitra, Abbas Rashidi, Glen Sage, Atin Adhikari


NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) approved N95 respirators are commonly used by workers in construction sites where there is a large amount of dust being produced from sawing, grinding, blasting, welding, etc., both electrostatically charged and not. A significant portion of airborne particles in construction sites could be nanoparticles created beside coarse particles. The penetration of the particles through the masks may differ depending on the size and charge of the individual particle. In field experiments relevant to this current study, we found that nanoparticles of medium size ranges are penetrating more frequently than nanoparticles of smaller and larger sizes. For example, penetration percentages of nanoparticles of 11.5 – 27.4 nm into a sealed N95 respirator on a manikin head ranged from 0.59 to 6.59%, whereas nanoparticles of 36.5 – 86.6 nm ranged from 7.34 to 16.04%. The possible causes behind this increased penetration of mid-size nanoparticles through mask filters are not yet explored. The objective of this study is to identify causes behind this unusual behavior of mid-size nanoparticles. We have considered such physical factors as Boltzmann distribution of the particles in thermal equilibrium with the air, kinetic energy of the particles at impact on the mask, Stoke’s drag force, and electrostatic forces in the mask stopping the particles. When the particles collide with the mask, only the particles that have enough kinetic energy to overcome the energy loss due to the electrostatic forces and the Stokes’ drag in the mask can pass through the mask. To understand this process, the following assumptions were made: (1) the effect of Stoke’s drag depends on the particles’ velocity at entry into the mask; (2) the electrostatic force is proportional to the charge on the particles, which in turn is proportional to the surface area of the particles; (3) the general dependence on electrostatic charge and thickness means that for stronger electrostatic resistance in the masks and thicker the masks’ fiber layers the penetration of particles is reduced, which is a sensible conclusion. In sampling situations where one mask was soaked in alcohol eliminating electrostatic interaction the penetration was much larger in the mid-range than the same mask with electrostatic interaction. The smaller nanoparticles showed almost zero penetration most likely because of the small kinetic energy, while the larger sized nanoparticles showed almost negligible penetration most likely due to the interaction of the particle with its own drag force. If there is no electrostatic force the fraction for larger particles grows. But if the electrostatic force is added the fraction for larger particles goes down, so diminished penetration for larger particles should be due to increased electrostatic repulsion, may be due to increased surface area and therefore larger charge on average. We have also explored the effect of ambient temperature on nanoparticle penetrations and determined that the dependence of the penetration of particles on the temperature is weak in the range of temperatures in the measurements 37-42°C, since the factor changes in the range from 3.17 10-3K-1 to 3.22 10-3K-1.

Keywords: Aerosol, Industrial Hygiene, electrostatic force, respiratory protection

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5 Wood Dust and Nanoparticle Exposure among Workers during a New Building Construction

Authors: Atin Adhikari, Aniruddha Mitra, Abbas Rashidi, Imaobong Ekpo, Jefferson Doehling, Alexis Pawlak, Shane Lewis, Jacob Schwartz


Building constructions in the US involve numerous wooden structures. Woods are routinely used in walls, framing floors, framing stairs, and making of landings in building constructions. Cross-laminated timbers are currently being used as construction materials for tall buildings. Numerous workers are involved in these timber based constructions, and wood dust is one of the most common occupational exposures for them. Wood dust is a complex substance composed of cellulose, polyoses and other substances. According to US OSHA, exposure to wood dust is associated with a variety of adverse health effects among workers, including dermatitis, allergic respiratory effects, mucosal and nonallergic respiratory effects, and cancers. The amount and size of particles released as wood dust differ according to the operations performed on woods. For example, shattering of wood during sanding operations produces finer particles than does chipping in sawing and milling industries. To our knowledge, how shattering, cutting and sanding of woods and wood slabs during new building construction release fine particles and nanoparticles are largely unknown. General belief is that the dust generated during timber cutting and sanding tasks are mostly large particles. Consequently, little attention has been given to the generated submicron ultrafine and nanoparticles and their exposure levels. These data are, however, critically important because recent laboratory studies have demonstrated cytotoxicity of nanoparticles on lung epithelial cells. The above-described knowledge gaps were addressed in this study by a novel newly developed nanoparticle monitor and conventional particle counters. This study was conducted in a large new building construction site in southern Georgia primarily during the framing of wooden side walls, inner partition walls, and landings. Exposure levels of nanoparticles (n = 10) were measured by a newly developed nanoparticle counter (TSI NanoScan SMPS Model 3910) at four different distances (5, 10, 15, and 30 m) from the work location. Other airborne particles (number of particles/m3) including PM2.5 and PM10 were monitored using a 6-channel (0.3, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 µm) particle counter at 15 m, 30 m, and 75 m distances at both upwind and downwind directions. Mass concentration of PM2.5 and PM10 (µg/m³) were measured by using a DustTrak Aerosol Monitor. Temperature and relative humidity levels were recorded. Wind velocity was measured by a hot wire anemometer. Concentration ranges of nanoparticles of 13 particle sizes were: 11.5 nm: 221 – 816/cm³; 15.4 nm: 696 – 1735/cm³; 20.5 nm: 879 – 1957/cm³; 27.4 nm: 1164 – 2903/cm³; 36.5 nm: 1138 – 2640/cm³; 48.7 nm: 938 – 1650/cm³; 64.9 nm: 759 – 1284/cm³; 86.6 nm: 705 – 1019/cm³; 115.5 nm: 494 – 1031/cm³; 154 nm: 417 – 806/cm³; 205.4 nm: 240 – 471/cm³; 273.8 nm: 45 – 92/cm³; and 365.2 nm: Keywords: Aerosol, Industrial Hygiene, wood dust, occupational exposure

