Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 81

Adolescents Related Abstracts

81 Psychometric Properties of the Secondary School Stressor Questionnaire among Adolescents at Five Secondary Schools

Authors: Muhamad Saiful Bahri Yusoff

Abstract:

This study aimed to evaluate the construct, convergent, and discriminant validity of the Secondary School Stressor Questionnaire (3SQ) as well as to evaluate its internal consistency among adolescents in Malaysian secondary schools. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 700 secondary school students in five secondary schools. Stratified random sampling was used to select schools and participants. The confirmatory factor analysis was performed by AMOS to examine construct, convergent, and discriminant validity. The reliability analysis was performed by SPSS to determine internal consistency. The results showed that the original six-factor model with 44 items failed to achieve acceptable values of the goodness of fit indices, suggesting poor model fit. The new five-factor model of 3SQ with 22 items demonstrated acceptable level of goodness of fit indices to signify a model fit. The overall Cronbach’s alpha value for the new version 3SQ was 0.93, while the five constructs ranged from 0.68 to 0.94. The composite reliability values of each construct ranged between 0.68 and 0.93, indicating satisfactory to high level of convergent validity. Our study did not support the construct validity of the original version of 3SQ. We found the new version 3SQ showed more convincing evidence of validity and reliability to measure stressors of adolescents. Continued research is needed to verify and maximize the psychometric credentials of 3SQ across countries.

Keywords: Adolescents, stressors, secondary school students, psychometric properties

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80 Predictors of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Egyptian Obese Adolescents

Authors: Moushira Zaki, Wafaa Ezzat, Yasser Elhosary, Omnia Saleh

Abstract:

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has increased in conjunction with obesity. The accuracy of risk factors for detecting NAFLD in obese adolescents has not undergone a formal evaluation. The aim of this study was to evaluate predictors of NAFLD among Egyptian female obese adolescents. The study included 162 obese female adolescents. All were subjected to anthropometry, biochemical analysis and abdominal ultrasongraphic assessment. Metabolic syndrome (MS) was diagnosed according to the IDF criteria. Significant association between presence of MS and NAFLD was observed. Obese adolescents with NAFLD had significantly higher levels of ALT, triglycerides, fasting glucose, insulin, blood pressure and HOMA-IR, whereas decreased HDL-C levels as compared with obese cases without NAFLD. Receiver–operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis shows that ALT is a sensitive predictor for NAFLD, confirming that ALT can be used as a marker of NAFLD.

Keywords: Obesity, Adolescents, Risk Factors, Prevalence, NAFLD, predictors, Egyptians

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79 Heavy Metals among Female Adolescents Attending Secondary Schools in Kano, Nigeria

Authors: L. U. S. Ezeanyika, I. Yunusa, M. A. Ibrahim, A. H. Yakasai

Abstract:

This study was conducted to examine the level of heavy metals among 192 apparently healthy female adolescents randomly selected from three different boarding secondary schools in the urban area of the most populated city in north-western part of Nigeria. Atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) was used to determine the plasma levels of the heavy metals which include cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn). Our findings revealed the following mean±SD values for each of the heavy metal; 0.11±0.01µg Cd/L, 0.09 ± 0.02µg Co/L, 0.19 ± 0.02 µg Cr/L, 0.91 ± 0.02 µg Cu/L, 1.53 ± 0.31 µg Fe/L, 0.01 ± 0.04 µg Mn/L, 0.3.8 ± 0.04µg Mo/L, 0.04±0.01µg Ni/L, 0.04 ± 0.01µg Pb/L and 2.80 ± 0.24µg Zn/L respectively. It was concluded that toxicity from heavy metals did not exist among female adolescents.

Keywords: Female, Adolescents, Heavy Metals, Nigeria

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78 The Effectiveness of Psychodrama in the Reduction of Social Anxiety Disorder among Male Adolescents

Authors: Saeed Dehnavi, Zahra Hadadi, Marzieh Rezabeigi, Nader Monirpoor

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This study has been performed with the goal of investigating the effectiveness of psychodrama in the reduction of social anxiety among the male adolescents in Kermanshah. 210 adolescents (13-14 year-olds) from four junior high schools in Kermanshah filled Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale for Children and Adolescents (LSAS-CA) (Masia-Warner, Klien & Liebowitz, 2003). 30 of the adolescents who obtained the highest scores in LSAS-CA scale were chosen as the sample and were randomly assigned as experimental group (15 people) and control group (15 people). The experimental group participated in two-hour sessions of psychodrama twice a week for 6 weeks. The control group received no intervention. The findings of this study showed a significant reduction in the symptoms of social anxiety among the adolescents in experimental group in comparison to that of the control group. Also a three-month follow-up confirmed the stability of the results. Adolescents’ interactions in the psychodrama group, talking about their problems to the group, and achieving appropriate solutions by themselves are the useful factors of this intervention.

