Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 25

Advertising Related Abstracts

25 Celebrity Endorsement: How It Works When a Celebrity Fits the Brand and Advertisement

Authors: Göksel Şimşek

Abstract:

Celebrities are admired, appreciated and imitated all over the world. As a natural result of this, today many brands choose to work with celebrities for their advertisements. It can be said that the more the brands include celebrities in their marketing communication strategies, the tougher the competition in this field becomes and they allocate a large portion of their marketing budget to this. Brands invest in celebrities who will represent them in order to build the image they want to create. This study aimed to bring under spotlight the perceptions of Turkish customers regarding the use of celebrities in advertisements and marketing communication and try to understand their possible effects on subsequent purchasing decisions. In addition, consumers’ reactions and perceptions were investigated in the context of the product-celebrity match, to what extent the celebrity conforms to the concept of the advertisement and the celebrity-target audience match. In order to achieve this purpose, a quantitative research was conducted as a case study concerning Mavi Jeans (textile company). Information was obtained through survey. The results from this case study are supported by relevant theories concerning the main subject. The most valuable result would be that instead of creating an advertisement around a celebrity in demand at the time, using a celebrity that fits the concept of the advertisement and feeds the concept rather than replaces it, that is celebrity endorsement, will lead to more striking and positive results.

Keywords: Social Sciences, Advertising, celebrity endorsement, product-celebrity match

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24 Effectuation of Interactive Advertising: An Empirical Study on Egyptian Tourism Advert

Authors: Bassant Eyada, Hanan Atef Kamal Eldin

Abstract:

Advertising has witnessed a diffusion and development in technology to promote products and services, increasingly relying on the interactivity between the consumer and the advertisement. Consumers seek, self-select, process, use and respond to the information provided, hence, providing the potential to increase consumers’ efficiency, involvement, trustworthiness, response and satisfaction towards the advertised product or service. The power of interactive personalized messages shifts the focus of traditional advertising to more concentrated consumers, sending out tailored messages with more specific individual needs and preferences, defining the importance and relevance that consumers attach to the advertisement, therefore, enhancing the ability to persuade, and the quality of decision making. In this paper, the researchers seek to discuss and explore innovative interactive advertising, its’ effectiveness on consumers and the benefits the advertisements provide, through designing an interactive ad to be placed at the international airports promoting tourism in Egypt.

Keywords: Advertising, Effectiveness, Egypt, interactivity

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23 The Effect of Advertising on Brand Choices of Z Generation Children and Their Social Media Consumption Habits

Authors: Hasret Aktaş, Hüseyin Altubaş, A. Mücahid Zengin

Abstract:

Children determine the direction of the power of consumption. They affect the decisions of their parents but they also reached to a significant purchasing power themselves. Children, who are turning interactive behavior to normal behavior are becoming the decision makers in a company’s survival. Companies that analyze this effective target audience can communicate successfully with children. Children, who are interactive individuals, are closer to advertising. They are almost talking better with advertising. They are not afraid to express their likings, as well as their dislikes. Children have an interactive lifestyle and they were exposed to the vast changes in technology after year 2000. They do not know a life without internet, they spend mobile life in internet. This Z generation is the new determinants of brands. Z generation finds it appropriate to be brand ambassadors and they completely changed traditional media and traditional consumer behavior. These children live social reality with virtual reality and they feed brands differently. Brands that interact with Z generation are affected by this feeding positively, while brands that keep interaction in traditional levels are affected negatively. In this research we examine the communication, advertising and brand behaviors of Z generation. We especially analyze this generation’s interaction with social media brands and their interactive attitudes.

Keywords: Social Media, Advertising, Children, Z generation, brand choice

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22 Brand Placement Strategies in Turkey: The Case of “Yalan Dünya”

Authors: Burçe Boyraz

Abstract:

This study examines appearances of brand placement as an alternative communication strategy in television series by focusing on Yalan Dünya which is one of the most popular television series in Turkey. Consequently, this study has a descriptive research design and quantitative content analysis method is used in order to analyze frequency and time data of brand placement appearances in first 3 seasons of Yalan Dünya with 16 episodes. Analysis of brand placement practices in Yalan Dünya is dealt in three categories: episode-based analysis, season-based analysis and comparative analysis. At the end, brand placement practices in Yalan Dünya are evaluated in terms of type, form, duration and legal arrangements. As a result of this study, it is seen that brand placement plays a determinant role in Yalan Dünya content. Also, current legal arrangements make brand placement closer to other traditional communication strategies instead of differing brand placement from them distinctly.

