Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Aerobic Exercise Related Abstracts

13 Systolic Blood Pressure Responses to Aerobic Exercise among HIV Positive Patients

Authors: Ka'abu Mu'azu

Abstract:

The study examines the effect of varied intensities of aerobic exercise on Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) among HIV/AIDS positive patients. Participants of mean age of 20.4 years were randomized into four groups. High Intensity Group (HIG), Moderate Intensity Group (MIG), Low Intensity Group (LIG) and Control Group (COG). SBP was measured at baseline (pre-exercise) and post-exercise (8 weeks). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicates a significant training effect on resting values of SBP (F [3, 15] = 8.9, P < 0.05). Sheffe post hoc analysis indicated that both HIG and MIG significantly differ from control (P < 0.05). Dependent t- test indicates difference in HIG (t [7] = 6.5, P < 0.05) and slightly in MIG (t [7] = 5.4, P < 0.05). The study concluded that aerobic exercise is effective in reducing resting values of SBP particularly the activities that are high intensity in nature. The study recommends that high and moderate intensity aerobic exercise should be used for improving health condition of HIV/AIDS patients as regard to decrease in resting value of SBP.

Keywords: Health Sciences, Aerobic Exercise, systolic blood pressure, HIV patients

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12 The Effect of Aerobic Exercises on the Amount of Urea, Uric Acid and Creatine in Blood of Iranian Soccer Players

Authors: Abdolrasoul Daneshjoo

Abstract:

The purpose of this research was to study the effect of aerobic exercises with 75% heart beats on the amount of urea, uric acid and creatine in blood of Iranian soccer national U-23 players. 27 players were selected according to the following demographic specifications: age: 21.4±1.60 years old; weight: 68±9.4 kg; height: 174.2±8.6 cm. Urea, uric acid and creatine in blood are considered as dependent variations where as 40 minutes running on a track with maximum 75% heart beats are independent variations. Heart beat and blood pressure in rest time, age, height, and weight are considered as the controlled variations. Maximum heart beats are recorded under maximum exercises (8 minutes and 150-250 watt energy) on ergo meter. Then, in order to determine independent variations, 75% maximum heart beats are considered for each player. Blood is taken twice (before and after determining independence variation). Moreover, the players are given a few instructions to be fulfilled 24 hours before the main exercises. Laboratory analysis method for blood urea sample is deacetyl ammoniom, for uric acid Karvy test and for creatine pyric acid. 'T' formula is applied for analyzing statistical data in dependent groups with degree of freedom 7 (d.f=7) urea and uric acid contain P>0.01 and P>0.05 for creatine. 1. Aerobic exercise can effect on the concentration of urea of blood as well as uric acid and creatine in blood serum and increase the amount of them. 2. Urea of blood serum increases from 26.75±2.59 to 28.9±2.67 (25%) with 40 minutes running and 75% heart beat. 3. Aerobic exercise causes uric acid increase 12.5% from 5.7±0.52 (before exercise) to 6.1±0.71 (after exercise). Creatine of blood serum increases from 1.36±0.27 (before exercise) to 1.85±0.49 (after exercise). We came to this result that during aerobic exercise catabolism of protein substrate increases. Moreover, augmentation of urea, uric acid and creatine in blood serum as metabolic poisons causes disorder in kidney. Also, tendons and joints are affected by these poisons. Appropriate diet and exercise can prevent production of these poisons resulted from heavy exercise.

Keywords: Blood, Aerobic Exercise, creatine, urea, uric acid, soccer national players

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11 Resistance Training Contribution to the Aerobic Component of the International Physical Activity Guidelines in Adults

Authors: Neha Bharti, Martin Sénéchal, Danielle R. Bouchard

Abstract:

Mostly attributed to lack of time, only 15% of adults currently reach the International Physical Activity Guidelines, which state that every adult should achieve minimum of 150 minutes of aerobic exercise per week at moderate to vigorous intensity in minimum bouts of 10 minutes each, in addition to two days of resistance training. Recent studies have suggested that any bout of aerobic exercise reaching moderate intensity has potential to improve health. If one could reach moderate intensity while doing resistance training, this could reduce the total weekly time involvement to reach the International Physical Activity Guidelines. Objectives: 1) To determine whether overweight and older adults can reach a minimum of moderate intensity while doing resistance training compared with young non-overweight adults, 2) To identify if the proportion of time spent at moderate to vigorous intensity is different in overweight adults and older adults when compared with young non-overweight adults when lifting 70% or 80% of maximal load, 3) To determine variables associated with proportion of time spent at moderate to vigorous intensity while doing resistance training. Methods: Sixty participants already doing resistance training were recruited (20 young non-overweight adults, 20 overweight adults, and 20 older adults). Participants visited fitness facility three times, separated by at least 48 hours, and performed eight resistance exercises each time. First visit was to collect baseline measurements and to measure maximal load for each of the eight exercises. Second and third visits were performed wearing a heart rate monitor to record heart rate and to measure exercise intensity. The two exercise sessions were performed at 70% and 80% of maximal capacity. Moderate intensity was defined as 40% of heart rate reserve. Results: The proportion of time spent at moderate to vigorous intensity ranged from 51% to 93% among the three groups. No difference was observed between the young group and the overweight adults group in the proportion of time spent at moderate to vigorous intensity, 82.6% (69.2-94.6) vs 92.5% (73.3-99.1). However, older adults spent lower proportion of time at moderate to vigorous intensity for both sessions 51.5% (22.0-86.6); P < .01. When doing resistance training at 70% and 80% of maximal capacity, the proportion of time spent at moderate to vigorous intensity was 82.3% (56.1-94.7) and 82.0% (59.2-98.0) with no significant difference (P=.83). Conclusion: This study suggests that overweight adults and older adults can reach moderate intensity for at least 51% of the time spent doing resistance training. However, time spent at moderate to vigorous intensity was lower for older adults compared to young non-overweight adults. For adults aged 60 or less, three resistance training sessions of 60 minutes weekly could be enough to reach both aerobic and resistance training components of the International Physical Activity Guidelines. Further research is needed to test if resistance training at moderate to vigorous intensity can have the same health benefits compared with adults completing the International Physical Activity Guidelines as currently suggested.

Keywords: Aerobic Exercise, Resistance Training, international physical activity guidelines, moderate to vigorous intensity

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10 The Effect of Aerobics and Yogic Exercise on Selected Physiological and Psychological Variables of Middle-Aged Women

Authors: A. Pallavi, N. Vijay Mohan

Abstract:

A nation can be economically progressive only when the citizens have sufficient capacity to work efficiently to increase the productivity. So, good health must be regarded as a primary need of the community. This helps the growth and development of the body and the mind, which in turn leads to progress and prosperity of the nation. An optimum growth is a necessity for an efficient existence in a biologically adverse and economically competitive world. It is also necessary for the execution of daily routine work. Yoga is a method or a system for the complete development of the personality in a human being. It can be further elaborated as an all-around and complete development of the body, mind, morality, intellect and soul of a being. Sri Aurobindo defines yoga as 'a methodical effort towards self-perfection by the development of the potentialities in the individual.' Aerobic exercise as any activity that uses large muscle groups, can be maintained continuously, and is rhythmic I nature. It is a type of exercise that overloads the heart and lungs and causes them to work harder than at rest. The important idea behind aerobic exercise today, is to get up and get moving. There are more activities that ever to choose from, whether it is a new activity or an old one. Find something you enjoy doing that keeps our heart rate elevated for a continuous time period and get moving to a healthier life. Middle aged selected and served as the subjects for the purpose of this study. The selected subjects were in the age group of 30 to 40 years. By going through the literature and after consulting the experts in yoga and aerobic training, the investigator had chosen the variables which are specifically related to the middle-aged men. The selected physiological variables are pulse rate, diastolic blood pressure, systolic blood pressure; percent body fat and vital capacity. The selected psychological variables are job anxiety, occupational stress. The study was formulated as a random group design consisting of aerobic exercise and yogic exercises groups. The subjects (N=60) were at random divided into three equal groups of twenty middle-aged men each. The groups were assigned the names as follows: 1. Experimental group I- aerobic exercises group, 2. Experimental group II- yogic exercises, 3. Control group. All the groups were subjected to pre-test prior to the experimental treatment. The experimental groups participated in their respective duration of twenty-four weeks, six days in a week throughout the study. The various tests administered were: prior to training (pre-test), after twelfth week (second test) and twenty-fourth weeks (post-test) of the training schedule.