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4 Nanoparticle Exposure Levels in Indoor and Outdoor Demolition Sites

Authors: Aniruddha Mitra, Abbas Rashidi, Shane Lewis, Jefferson Doehling, Alexis Pawlak, Jacob Schwartz, Imaobong Ekpo, Atin Adhikari


Working or living close to demolition sites can increase risks of dust-related health problems. Demolition of concrete buildings may produce crystalline silica dust, which can be associated with a broad range of respiratory diseases including silicosis and lung cancers. Previous studies demonstrated significant associations between demolition dust exposure and increase in the incidence of mesothelioma or asbestos cancer. Dust is a generic term used for minute solid particles of typically <500 µm in diameter. Dust particles in demolition sites vary in a wide range of sizes. Larger particles tend to settle down from the air. On the other hand, the smaller and lighter solid particles remain dispersed in the air for a long period and pose sustained exposure risks. Submicron ultrafine particles and nanoparticles are respirable deeper into our alveoli beyond our body’s natural respiratory cleaning mechanisms such as cilia and mucous membranes and are likely to be retained in the lower airways. To our knowledge, how various demolition tasks release nanoparticles are largely unknown and previous studies mostly focused on course dust, PM2.5, and PM10. General belief is that the dust generated during demolition tasks are mostly large particles formed through crushing, grinding, or sawing of various concrete and wooden structures. Therefore, little consideration has been given to the generated submicron ultrafine and nanoparticles and their exposure levels. These data are, however, critically important because recent laboratory studies have demonstrated cytotoxicity of nanoparticles on lung epithelial cells. The above-described knowledge gaps were addressed in this study by a novel newly developed nanoparticle monitor, which was used for nanoparticle monitoring at two adjacent indoor and outdoor building demolition sites in southern Georgia. Nanoparticle levels were measured (n = 10) by TSI NanoScan SMPS Model 3910 at four different distances (5, 10, 15, and 30 m) from the work location as well as in control sites. Temperature and relative humidity levels were recorded. Indoor demolition works included acetylene torch, masonry drilling, ceiling panel removal, and other miscellaneous tasks. Whereas, outdoor demolition works included acetylene torch and skid-steer loader use to remove a HVAC system. Concentration ranges of nanoparticles of 13 particle sizes at the indoor demolition site were: 11.5 nm: 63 – 1054/cm³; 15.4 nm: 170 – 1690/cm³; 20.5 nm: 321 – 730/cm³; 27.4 nm: 740 – 3255/cm³; 36.5 nm: 1,220 – 17,828/cm³; 48.7 nm: 1,993 – 40,465/cm³; 64.9 nm: 2,848 – 58,910/cm³; 86.6 nm: 3,722 – 62,040/cm³; 115.5 nm: 3,732 – 46,786/cm³; 154 nm: 3,022 – 21,506/cm³; 205.4 nm: 12 – 15,482/cm³; 273.8 nm: Keywords: Aerosol, Industrial Hygiene, occupational exposure, demolition dust

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3 Study on Aerosol Behavior in Piping Assembly under Varying Flow Conditions

Authors: Anubhav Kumar Dwivedi, Arshad Khan, S. N. Tripathi, Manish Joshi, Gaurav Mishra, Dinesh Nath, Naveen Tiwari, B. K. Sapra