Keywords: Advertising, alternative communication strategy, brand placement, Yalan Dünya

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21 Anthropomorphic Brand Mascot Serve as the Vehicle: To Quickly Remind Customers Who You Are and What You Stand for in Indian Cultural Context

Authors: Preeti Yadav, Dandeswar Bisoyi, Debkumar Chakrabati

Abstract:

For many years organization have been exercising a creative technique of applying brand mascots, which results in making a visual ‘ambassador’ of a brand. The goal of mascot’s is just not confined to strengthening the brand identity, improving customer perception, but also acting as a vehicle of anthropomorphic translation towards the consumer. Such that it helps in embracing the power of recognition and processing the experiences happening in our daily lives. The study examines the relationship between the specific mascot features and brand attitude. It eliminates that mascot trust is an important mediator of the mascot features on brand attitude. Anthropomorphic characters turn out to be the key players despite the application of brand mascots in today’s marketing.

Keywords: Advertising, branding, recall, mascot

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20 Portrayal of Women in Television Advertisement

Authors: Priya Sarah Vijoy

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to analyze the Portrayal of women in Television Advertisements. This research study is conducted to analyze how women are portrayed in Television Advertisements. Advertising dates back to several hundreds of years. Right from the beginning, the seller wanted his goods to be sold and he used various techniques for achieving his objective. Advertisements have consistently confined women to traditional mother, home, or beauty/sex-oriented roles that are not representative of women’s diversity. Currently, in our society the television stereotyping of woman is the dominating forces in the media that degrade women and limit their representation. Thus the study analyzes how women are portrayed in Television advertisements and find whether roles of women in Television Advertisement are related to the product or not.

Keywords: Advertising, Women, Television, stereotyping

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19 Effectuation of Interactive Advertising: An Empirical Study on Egyptian Tourism Advertising

Authors: Bassant Eyada, Hanan Atef Kamal Eldin

Abstract:

Advertising has witnessed a diffusion and development in technology to promote products and services, increasingly relying on the interactivity between the consumer and the advertisement. Consumers seek, self-select, process, use and respond to the information provided, hence, providing the potential to increase consumers’ efficiency, involvement, trustworthiness, response, and satisfaction towards the advertised product or service. The power of interactive personalized messages shifts the focus of traditional advertising to more concentrated consumers, sending out tailored messages with more specific individual needs and preferences, defining the importance and relevance that consumers attach to the advertisement, therefore, enhancing the ability to persuade, and the quality of decision making. In this paper, the researchers seek to discuss and explore innovative interactive advertising, its’ effectiveness on consumers and the benefits the advertisements provide, through designing an interactive ad to be placed at the international airports promoting tourism in Egypt.

Keywords: Advertising, Effectiveness, Egypt, interactivity

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18 Gender Differences in the Perception of Advertising in Postmodern Era

Authors: J. Zavodny Pospisil, L. S. Zavodna, K. Cerna

Abstract:

The goal of this paper is to identify the main differences in the way men and women perceive TV ads. This paper is based on a research project conducted partly as a review of relevant papers, which deals with gender influence on the cognitive process and postmodern perception of advertising. In addition to that, qualitative research was conducted by means of interviews and structured questionnaires. Furthermore, data acquired from the research were used to evaluate our objectives and hypotheses. The goal of this paper is to compare women's and men's perception of advertisement. Although women are able to perceive more details than men, men are more susceptible to sexual appeals in advertising. Significant differences were also found in the perception of sexual appeals in the context of gender.

Keywords: Advertising, Gender, Consumer, emotion, psychology of advertising

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17 A Framework for Consumer Selection on Travel Destinations

Authors: J. Rhodes, V. Cheng, P. Lok

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to develop a parsimonious model that explains the effect of different stimulus on a tourist’s intention to visit a new destination. The model consists of destination trust and interest as the mediating variables. The model was tested using two different types of stimulus; both studies empirically supported the proposed model. Furthermore, the first study revealed that advertising has a stronger effect than positive online reviews. The second study found that the peripheral route of the elaboration likelihood model has a stronger influence power than the central route in this context.