Keywords: Aerobic Exercise, Occupational Stress, pulse rate, diastolic blood pressure, systolic blood pressure; percent body fat and vital capacity, psychological variables, job anxiety, yogic exercise

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9 Serum Cortisol and Osteocalsin in Response to Eight Weeks Aerobic Training in Asthma Men with Mild to Moderate Intensity

Authors: Eizadi Mojtaba

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This study aimed to evaluate the effect of 8 weeks aerobic training on serum osteocalsin as an osteoblasts hormone and cortisol in adult men with asthma. For this purpose, twenty four non-trained adult men with mild to moderate asthma were participated in study voluntarily and divided into exercise (aerobic training, 8 weeks/3 times per week) and control groups by randomly. Pre and post training of serum osteocalsin and cortisol were measured of two groups. Student’s paired ‘t’ test was applied to compare the pre and post training values. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. There were no statistically significant differences with regard to all anthropometrical and biochemical markers between the exercise and control groups at baseline ( P > 0.05 ). Exercise training resulted in a significant increase in serum osteocalsin and decrease in cortisol ( P > 0.05 ), but not in control group. Based on these data, we concluded that aerobic training can be improved Processes of bone formation in asthma patients.

Keywords: Asthma, Aerobic Exercise, osteoblasts, sedentary

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8 The Effect of Aerobic Training and Aqueous Extract of C. monogyna (Hawthorn) on Plasma and Heart Angiogenic Mediators in Male Wistar Rats

Authors: Ahmad Abdi, Asieh Abbassi Daloii

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Introduction: Sports information suggests that physical inactivity increases the risk of many diseases, including atherosclerosis. Coronary heart disease, stroke and peripheral vascular disease, atherosclerosis and clinical protests. However, exercise can have beneficial effects on risk factors for atherosclerosis by reducing hyperlipidemia, hypertension, obesity, plaque density, increased insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance is improved. Despite these findings, there is little information about the molecular mechanisms of interaction between the body and its relation to sport and there arteriosclerosis. The present study aims to investigate the effect of six weeks of progressive aerobic training and aqueous extract of crataegus monogyna on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) variations and angiopoetin-1/2 (ANG- 1/2) in plasma and heart tissue in male Wistar rats. Methods: 30 male Wistar rats, 4-6 months old, were randomly divided into four groups: control crataegus monogyna (N=8), training crataegus monogyna (N=8), control saline (N=6), and training saline (N=8). The aerobic training program included running on treadmill at the speed of 34 meters per minute for 60 minutes per day. The training was conducted for six weeks, five days a week. Following each training session, both experimental and control subjects of crataegus monogyna groups were orally fed with 0.5 mg crataegus monogyna extract per gram of the body weight. The normal saline group was given the same amount of the normal saline solution (NS). Eventually, 72 hours after the last training session, blood samples were taken from inferior Verna cava. Conclusion: It is likely that crataegus monogyna extract compared with aerobic training and even combination of both training and crataegus monogyna extract is more effective on angiogenesis.

Keywords: Aerobic Exercise, vascular endothelial growth factor, angiopoietin 1

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7 The Effect of Aerobic Training and Consumption of Apple Vinegar on Cardiovascular Risk Factor in Older Women

