Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

Aerodynamic Related Abstracts

11 Aerodynamic Analysis of Vehicles

Authors: V. A. C. Vale, E. T. L. Cöuras Ford, J. U. L. Mendes

Abstract:

Two of the objective principal in the study of the aerodynamics of vehicles are the safety and the acting. Those objectives can be reached through the development of devices modify the drainage of air about of the vehicle and also through alterations in the way of the external surfaces. The front lowest profile of the vehicle, for instance, has great influence on the coefficient of aerodynamic penetration (Cx) and later on great part of the pressure distribution along the surface of the vehicle. The objective of this work was of analyzing the aerodynamic behavior that it happens on some types the trucks of vehicles, based on experimentation in aerodynamic tunnel, seeking to determine the aerodynamic efficiency of each one of them.

Keywords: Safety, Vehicles, Aerodynamic, Wind Tunnel, Acting

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10 Aerodynamic Investigation of Baseline-IV Bird-Inspired BWB Aircraft Design: Improvements over Baseline-III BWB

Authors: C. M. Nur Syazwani, M. K. Ahmad Imran, Rizal E. M. Nasir

Abstract:

The study on BWB UV begins in UiTM since 2005 and three designs have been studied and published. The latest designs are Baseline-III and inspired by birds that have features and aerodynamics behaviour of cruising birds without flapping capability. The aircraft featuring planform and configuration are similar to the bird. Baseline-III has major flaws particularly in its low lift-to-drag ratio, stability and issues regarding limited controllability. New design known as Baseline-IV replaces straight, swept wing to delta wing and have a broader tail compares to the Baseline-III’s. The objective of the study is to investigate aerodynamics of Baseline-IV bird-inspired BWB aircraft. This will be achieved by theoretical calculation and wind tunnel experiments. The result shows that both theoretical and wind tunnel experiments of Baseline-IV graph of CL and CD versus alpha are quite similar to each other in term of pattern of graph slopes and values. Baseline-IV has higher lift coefficient values at wide range of angle of attack compares to Baseline-III. Baseline-IV also has higher maximum lift coefficient, higher maximum lift-to-drag and lower parasite drag. It has stable pitch moment versus lift slope but negative moment at zero lift for zero angle-of-attack tail setting. At high angle of attack, Baseline-IV does not have stability reversal as shown in Baseline-III. Baseline-IV is proven to have improvements over Baseline-III in terms of lift, lift-to-drag ratio and pitch moment stability at high angle-of-attack.

Keywords: Stability, Aerodynamic, blended wing-body, bird-inspired blended wing-body

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9 Investigation of Flow Structure over X-45 Type Non-Slender Delta Wing Planform

Authors: B. Yanıktepe, C. Özalp, B. Şahin

Abstract:

Delta wing planform is an essential aerodynamic configuration, which could be effectively used at relatively high angles of attack than conventional wings in subsonic flow conditions. The flow over delta wings can be characterized by a pair of leading edge vortices emanating from wing apex. Boundary layer separation causes these vortical structures formed by rolling up of viscous flow sheet. This flow separation mechanism is occurred due to angle of attack and sharp leading edges of the delta wing. Therefore, complexity and variety in planform designs rise to catch the best under abnormal flow conditions. The present experimental study investigates the near surface flow structure and aerodynamic flow characteristics of X-45 type non-slender delta wing planform using dye visualization, Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (stereo-PIV). The instantaneous images are acquired on the plan-view plane within 5o≤α≤20o to calculate the time-averaged flow data. It can be concluded that vortical flow with a pair of well-defined LEVs over X-45 develop at very low angles of attack, secondary vortex are also evident and form close to the wing surface similar to delta and lambda planforms. The stall occurs at an angle of attack α=32o.