Keywords: Advertising, Trust, electronic word-of-mouth, elaboration likelihood model, intention to visit

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16 How to Affect Brand Attitude with Authenticity in Advertising

Authors: Tang, Yun-Chia, Chiu, Hung-Chang

Abstract:

Authenticity in advertising, is the cornerstone of modern marketing. Despite research advances related to the role of authenticity in marketing, it remains unclear why customers respond to authentic brand stories. This study shows that different personality traits moderate the influence of various types of authenticity on people’s levels of emotion. Both indexical and iconic authenticity advertising evoke more positive emotions among extroverts and open and agreeable people. When neurotic people and conscientious people read iconic authenticity advertisements, rather than indexical authenticity ones, they produce more negative emotions. The emotion evoked by advertising in turn has a positive impact on brand attitude. These findings provide managerial implications and directions for practitioners.

Keywords: Advertising, emotion, Authenticity, Personality Traits

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15 The Use of Caricatures as a Means of Advertising: The Case of Sütaş

Authors: Güldane Zengin

Abstract:

Advertisers often make use of humorous elements in advertisements they create. Advertisements that contain such elements play a great role in creating awareness and attaining positive attitudes. Caricature, which is an element of humour, is interesting, eye catching, entertaining and memorable by its very nature. Because of these characteristics of caricatures, they are being used for advertising purposes. Advertisements with caricatures are spreading rapidly and embraced by consumers easily. Especially in the last ten years, companies in different sectors use advertisements with caricatures to publicize their products and services. These companies have different target audiences with different characteristics. They all have differences in opinions, attitudes, perceptions and buying behaviours. Target audiences’ brand choices depend on many different factors. Advertising is an important factor in brand choice. Using attention grabbing methods like advertising with caricatures affects their buying behaviours. This study examines the use of caricatures in Sütaş advertisements. Target audiences’ opinions, perceptions and attitudes about advertisements with caricatures are examined in this descriptive study.

Keywords: Communication, Advertising, Humour, caricature, advertisements with caricatures, Sütaş caricatures

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14 Creative Radio Advertising in Turkey

Authors: Mehmet Sinan Erguven

Abstract:

A number of authorities argue that radio is an outdated medium for advertising and does not have the same impact on consumers as it did in the past. This grim outlook on the future of radio has its basis in the audio-visual world that consumers now live in and the popularity of Internet-based marketing tools among advertising professionals. Nonetheless, consumers still appear to overwhelmingly prefer radio as an entertainment tool. Today, in Canada, 90% of all adults (18+) tune into the radio on a weekly basis, and they listen for 17 hours. Teens are the most challenging group for radio to capture as an audience, but still, almost 75% tune in weekly. One online radio station reaches more than 250 million registered listeners worldwide, and revenues from radio advertising in Australia are expected to grow at an annual rate of 3% for the foreseeable future. Radio is also starting to become popular again in Turkey, with a 5% increase in the listening rates compared to 2014. A major matter of concern always affecting radio advertising is creativity. As radio generally serves as a background medium for listeners, the creativity of the radio commercials is important in terms of attracting the attention of the listener and directing their focus on the advertising message. This cannot simply be done by using audio tools like sound effects and jingles. This study aims to identify the creative elements (execution formats appeals and approaches) and creativity factors of radio commercials in Turkey. As part of the study, all of the award winning radio commercials produced throughout the history of the Kristal Elma Advertising Festival were analyzed using the content analysis technique. Two judges (an advertising agency copywriter and an academic) coded the commercials. The reliability was measured according to the proportional agreement. The results showed that sound effects, jingles, testimonials, slices of life and announcements were the most common execution formats in creative Turkish radio ads. Humor and excitement were the most commonly used creative appeals while award-winning ads featured various approaches, such as surprise musical performances, audio wallpaper, product voice, and theater of the mind. Some ads, however, were found to not contain any creativity factors. In order to be accepted as creative, an ad must have at least one divergence factor, such as originality, flexibility, unusual/empathic perspective, and provocative questions. These findings, as well as others from the study, hold great value for the history of creative radio advertising in Turkey. Today, the nature of radio and its listeners is changing. As more and more people are tuning into online radio channels, brands will need to focus more on this relatively cheap advertising medium in the very near future. This new development will require that advertising agencies focus their attention on creativity in order to produce radio commercials for their customers that will differentiate them from their competitors.