Keywords: Adolescents, Social Anxiety Disorder, psychodrama, male adolescents

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77 Behavior, Temperament and Food Intake of Urban Indian Adolescents

Authors: Preeti Khanna, Bani T. Aeri

Abstract:

Background: Recent studies have indicated challenges that hamper health and wellbeing of a vast majority of adolescents in developing countries. Many modifiable factors like behavior and temperament related to food intake among adolescents have not been adequately explored. The aim of the proposed research is to study the impact of behavior and temperament on food intake and diet quality of adolescents. Objectives: In the present study data on dietary behavior and anthropometry of adolescent boys & girls (aged 13-16 years) studying in public schools of Delhi will be gathered to ascertain the quality of diet among adolescent boys and girls and to study the effect of behavior and temperament on diet quality of adolescents. Methods: In total, 400 adolescents will participate in this cross-sectional study. Weight and height of adolescents will be measured and BMI will be calculated. Information will be obtained on their socio-demographic profile and various factors influencing their Food Choices and diet quality such as body image perception, Behavior, temperament, locus of control and parental influence. Expected results: Several direct effects of adolescent traits and behavior on food intake will be observed. Maturational patterns and gender differences in behavior traits will be assessed. By profiling of the behavior and temperament traits, we will have a better understanding of impact of these factors on weight and eating behaviors in overweight/obese or even underweight adolescents. Conclusions: The proposed study will highlight the association of behavioral factors with nutritional status of adolescents. It will also serve as a strategic approach for the obesity prevention and health management policies designed for adolescents.

Keywords: Behaviour, Adolescents, temperament, food intake

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76 Awareness of Students and Teachers towards AIDS and AIDS Education

Authors: Anjan Saikia

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1000 school going adolescents and 200 teachers from 16 schools of Dibrugarh and Tinsukia districts of Assam were surveyed to assess and compare their awareness regarding HIV/AIDS and AIDS Education. An awareness test was administered containing 38 items for adolescents and 40 items for teachers in the test. Observations revealed that the majority of school-going adolescents are poor in their HIV/AIDS and AIDS education awareness. It shows that the school going adolescents of Tinsukia district are better in HIV/AIDS and AIDS education awareness than the school going adolescents of Dibrugarh district while comparing the sex and district wise variables.

Keywords: AIDS, Adolescents, awareness, ADS education

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75 The Effect of Peer Pressure and Leisure Boredom on Substance Use Among Adolescents in Low-Income Communities in Capetown

Authors: Gaironeesa Hendricks, Shazly Savahl, Maria Florence

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The aim of the study is to determine whether peer pressure and leisure boredom influence substance use among adolescents in low-income communities in Cape Town. Non-probability sampling was used to select 296 adolescents between the ages of 16–18 from schools located in two low-income communities. The measurement tools included the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test, the Resistance to Peer Influence and Leisure Boredom Scales. Multiple regression revealed that the combined influence of peer pressure and leisure boredom predicted substance use, while peer pressure emerged as a stronger predictor than leisure boredom on substance use among adolescents.

Keywords: Adolescents, multiple regression, substance use, peer pressure, leisure boredom

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74 The Effect of Cognitive Restructuring and Assertive Training on Improvement of Sexual Behavior of Secondary School Adolescents in Nigeria

Authors: Azu Kalu Oko, Ugboaku Nwanpka

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The study investigated the effect of cognitive restructuring and assertive training on improvement of sexual behavior of secondary school adolescents in Nigeria. To guide the study, three research questions and four hypothesis were formulated. The study featured a 2X3 factorial design with a sample of 48 male and female students selected by random sampling using a table of random sample numbers. The three groups are assertive training, cognitive restructuring and control group. The study identified adolescents with deviant sexual behavior using Students Sexual Behavior Inventory (S.S.B.I.) as the research instrument. Ancova and T- Test statistic were used to analyze the data. The findings revealed that: I. Assertive Training and Cognitive Restructuring significantly improved sexual behavior of subjects at post test when compared with the control group. II. The treatment gains made by the two techniques were sustained at one month follow-up interval. III. Cognitive restructuring was more effective than assertiveness training in the improvement of the sexual behavior of students. Implication for education, psychotherapy and counseling were highlighted.