Keywords: Aerodynamic, PIV, vortex breakdown, delta wing

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8 Aerodynamic Interference of Propellers Group with Adjustable Mutual Position

Authors: Michal Biały, Krzysztof Skiba, Zdzislaw Kaminski

Abstract:

The research results of the influence of the adjustable mutual position of the propellers for getting optimal lift force on a specially designed bench. The bench consists of frame with electric motors and with attached propellers. Engines were arranged in a matrix of two columns and three rows. The distance between the columns averages from 0 to 20”, while the engine was placed at a height of 8”, 15.5” and 23.6”. By adjusting the tilt of an electric motor, an angle of the propeller in the range of 0° to 60°, by 15° was controlled. Propellers with a diameter of 8" and pitch of 4.5” were driven by brushless model engines Roxxy BL-Outrunner 2827/26 with a power of 110W (each). Rotational speed control of electric motors were realized parallel for all propellers. The speed adjustment was realized using an aggregate of radio-controlled regulators. Electric power supplied to the engines from zero to maximum power, by the setting for every 14W, was controlled by radio system. Measurement system was placed on a laboratory scale. The lift was measured and recorded by an electronic scale. The lift force for different configurations of propellers arrangement was recorded during the test. All propellers were driven in one rotational direction and in different directions when they were in the same pairs. Propellers were driven concurrently and contra-concurrently along one of the columns and along the selected rows. During the tests, except the lift, parameters such as: rotational speed of propellers, voltage and current to the electric engines were recorded. The main aim of the research was to show the influence of aerodynamic interference between the propellers to receive lift force depending on the drive configuration of individual propellers. The research has shown that, this interference exists. The increase of the lift force for a distance between columns above 26.6” was noticed during the driving propellers in different directions. The optimum tilt angle of the propeller was 45°. Furthermore there has been also approx. 12% increase of the lift for propellers driven alternately in column and contra-concurrently in relation to the contra-rotating drive in the row.

Keywords: Aerodynamic, Propulsion System, Interference, lift force, propeller

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7 Potential of Aerodynamic Feature on Monitoring Multilayer Rough Surfaces

Authors: Ibtissem Hosni, Lilia Bennaceur Farah, Saber Mohamed Naceur

Abstract:

In order to assess the water availability in the soil, it is crucial to have information about soil distributed moisture content; this parameter helps to understand the effect of humidity on the exchange between soil, plant cover and atmosphere in addition to fully understanding the surface processes and the hydrological cycle. On the other hand, aerodynamic roughness length is a surface parameter that scales the vertical profile of the horizontal component of the wind speed and characterizes the surface ability to absorb the momentum of the airflow. In numerous applications of the surface hydrology and meteorology, aerodynamic roughness length is an important parameter for estimating momentum, heat and mass exchange between the soil surface and atmosphere. It is important on this side, to consider the atmosphere factors impact in general, and the natural erosion in particular, in the process of soil evolution and its characterization and prediction of its physical parameters. The study of the induced movements by the wind over soil vegetated surface, either spaced plants or plant cover, is motivated by significant research efforts in agronomy and biology. The known major problem in this side concerns crop damage by wind, which presents a booming field of research. Obviously, most models of soil surface require information about the aerodynamic roughness length and its temporal and spatial variability. We have used a bi-dimensional multi-scale (2D MLS) roughness description where the surface is considered as a superposition of a finite number of one-dimensional Gaussian processes each one having a spatial scale using the wavelet transform and the Mallat algorithm to describe natural surface roughness. We have introduced multi-layer aspect of the humidity of the soil surface, to take into account a volume component in the problem of backscattering radar signal. As humidity increases, the dielectric constant of the soil-water mixture increases and this change is detected by microwave sensors. Nevertheless, many existing models in the field of radar imagery, cannot be applied directly on areas covered with vegetation due to the vegetation backscattering. Thus, the radar response corresponds to the combined signature of the vegetation layer and the layer of soil surface. Therefore, the key issue of the numerical estimation of soil moisture is to separate the two contributions and calculate both scattering behaviors of the two layers by defining the scattering of the vegetation and the soil blow. This paper presents a synergistic methodology, and it is for estimating roughness and soil moisture from C-band radar measurements. The methodology adequately represents a microwave/optical model which has been used to calculate the scattering behavior of the aerodynamic vegetation-covered area by defining the scattering of the vegetation and the soil below.