Keywords: Advertising, Turkey, Creativity, Radio

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13 Omani Community in Digital Age: A Study of Omani Women Using Back Channel Media to Empower Themselves for Frontline Entrepreneurship

Authors: Sangeeta Tripathi, Muna Al Shahri

Abstract:

This research article presents the changing role and status of women in Oman. Transformation of women’s status started with the regime of His Majesty Sultan Qaboos Bin Said in 1970. It is always desired by the Sultan to enable women in all the ways for the balance growth of the country. Forbidding full face veil for women in public offices is one of the best efforts for their empowerment. Women education is also increasing rapidly. They are getting friendly with new information communication technology and using different social media applications such as WhatsApp, Instagram and Facebook for interaction and economic growth. Though there are some traditional and tribal boundaries, women are infused with courage and enjoying fair treatment and equal opportunities in different career positions. The study will try to explore changing mindset of young Omani women towards these traditional tribal boundaries, cultural heritage, business and career: ‘How are young Omani women making balance between work and social prestige?’, ‘How are they preserving their cultural values, embracing new technologies and approaching social network to enhance their economic power.’ This paper will discover their hurdles while using internet for their new entrepreneur. It will also examine the prospects of online business in Oman. The mixed research methodology is applied to find out the result.

Keywords: Business, Entrepreneurship, Advertising, tribal barrier

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12 Cognitive Development Theories as Determinant of Children's Brand Recall and Ad Recognition: An Indian Perspective

Authors: Ruchika Sharma

Abstract:

In the past decade, there has been an explosion of research that has examined children’s understanding of TV advertisements and its persuasive intent, socialization of child consumer and child psychology. However, it is evident from the literature review that no studies in this area have covered advertising messages and its impact on children’s brand recall and ad recognition. Copywriters use various creative devices to lure the consumers and very impressionable consumers such as children face far more drastic effects of these creative ways of persuasion. On the basis of Piaget’s theory of cognitive development as a theoretical basis for predicting/understanding children’s response and understanding, a quasi-experiment was carried out for the study, that manipulated measurement timing and advertising messages (familiar vs. unfamiliar) keeping gender and age group as two prominent factors. This study also examines children’s understanding of Advertisements and its elements, predominantly - Language, keeping in view Fishbein’s model. Study revealed significant associations between above mentioned factors and children’s brand recall and ad identification. Further, to test the reliability of the findings on larger sample, bootstrap simulation technique was used. The simulation results are in accordance with the findings of experiment, suggesting that the conclusions obtained from the study can be generalized for entire children’s (as consumers) market in India.

Keywords: Advertising, Cognitive development, Preferences, Brand Recall

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11 The Racism Found in Capitalism’s Poetry

Authors: Rich Murphy

Abstract:

‘The Racism Found in Capitalism’s Poetry’ claims that since the death of philosophy and the end of art modern poetry has been upstaged by capitalist poetry using similar strategies and techniques; while both sublime moments use spectacle one is more effective. The essay also claims that capitalist poetry is open to racism and analyzes KFC advertising campaign to produce evidence of wide spread acceptance in an era of ‘micro-aggressions’ and confederate flag removals. The essay spends considerable time outlining the history of advertising and the weak literary counters to it that inevitably lent its assistance in education. The essay also suggests that the concept of ‘Enormous Irony’ may be the only way to counter. However, as long as capitalism is the method of the economy and governance, the essay suggests, there was little hope in spite of Obama’s election.

Keywords: Advertising, Poetry, Capitalism, modern poetry, Kentucky fried chicken

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10 Functionality of Promotional and Advertising Texts: Pragmatic Implications for English-Arabic Translation

Authors: Jamal Gaber Abdalla

Abstract:

In business promotion and advertising, language is used intentionally to create a powerful influence over people and their behavior. In commercial and marketing activities, the choice of language to convey specific messages with the intention of influencing people is pragmatically important. Design and visual content in promotional and advertising texts also have a great persuasive impact on consumers. It is the functional combination of design, language and visual content that helps people to identify a product or service and remember it. Translating promotional and advertising texts between structurally and culturally different languages, such as English and Arabic, usually involves pragmatic/functional shifts that decide the quality of translation. This study explores some of these shifts in translating promotional and advertising texts between English and Arabic and their implications for translation quality. The study is based on a contrastive analysis of data collected from real samples of English-Arabic translations of promotional and advertising texts. The samples cover different promotional and advertising text types and different business domains. The aim is to identify the most recurrent translation shifts and most used translation approaches/strategies that achieve quality in view of the functional nature of promotional and advertising texts and target language culture conventions. The study shows that linguistic shifts and visual shifts are recurrent in English-Arabic translations of promotional and advertising texts. The study also shows that the most commonly used translation approaches/strategies are functional translation, domestication, communicative translation.