Authors: M. Ghasemi, S. Fazelifar

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Aim: Recent studies on cardiovascular risk factors have been focused on the new markers of inflammatory diseases such as C-reactive protein (CRP). Research evidence shows that physical activity along with other factors such as reduced smoking, controlling blood pressure, control blood lipids TC, LDL-c, HDL-c and having a healthy weight can reduce the risk of chronic heart disease (CHD) .Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of twelve weeks aerobic exercise and consumption of apple vinegar on cardiovascular risk factor in older women. Methodology: 28 inactive women (mean body weight 72.13 ± 8.6 kg, height 157 ± 7.4cm, age 48.06 ± 5.18 years and BMI 28.2 ± 3.2 kg/m2) by recall and notice of investigation, among of the eligible voters recruited and randomly divided in 4 groups: control, apple vinegar, exercise, exercise + apple vinegar. The training program includes a 20-minute warm-up and stretching, running for 15 minutes in the first session with an intensity of 80% of maximum heart rate and an increase in one-minute run time in next training session. Also, subjects in experimental groups received daily specified amount of 50 ml apple vinegar. Blood samples were collected from the brachial vein in before and after training to measure CRP and blood lipids (cholesterol, HDL, VLDL, LDL). The levels of CRP were measured by ELISA way. K-S test to determine the normality of the data and analysis of variance for repeated measures was used to analyze the data. A significant difference in the p < 0/05 accepted. Results: The results indicated that individual characteristics including height, weight, age, and body mass index were not significantly different among the four groups. The results showed that levels of CRP and LDL cholesterol were significantly reduced in all groups at post-test compared to the pre-test. The HDL levels increased significantly in all groups in post-test compared to the pre-test. Analysis of the data indicates that levels of CRP, TC, and LDL were significantly reduced in all groups compared to the control group, while the changes in the other groups were not significant relative to each other. Conclusion: Results of this study showed that twelve weeks of aerobic exercise with apple vinegar cause a significant decrease in CRP, cholesterol, LDL, and significantly increased HDL levels. According to the results of this study, it is possible that aerobic exercise with apple vinegar can inhibit CRP and undesirable fats. Considering the strong association between the inflammatory indices and the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases, every factor that decreases these indices can reduce the cardiovascular complications.

Keywords: Aerobic Exercise, older women, apple vinegar, CRP

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6 Effects of Six Weeks of Moderate-Intensity Aerobic Training with a Pomegranate Juice on Plasma Leptin in Women with Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: A. Abdi, M. Golzade Gangraj, H.faraji

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Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of six weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise with pomegranate juice (PJ) on plasma leptin in adult women selection of type-2 diabetes. Methods: Survey postmenopausal diabetic women aged 45 to 60 years in the city of Babylon, who coordinated Diabetes Association presented the city, among them 34 were selected as subjects were randomly divided into four groups: control, PJ, practice and PJ. Experimental groups consisted of 6 weeks of aerobic exercise training program three times a week for at least 45 minutes per meeting. Two days before and after the training period in the fasting state (12 h) blood samples from the brachial vein was performed in a sitting position. Results: Results showed that aerobic exercise with consumption of pomegranate juice alone and interaction with each significantly decrease levels of leptin plasma in older women with type 2 diabetes compared to control group. Conclusion: According to the research findings can be stated the exercise with pomegranate juice beneficially effects fat tissue and decreases plasma leptin in adult women with type 2 diabetes and thereby reduce risk of cardiovascular disease.

Keywords: Diabetes, Aerobic Exercise, pomegranate, leptin

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5 Determining the Threshold for Protective Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Aortic Structure in a Mouse Model of Marfan Syndrome Associated Aortic Aneurysm

Authors: Christine P. Gibson, Ramona Alex, Michael Farney, Johana Vallejo-Elias, Mitra Esfandiarei