Keywords: Vegetation, Aerodynamic, synergistic, bi-dimensional

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6 Nonlinear Modelling and Analysis of Piezoelectric Smart Thin-Walled Structures in Supersonic Flow

Authors: Shun-Qi Zhang, Shu-Yang Zhang, Zhan-Xi Wang, Xian-Sheng Qin

Abstract:

Thin-walled structures are used more and more widely in modern aircrafts and some other structures in aerospace field nowadays. Accompanied by the wider applications, the vibration of the structures has been a bigger problem. Because of the direct and converse piezoelectric effect, piezoelectric materials combined to host thin-walled structures, named as piezoelectric smart structures, can be an effective way to suppress the vibration. So, an accurate model for piezoelectric thin-walled structures in air flow is necessary and important. In our recent work, an electromechanical coupling nonlinear aerodynamic finite element model of piezoelectric smart thin-walled structures is built based on the Reissner-Mindlin plate theory and first-order piston theory for aerodynamic pressure of supersonic flow. Von Kármán type nonlinearity is considered in the present model. Finally, the model is validated by experimental and numerical results from the literature, which can describe the vibration of the structures in supersonic flow precisely.

Keywords: Finite Element Analysis, Aerodynamic, geometric nonlinearity, piezoelectric smart structures

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5 Design and Validation of an Aerodynamic Model of the Cessna Citation X Horizontal Stabilizer Using both OpenVSP and Digital Datcom

Authors: Marine Segui, Ruxandra Mihaela Botez, Matthieu Mantilla

Abstract:

This research is the part of a major project at the Research Laboratory in Active Controls, Avionics and Aeroservoelasticity (LARCASE) aiming to improve a Cessna Citation X aircraft cruise performance with an application of the morphing wing technology on its horizontal tail. However, the horizontal stabilizer of the Cessna Citation X turns around its span axis with an angle between -8 and 2 degrees. Within this range, the horizontal stabilizer generates certainly some unwanted drag. To cancel this drag, the LARCASE proposes to trim the aircraft with a horizontal stabilizer equipped by a morphing wing technology. This technology aims to optimize aerodynamic performances by changing the conventional horizontal tail shape during the flight. As a consequence, this technology will be able to generate enough lift on the horizontal tail to balance the aircraft without an unwanted drag generation. To conduct this project, an accurate aerodynamic model of the horizontal tail is firstly required. This aerodynamic model will finally allow precise comparison between a conventional horizontal tail and a morphed horizontal tail results. This paper presents how this aerodynamic model was designed. In this way, it shows how the 2D geometry of the horizontal tail was collected and how the unknown airfoil’s shape of the horizontal tail has been recovered. Finally, the complete horizontal tail airfoil shape was found and a comparison between aerodynamic polar of the real horizontal tail and the horizontal tail found in this paper shows a maximum difference of 0.04 on the lift or the drag coefficient which is very good. Aerodynamic polar data of the aircraft horizontal tail are obtained from the CAE Inc. level D research aircraft flight simulator of the Cessna Citation X.

Keywords: Aerodynamic, Citation, model, coefficient, longitudinal, lift, drag, Cessna, Datcom, OpenVSP

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4 Aerodynamic Coefficients Prediction from Minimum Computation Combinations Using OpenVSP Software

Authors: Marine Segui, Ruxandra Mihaela Botez

Abstract:

OpenVSP is an aerodynamic solver developed by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) that allows building a reliable model of an aircraft. This software performs an aerodynamic simulation according to the angle of attack of the aircraft makes between the incoming airstream, and its speed. A reliable aerodynamic model of the Cessna Citation X was designed but it required a lot of computation time. As a consequence, a prediction method was established that allowed predicting lift and drag coefficients for all Mach numbers and for all angles of attack, exclusively for stall conditions, from a computation of three angles of attack and only one Mach number. Aerodynamic coefficients given by the prediction method for a Cessna Citation X model were finally compared with aerodynamics coefficients obtained using a complete OpenVSP study.