Keywords: Advertising, English, Promotion, Arabic, functional translation

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9 Naked Machismo: Uncovered Masculinity in an Israeli Home Design Campaign

Authors: Gilad Padva, Sigal Barak Brandes

Abstract:

This research centers on an unexpected Israeli advertising campaign for Elemento, a local furniture company, which eroticizes male nudity. The discussed campaign includes a series of printed ads that depict naked male models in effeminate positions. This campaign included a series of ads published in Haaretz, a small-scaled yet highly prestigious daily newspaper which is typically read by urban middle-upper-class left-winged Israelis. Apparently, this campaign embodies an alternative masculinity that challenges the prevalent machismo in Israeli society and advertising. Although some of the ads focus on young men in effeminate positions, they never expose their genitals and anuses, and their bodies are never permeable. The 2010s Elemento male models are seemingly contrasted to conventional representation of manhood in contemporary mainstream advertising. They display a somewhat inactive, passive and self-indulgent masculinity which involves 'conspicuous leisure'. In the process of commodity fetishism, the advertised furniture are emptied of the original meaning of their production, and then filled with new meanings in ways that both mystify the product and turn it into a fetish object. Yet, our research critically reconsiders this sensational campaign as sophisticated patriarchal parody that does not subvert but rather reconfirms and even fetishizes patriarchal premises; it parodizes effeminacy rather than the prevalent (Israeli) machismo. Following Pierre Bourdieu's politics of cultural taste, our research reconsiders and criticizes the male models' domesticated masculinity in a fantasized and cosmopolitan hedonistic habitus. Notwithstanding, we suggest that the Elemento campaign, despite its conformity, does question some Israeli and global axioms about gender roles, corporeal ideologies, idealized bodies, and domesticated phalluses and anuses. Although the naked truth is uncovered by this campaign, it does erect a vibrant discussion of contemporary masculinities and their exploitation in current mass consumption.

Keywords: Gender studies, Advertising, masculinity, campaign, male body, men's studies, Israeli culture, parody, effeminacy

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8 Social Media Advertising and Acceptability of Fast Moving Consumer Goods in Nigeria’s Manufacturing Industry

Authors: John Akinwumi Makinde

Abstract:

Nigerian manufacturing industry, particularly the fast moving consumer producing firms play vital roles in Nigerian economy. This sector’s product acceptability is given very little attention along with social media advertising that communicate product information to audience across the globe need to be documented. Procter and Gamble Plc operate in Nigeria with appreciable number of fast moving consumer goods that service Nigerian economy. Social media advertising disposition of the company and product acceptability of the company deserve some elucidations. This study therefore examined the impact of social media advertising on product acceptability of FMCG in Nigerian manufacturing industry, using Procter and Gamble Plc as case study. The study employed the case study type of descriptive survey research design. The population consisted of 235 customers of G&P Plc, which were selected through random sampling method. A total of 235 copies of questionnaires titled 'Social Media Advertising and Product Acceptability (SMA-PA) Questionnaire' was administered and retrieved. Data generated were analysed using frequency distribution and regression analysis at 0.05 level. It was found that social media advertising positively and significantly motivated customers to buy product of P&G Plc (r =.147**, N= 235, p(.000) < .01). Findings also showed that social media advertising has significant impact on product acceptability of FCMG in P&G Plc (F(2,61)=22.250; R2=.629; P(.000) < .05). The study concluded that social media advertising is a determinant factor of consumer decision to accept fast moving consumer goods in Nigerian manufacturing industry. It is recommended that with the growing market of FMCG, there is need to educate the market with the product unique features, standard and quality on social media. Finally, Fast Moving Consumer Goods firms should deploy excellent marketing mix on social media.