In a nuclear reactor accident scenario, a large number of fission products may release to the piping system of the primary heat transport. The released fission products, mostly in the form of the aerosol, get deposited on the inner surface of the piping system mainly due to gravitational settling and thermophoretic deposition. The removal processes in the complex piping system are controlled to a large extent by the thermal-hydraulic conditions like temperature, pressure, and flow rates. These parameters generally vary with time and therefore must be carefully monitored to predict the aerosol behavior in the piping system. The removal process of aerosol depends on the size of particles that determines how many particles get deposit or travel across the bends and reach to the other end of the piping system. The released aerosol gets deposited onto the inner surface of the piping system by various mechanisms like gravitational settling, Brownian diffusion, thermophoretic deposition, and by other deposition mechanisms. To quantify the correct estimate of deposition, the identification and understanding of the aforementioned deposition mechanisms are of great importance. These mechanisms are significantly affected by different flow and thermodynamic conditions. Thermophoresis also plays a significant role in particle deposition. In the present study, a series of experiments were performed in the piping system of the National Aerosol Test Facility (NATF), BARC using metal aerosols (zinc) in dry environments to study the spatial distribution of particles mass and number concentration, and their depletion due to various removal mechanisms in the piping system. The experiments were performed at two different carrier gas flow rates. The commercial CFD software FLUENT is used to determine the distribution of temperature, velocity, pressure, and turbulence quantities in the piping system. In addition to the in-built models for turbulence, heat transfer and flow in the commercial CFD code (FLUENT), a new sub-model PBM (population balance model) is used to describe the coagulation process and to compute the number concentration along with the size distribution at different sections of the piping. In the sub-model coagulation kernels are incorporated through user-defined function (UDF). The experimental results are compared with the CFD modeled results. It is found that most of the Zn particles (more than 35 %) deposit near the inlet of the plenum chamber and a low deposition is obtained in piping sections. The MMAD decreases along the length of the test assembly, which shows that large particles get deposited or removed in the course of flow, and only fine particles travel to the end of the piping system. The effect of a bend is also observed, and it is found that the relative loss in mass concentration at bends is more in case of a high flow rate. The simulation results show that the thermophoresis and depositional effects are more dominating for the small and larger sizes as compared to the intermediate particles size. Both SEM and XRD analysis of the collected samples show the samples are highly agglomerated non-spherical and composed mainly of ZnO. The coupled model framed in this work could be used as an important tool for predicting size distribution and concentration of some other aerosol released during a reactor accident scenario.

Keywords: CFD, Coagulation, Aerosol, Deposition

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2 Aerosol Characterization in a Coastal Urban Area in Rimini, Italy

Authors: Dimitri Bacco, Arianna Trentini, Fabiana Scotto, Flavio Rovere, Daniele Foscoli, Cinzia Para, Paolo Veronesi, Silvia Sandrini, Claudia Zigola, Michela Comandini, Marilena Montalti, Marco Zamagni, Vanes Poluzzi


The Po Valley, in the north of Italy, is one of the most polluted areas in Europe. The air quality of the area is linked not only to anthropic activities but also to its geographical characteristics and stagnant weather conditions with frequent inversions, especially in the cold season. Even the coastal areas present high values of particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) because the area closed between the Adriatic Sea and the Apennines does not favor the dispersion of air pollutants. The aim of the present work was to identify the main sources of particulate matter in Rimini, a tourist city in northern Italy. Two sampling campaigns were carried out in 2018, one in winter (60 days) and one in summer (30 days), in 4 sites: an urban background, a city hotspot, a suburban background, and a rural background. The samples are characterized by the concentration of the ionic composition of the particulates and of the main a hydro-sugars, in particular levoglucosan, a marker of the biomass burning, because one of the most important anthropogenic sources in the area, both in the winter and surprisingly even in the summer, is the biomass burning. Furthermore, three sampling points were chosen in order to maximize the contribution of a specific biomass source: a point in a residential area (domestic cooking and domestic heating), a point in the agricultural area (weed fires), and a point in the tourist area (restaurant cooking). In these sites, the analyzes were enriched with the quantification of the carbonaceous component (organic and elemental carbon) and with measurement of the particle number concentration and aerosol size distribution (6 - 600 nm). The results showed a very significant impact of the combustion of biomass due to domestic heating in the winter period, even though many intense peaks were found attributable to episodic wood fires. In the summer season, however, an appreciable signal was measured linked to the combustion of biomass, although much less intense than in winter, attributable to domestic cooking activities. Further interesting results were the verification of the total absence of sea salt's contribution in the particulate with the lower diameter (PM2.5), and while in the PM10, the contribution becomes appreciable only in particular wind conditions (high wind from north, north-east). Finally, it is interesting to note that in a small town, like Rimini, in summer, the traffic source seems to be even more relevant than that measured in a much larger city (Bologna) due to tourism.

Keywords: Aerosol, urban area, biomass burning, seacoast

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1 Spatial Variability of Brahmaputra River Flow Characteristics

Authors: Hemant Kumar


Brahmaputra River is known according to the Hindu mythology the son of the Lord Brahma. According to this name, the river Brahmaputra creates mass destruction during the monsoon season in Assam, India. It is a state situated in North-East part of India. This is one of the essential states out of the seven countries of eastern India, where almost all entire Brahmaputra flow carried out. The other states carry their tributaries. In the present case study, the spatial analysis performed in this specific case the number of MODIS data are acquired. In the method of detecting the change, the spray content was found during heavy rainfall and in the flooded monsoon season. By this method, particularly the analysis over the Brahmaputra outflow determines the flooded season. The charged particle-associated in aerosol content genuinely verifies the heavy water content below the ground surface, which is validated by trend analysis through rainfall spectrum data. This is confirmed by in-situ sampled view data from a different position of Brahmaputra River. Further, a Hyperion Hyperspectral 30 m resolution data were used to scan the sediment deposits, which is also confirmed by in-situ sampled view data from a different position.

Keywords: Aerosol, Spatial analysis, Trend Analysis, change detection

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