Keywords: Aerodynamic, Time, Cruise, coefficient, longitudinal, improving, OpenVSP, solver

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3 Cessna Citation X Performances Improvement by an Adaptive Winglet during the Cruise Flight

Authors: Marine Segui, Ruxandra Mihaela Botez, Simon Bezin

Abstract:

As part of a ‘Morphing-Wing’ idea, this study consists of measuring how a winglet, which is able to change its shape during the flight, is efficient. Conventionally, winglets are fixed-vertical platforms at the wingtips, optimized for a cruise condition that the airplane should use most of the time. However, during a cruise, an airplane flies through a lot of cruise conditions corresponding to altitudes variations from 30,000 to 45,000 ft. The fixed winglets are not optimized for these variations, and consequently, they are supposed to generate some drag, and thus to deteriorate aircraft fuel consumption. This research assumes that it exists a winglet position that reduces the fuel consumption for each cruise condition. In this way, the methodology aims to find these optimal winglet positions, and to further simulate, and thus estimate the fuel consumption of an aircraft wearing this type of adaptive winglet during several cruise conditions. The adaptive winglet is assumed to have degrees of freedom given by the various changes of following surfaces: the tip chord, the sweep and the dihedral angles. Finally, results obtained during cruise simulations are presented in this paper. These results show that an adaptive winglet can reduce, thus improve up to 2.12% the fuel consumption of an aircraft during a cruise.

Keywords: Optimization, Aerodynamic, winglet, Cessna, Citation X

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2 Study the Effect of Leading-Edge Serration at Owl Wing Feathers on Flow-Induced Noise Generation

Authors: Suprabha Islam, Sifat Ullah Tanzil

Abstract:

During past few decades, being amazed by the excellent silent flight of owl, scientists have been trying to demystify the unique features of its wing feathers. Our present study is dedicated to taking our understanding further on this phenomenon. In this present study, a numerical investigation was performed to analyze how the shape of the leading-edge serration at owl wing feathers effects the flow-induced noise generation. For the analysis, an owl inspired single feather wing model was prepared for both with and without serrations at the leading edge. The serration profiles were taken at different positions of the vane length for a single feather. The broadband noise was studied to quantify the local contribution to the total acoustic power generated by the flow, where the results clearly showed the effect of serrations in reducing the noise generation. It was also clearly visible that the shape of the serration has a very strong influence on noise generation. The frequency spectrum of noise was also analyzed and a strong relation was found between the shape of the serration and the noise generation. It showed that the noise suppression is strongly influenced by the height to length ratio of the serration. With the increase in height to length ratio, the noise suppression is enhanced further.

Keywords: Aeroacoustics, biomimetics, Aerodynamic, serrations

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1 Aerodynamic Analysis by Computational Fluids Dynamics in Building: Case Study

Authors: Javier Navarro Garcia, Narciso Vazquez Carretero

Abstract:

Eurocode 1, part 1-4, wind actions, includes in its article 1.5 the possibility of using numerical calculation methods to obtain information on the loads acting on a building. On the other hand, the analysis using computational fluids dynamics (CFD) in aerospace, aeronautical, and industrial applications is already in widespread use. The application of techniques based on CFD analysis on the building to study its aerodynamic behavior now opens a whole alternative field of possibilities for civil engineering and architecture; optimization of the results with respect to those obtained by applying the regulations, the possibility of obtaining information on pressures, speeds at any point of the model for each moment, the analysis of turbulence and the possibility of modeling any geometry or configuration. The present work compares the results obtained on a building, with respect to its aerodynamic behavior, from a mathematical model based on the analysis by CFD with the results obtained by applying Eurocode1, part1-4, wind actions. It is verified that the results obtained by CFD techniques suppose an optimization of the wind action that acts on the building with respect to the wind action obtained by applying the Eurocode1, part 1-4, wind actions. In order to carry out this verification, a 45m high square base truncated pyramid building has been taken. The mathematical model on CFD, based on finite volumes, has been calculated using the FLUENT commercial computer application using a scale-resolving simulation (SRS) type large eddy simulation (LES) turbulence model for an atmospheric boundary layer wind with turbulent component in the direction of the flow.

Keywords: Computational Mechanics, CFD, Aerodynamic, computacional fluids dynamics

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