Keywords: Social Media, Advertising, Manufacturing İndustry, product acceptability, fast moving consumer goods

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7 Luxury in Fashion: Visual Analysis on Bag Advertising

Authors: Lama Ajinah

Abstract:

Luxury brands witnessed continuous growth which followed women’s desire towards individual distinctiveness and social glare. Bags are a woman’s best friend either for aesthetic or functional purposes when she leaves her home for leisure or work. One way of women constant aspiration for being distinguished while reflecting their wealth is through handbags. Subsequently, the demand and attraction by consumers towards the dazzle of luxurious brands for personal pleasure and social status have flourished. According to the literature review, a visual analysis on luxury brands has been explored yet a focus on bags was not discussed in details. Hence, a deep analysis will be dedicated on the two segments by showcasing examples of high-end bag advertising. The research is conducted to understand advertising strategies used in promoting for luxurious products. Furthermore, the paper explores the definition of the term luxury, the condition in which it is used in, and the visual language used along with the term. As luxury is an indicator of superior satisfaction, it is obtained on two levels: a personal and a social level. The examples of luxury brand ads are selected from the last five years to uncover the latest, most common strategies used to promote for luxurious brands. The methods employed in this paper consist of literature review, semiotic analysis, and content analysis. The researcher concludes with revealing the methods used in advertising while categorizing them into various themes.

Keywords: Advertising, Visual analysis, Fashion, Visual Communication, Graphic Design, Luxury, Brands, semiology, semiotic analysis

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6 Use of Indian Food Mascot Design as an Advertising Tool in Maintaining and Growing the Brand Name

Authors: Preeti Yadav, Dandeswar Bisoyi, Debkumar Chakrabarti

Abstract:

Mascots provide memories to viewers, and numerous promotional campaigns with different appearances, continue to trigger viewers and capture their interest. This study investigates the effect of Indian food mascot designs and influence on enhancing communication; thereby, building long-term brand recognition by the consumers. This paper presents a descriptive approach to Indian food mascot design as an advertising tool, and its research adopts a quantitative methodology. The study confirms that mascots have an ability to communicate a message in an effective manner; all though they are simple in terms of design and fashion trend, they have the capability to build positive reactions.

Keywords: Advertising, Humour, food mascot, brand recognitions

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5 Brand Placement Practices in the Movies and Their Importance on Brand Recall

Authors: Elif Esiyok

Abstract:

Brand placement practices have become a popular advertising strategy, which is widely used in movies. Whether these brands are remembered by the audience after the film, or if they affect the purchasing preferences of the consumers has become one of the most important topics in the field of advertising. From this point, in this study, the "Devil Wears Prada" movie which includes high amount of brand placements is chosen. The movie watched to the undergraduate students in Turkey to measure the impact of brand placements on the attitudes of the consumers relating with a specific brand. In total 100 students were the subjects of this study. The participants were selected through using a simple random sampling method. The findings revealed that there is a significant difference between male and females in terms of brand recall. Female students were remembered the fashion brands more than the males, whereas males generally recalled the automotive brands and restaurant names.

Keywords: Advertising, Media, Brand Recall, brand placement

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4 Participatory and Experience Design in Advertising: An Exploratory Study of Advertising Styles of Cultures

Authors: Irem Ela Yildizeli

Abstract:

Advertising today has become an indispensable phenomenon both for businesses and consumers. Due to the conditions of rapid changes in the market and growth of competitiveness, the success of many of firms that produce similar merchandise depends largely on how professionally and effective they use marketing communication elements which also must have some sense of shared values between the message provider and the receiver within cultural and global trend. This paper demonstrates how consumer behaviour and communication through cultural values evaluate advertising styles. Using samples of award-winning ads from both author's and other professional's creative works, the study reveals a significant correlation between the cultural elements and advertisement reception for language and cultural norms respectively. The findings of this study draw attention to the change of communication in the beginning of the 21st century which has shaped a new style of Participatory and Experience Design in advertising.