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Aortic aneurysm is the leading cause of death in Marfan syndrome (MFS), a connective tissue disorder caused by mutations in fibrillin-1 gene (FBN1). MFS aneurysm is characterized by weakening of the aortic wall due to elastin fibers fragmentation and disorganization. The above-average height and distinct physical features make young adults with MFS desirable candidates for competitive sports; but little is known about the exercise limit at which they will be at risk for aortic rupture. On the other hand, aerobic cardiovascular exercise has been shown to have protective effects on the heart and aorta. We have previously reported that mild aerobic exercise can delay the formation of aortic aneurysm in a mouse model of MFS. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of various levels of exercise intensity on the progression of aortic aneurysm in the mouse model. Starting at 4 weeks of age, we subjected control and MFS mice to different levels of exercise intensity (8m/min, 10m/min, 15m/min, and 20m/min, corresponding to 55%, 65%, 75%, and 85% of VO2 max, respectively) on a treadmill for 30 minutes per day, five days a week for the duration of the study. At 24 weeks of age, aortic tissue were isolated and subjected to structural and functional studies using histology and wire myography in order to evaluate the effects of different exercise routines on elastin fragmentation and organization and aortic wall elasticity/stiffness. Our data shows that exercise training at the intensity levels between 55%-75% significantly reduces elastin fragmentation and disorganization, with less recovery observed in 85% MFS group. The reversibility of elasticity was also significantly restored in MFS mice subjected to 55%-75% intensity; however, the recovery was less pronounced in MFS mice subjected to 85% intensity. Furthermore, our data shows that smooth muscle cells (SMCs) contractilion in response to vasoconstrictor agent phenylephrine (100nM) is significantly reduced in MFS aorta (54.84 ± 1.63 mN/mm2) as compared to control (95.85 ± 3.04 mN/mm2). At 55% of intensity, exercise did not rescue SMCs contraction (63.45 ± 1.70 mN/mm2), while at higher intensity levels, SMCs contraction in response to phenylephrine was restored to levels similar to control aorta [65% (81.88 ± 4.57 mN/mm2), 75% (86.22 ± 3.84 mN/mm2), and 85% (83.91 ± 5.42 mN/mm2)]. This study provides the first time evidence that high intensity exercise (e.g. 85%) may not provide the most beneficial effects on aortic function (vasoconstriction) and structure (elastin fragmentation, aortic wall elasticity) during the progression of aortic aneurysm in MFS mice. On the other hand, based on our observations, medium intensity exercise (e.g. 65%) seems to provide the utmost protective effects on aortic structure and function in MFS mice. These findings provide new insights into the potential capacity, in which MFS patients could participate in various aerobic exercise routines, especially in young adults affected by cardiovascular complications particularly aortic aneurysm. This work was funded by Midwestern University Research Fund.

Keywords: Aerobic Exercise, aortic aneurysm, aortic wall elasticity, elastin fragmentation, Marfan syndrome

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4 The Comparison between Resistance and Aerobic Exercise Training on Metabolic Syndrome Components in Overweight Sedentary Female

Authors: Mohsen Salesi, Marzieh Sayyad

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Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a collection of cardiometabolic risk factors, is linked to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes. The prevalence of MetS is on the rise with more women affected than men. The goal of this study was to compare the effects of resistance and aerobic exercise training on metabolic syndrome components in non-athlete, middle-aged woman. 51 non-athlete overweight female participated voluntarily in this study. Participants were divided randomly into three groups including resistance, aerobic and control group (number of each group 17). 24 hours before the beginning of training program, the blood sample was taken in fasting state. The two training groups participated in sport activities for eight weeks, three times a week duration 60-90 minutes. Two days following the end of the 8th week, all the measurements were performed similar to the pretest phase. The data was analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. The results showed that aerobic exercise training significantly decreased weight (p=.05), triglyceride (p<0.01) and systolic blood pressure (p<0.02) and HDL-c (p<0.01) was significantly increased. Also in resistance exercise training group TG decreased significantly (p<0.01) and HDL-c (p<0.05) was significantly increased. This study demonstrated that a regular physical activity program improved several metabolic and physiological parameters in healthy, previously sedentary subjects with the metabolic syndrome. In conclusion, it seems that this type of training can be efficient, safe and inexpensive way in order to reduce and prevent metabolic syndrome.