Keywords: Advertising, Culture, Experience design, participatory design, advertising style

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3 When Messages Cause Distraction from Advertising: An Eye-Tracking Study

Authors: Nilamadhab Mohanty

Abstract:

It is essential to use message formats that make communication understandable and correct. It is because; the information format can influence consumer decision on the purchase of a product. This study combines information from qualitative inquiry, media trend analysis, eye tracking experiment, and questionnaire data to examine the impact of specific message format and consumer perceived risk on attention to the information and risk retention. We investigated the influence of message framing (goal framing, attribute framing, and mix framing) on consumer memory, study time, and decisional uncertainty while deciding on the purchase of drugs. Furthermore, we explored the impact of consumer perceived risk (associated with the use of the drug, i.e., RISK-AB and perceived risk associated with the non-use of the drug, i.e., RISK-EB) on message format preference. The study used eye-tracking methods to understand the differences in message processing. Findings of the study suggest that the message format influences information processing, and participants' risk perception impacts message format preference. Eye tracking can be used to understand the format differences and design effective advertisements.

Keywords: Advertising, eye tracking, message framing, consumer perceived risk

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2 Advertising Disability Index: A Content Analysis of Disability in Television Commercial Advertising from 2018

Authors: Joshua Loebner

Abstract:

Tectonic shifts within the advertising industry regularly and repeatedly present a deluge of data to be intuited across a spectrum of key performance indicators with innumerable interpretations where live campaigns are vivisected to pivot towards coalescence amongst a digital diaspora. But within this amalgam of analytics, validation, and creative campaign manipulation, where do diversity and disability inclusion fit in? In 2018 several major brands were able to answer this question definitely and directly by incorporating people with disabilities into advertisements. Disability inclusion, representation, and portrayals are documented annually across a number of different media, from film to primetime television, but ongoing studies centering on advertising have not been conducted. Symbols and semiotics in advertising often focus on a brand’s features and benefits, but this analysis on advertising and disability shows, how in 2018, creative campaigns and the disability community came together with the goal to continue the momentum and spark conversations. More brands are welcoming inclusion and sharing positive portrayals of intersectional diversity and disability. Within the analysis and surrounding scholarship, a multipoint analysis of each advertisement and meta-interpretation of the research has been conducted to provide data, clarity, and contextualization of insights. This research presents an advertising disability index that can be monitored for trends and shifts in future studies and to provide further comparisons and contrasts of advertisements. An overview of the increasing buying power within the disability community and population changes among this group anchors the significance and size of the minority in the US. When possible, viewpoints from creative teams and advertisers that developed the ads are brought into the research to further establish understanding, meaning, and individuals’ purposeful approaches towards disability inclusion. Finally, the conclusion and discussion present key takeaways to learn from the research, build advocacy and action both within advertising scholarship and the profession. This study, developed into an advertising disability index, will answer questions of how people with disabilities are represented in each ad. In advertising that includes disability, there is a creative pendulum. At one extreme, among many other negative interpretations, people with disables are portrayed in a way that conveys pity, fosters ableism and discrimination, and shows that people with disabilities are less than normal from a societal and cultural perspective. At the other extreme, people with disabilities are portrayed with a type of undue inspiration, considered inspiration porn, or superhuman, otherwise known as supercrip, and in ways that most people with disabilities could never achieve, or don’t want to be seen for. While some ads reflect both extremes, others stood out for non-polarizing inclusion of people with disabilities. This content analysis explores television commercial advertisements to determine the presence of people with disabilities and any other associated disability themes and/or concepts. Content analysis will allow for measuring the presence and interpretation of disability portrayals in each ad.

Keywords: Marketing, Advertising, Disability, Brand

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1 Intertextuality in Tourism Advertising: Sources of Knowledge Asymmetries in Translating Vocative Texts

Authors: Maria Ilyushkina

Abstract:

The article addresses the problem of translating vocative texts with intertextual references and describes the influence of language on how knowledge and meaning are developed in the field of advertising. The starting point of the article takes advertisements from the sphere of tourism and the way we choose, translate, and interpret intertexts. The article focuses on the perception and understanding of the information in printed texts advertising recreational facilities and services for tourists as the target audience by representatives of other cultures and the knowledge intertexts convey. The authors argue that intertextuality complicates translation leading to knowledge asymmetries. Studying typical communicative failures is considered to be of great importance, allowing for improvement in the practice of translation in the sphere of advertising as well as preventing the fallacious transfer of knowledge when translating foreign intertexts.

Keywords: Advertising, Tourism, Translation, intertext, Russian culture, knowledge asymmetries, vocative texts

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