Keywords: metabolic syndrome, Aerobic Exercise, resistance exercise, overweight sedentary female

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3 Body Composition Evaluation among High Intensity and Long Term Walking Distance Participants

Authors: Priscila Vitorino, Jeeziane Rezende, Edison Pereira, Adrielly Silva, Weimar Barroso

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Body composition insight during physical activity is relevant to follow up sports income since it can be important and actuate in velocity, resistance, potency, and has an effect on force and agility. The purpose of this study was to identify anthropometric profile, evaluate and correlate body mass index and bioimpedance behavior during the days of Caminhada Ecológica de Goiás - Brasil. A longitudinal study was performed with 25 male participants, with an average age of 45.6±9.1 years. All patients were actives. Body composition was evaluated by body mass index (BMI) measurement and bioimpedance procedures. Both were collected 20 days before walking beginning (A0) and in the four days along the same (A1, A2, A3 e A4). Data were collected in the end of each walking day at athletes accommodations. Final distance during walking route was 308 km in five days, with an average of 62km/day and 7,6 km/hour, and an average temperature of 30°C. Data are represented with mean and standard deviation. ANOVA (Bonferroni pos test) was used to compare frequent measurements between the days. Pearson's correlation test was used to correlate BMI with lean mass, fat mass, and water. BMI decreased from A0 to A1, A2 and A3 (p < 0,01) and increased on A4 (p < 0,01). No changes were observed concerning fat percentage (p=0,60), lean mass (p=0,10) and body water composition (p=0,09). A positive and moderate correlation between BMI and fat percentage was observed; an inverse and moderate correlation between BMI, lean mass and body water composition occurred. Total body mass increased during high intensity and long term walking distance. However, the values of body fat, lean mass and water were maintained.

Keywords: Sports, Metabolism, Body Composition, Aerobic Exercise

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2 Effects of Continuous and Periodic Aerobic Exercises on C Reactive Protein in Overweight Women

Authors: Mohammad Sajadian, Maesoomeh Khorshidi Mehr, Shadi Alipour

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The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of eight weeks of continuous and periodic aerobic exercises on serum levels of CRP in overweight woman. 36 woman aged between 20 and 35 years from the city of Ahwaz were randomly selected as the sample of the study. This sample was further divided into three groups (n= 12) of continuous aerobic exercise, periodic aerobic exercise, and control. Subjects of the groups of continuous and periodic aerobic exercise participated in 8 weeks of specialized exercises while the control group subjects did not take part in any regular physical activity program. Blood samples were collected from subjects in 24 hours prior to and 48 hours past to the intervention period. Afterwards, the serum level of CRP was measured for each blood sample. Results showed that BMI and serum level of CRP both significantly reduced as a result of aerobic exercises. However, no statistically significant difference was recorded between the extent of effects of the former and latter aerobic exercise types. Eight weeks of aerobic exercise will probably result in reduced inflammation and cardiovascular diseases risk in overweight women. The reason for lack of difference between effects of continuous and periodic aerobic exercise may lie in the similarity of average intensity and length of physical administered activities.

Keywords: Overweight, Inflammation, heart diseases, Aerobic Exercise, CRP

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1 Antioxidant Effects of Regular Aerobic Exercise in Postmenopausal Women with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Parvin Farzanegi

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Background: Diabetes is a metabolic disorder associated with increased free radicals and oxidative stress. The evidence indicates that physical inactivity is a modifiable behavioral risk factor for a wide range of chronic disorders such as diabetes mellitus. We investigated the effects of eight-week aerobic exercise on some antioxidant enzyme activities in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: sixteen sedentary postmenopausal women with T2DM were randomly assigned to the control (n=8; CG) and exercise group (n=8; EG). The exercise consisted of progressive aerobic training at a moderate intensity (50-70% of the maximum heart rate), for 25-60 min/day, and 3 days/week for 8 weeks. Age, sex, and body mass index were similar in the two groups. Antioxidant status was evaluated by measuring the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity. Also levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) as an index of lipid peroxidation and glucose in the plasma were measured before and after the intervention. Results: Following the 8 weeks of exercise training, the plasma MDA and glucose levels were significantly reduced in EG compared to CG (P=0.001 and P=0.011 respectively). However, SOD (P=0.017) and CAT (P=0.011) activities were increased in EG compared to CG. Conclusion: The present study suggests regular aerobic exercise appears can exert protective effects against oxidative stress due to its ability to increase antioxidant defense and glucose control in postmenopausal women with T2DM.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, Aerobic Exercise, antioxidant, type 2

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