Keywords: Adolescents, Sexual Behavior, cognitive restructuring, assertiveness training

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73 Effects of Cognitive Reframe on Depression among Secondary School Adolescents: The Moderating Role of Self-Esteem

Authors: Olayinka M. Ayannuga

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This study explored the effect of cognitive reframe in reducing depression among Senior Secondary School Adolescents. It adopted a pre-test, post-test, control quasi-experimental research design with a 2x2 factorial matrix. Participants included 120 depressed adolescents randomly drawn from public Senior Secondary School Two (SSS.II) students in Lagos State, Nigeria. Sixty participants were randomly selected and assigned to the treatment and control groups. Participants in the Cognitive Reframe (CR) group were trained for 8 weeks, while those in the Control group were given a placebo. Two instruments were used for data collection namely: Self – Esteem Scale (SES: Rosenberg 1965: α = 0.85), and The Self Rating Depression Scale (SDS: Zung, 1972; α 0 = 0.87) were administered at pretest level. However, only the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) was re-administered at post-test to measure the effect of the intervention. The results revealed that there was a significant effect of cognitive reframe training programmes on secondary school adolescents’ depression, also there were significant effects of self-esteem on secondary school adolescents’ depression. The study showed that the technique is capable of reducing depression among adolescents. It was recommended, amongst others, that Counselling psychologists, Curriculum planners and Teachers could explore incorporating the contents of cognitive reframe into the secondary school curriculum for students’ capacity building to reduce depression tendencies.

Keywords: Depression, Adolescents, cognitive reframe, self – esteem

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72 Patterns and Extent of Self-Medication Practice among Adolescents in Selected Public Secondary Schools in IFE Central Local Government Area of Osun State, Nigeria

Authors: Olajumoke A. Ojeleye

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The study assessed the patterns and extent of self-medication practice among adolescents in selected public senior secondary schools in Ife Central Local Government Area of Osun State. The objectives of the study were to find out the patterns of self-medication among adolescents, to elucidate whether age or gender has any effect on the self-medication patterns of adolescent, to ascertain to what extent adolescents indulge in self-medication, to examine the sources of drug information of these adolescents and also to examine the sources of these drugs. A cross-sectional design was employed for the study. A self-administered questionnaire tested for validity was used to collect data. Multistage sampling technique was used and 238 adolescents participated in the study. Data collection took two weeks and was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 17. Results were presented using descriptive (e.g. frequency counts) and inferential statistics (e.g. chi-square). Results showed that more females (55.9%) than males (44.1%) practiced self-medication. Although the results showed that there is a low prevalence rate (33.6%) of self-medication among adolescents, chemists served as both the source of information on how to use the drug as well as the source of the drugs. Also, adolescents under study will only self-medicate in medical conditions such as malaria or wound/injuries but will prefer to see a doctor for conditions such as abdominal pain, infections or allergic reactions. It was recommended that government officials responsible for regulating and controlling of drugs should be more active in ensuring that safe drugs are made available over the counter and the consumer be given adequate information about the use of drugs and when to consult the doctor.

Keywords: drugs, Adolescents, Patterns, self-medication

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71 The Effects of Pride Therapy on the Level of Self-Esteem among Physically Challenged Adolescents

Authors: Canapi Patricia Joy, Canlas Tracy Gabriella, Canseco Teresa, Capistrano Reena Marie, Carandang Vernon, Carbonel Khiara Claudine

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Research problem: The main problem of the study was to determine the effect of Projecting the Reflection of the Individual’s Self-esteem (PRIDE) therapy on the level of self-esteem of physically challenged adolescents. Objectives of the Study: The study determined the effect of PRIDE (Projecting the Reflection of the Individuals Self-esteem) therapy on the level of self-esteem among physically challenged adolescents. Methodology: A quasi-experimental study was used which involved 30 randomly-assigned subjects, 15 in the experimental group and 15 in the control group. The Projecting the reflection of the Individuals’ Self-Esteem (PRDIE) therapy was administered to the experimental group. The researchers utilized the Sorensen Self-Esteem test tool as a pretest and posttest questionnaire and yielded a Cronbach’s alpha of .912. Paired T-test was used to analyze the gathered data. Results: The results showed that after the administration of PRIDE therapy, there was an increase on the level of self-esteem. The experimental group had a value of 3.590, which was significant and meant that the level of self-esteem is significantly increased. On the other hand, the control group, had a value of -2.207 which was also significant, therefore, the level of self esteem significantly decreased. Conclusion: the PRIDE Therapy is effective in increasing the level of self-esteem among physically challenged adolescent. Recommendations: The researchers recommend the use of PRIDE Therapy as an intervention in handling physically challenged patients, especially adolescents, in order to enhance their self-esteem. Also, the researchers recommend that nursing students be informed on the efficacy of PRIDE Therapy in enhancing the self-esteem of physically challenged patients. Furthermore, the inclusion of a psychologist during the implementation of PRIDE Therapy, specifically art therapy, to be able to have a more focused interpretation of the drawings and really be able to see the projection of their self-esteem is also recommended.

Keywords: Adolescents, self-esteem, PRIDE therapy, physically challenged

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70 The Age Difference in Social Skills Constructs for School Adaptation: A Cross-Sectional Study of Japanese Students at Elementary, Junior, and Senior High School

Authors: Tadaaki Tomiie, Hiroki Shinkawa

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Many interventions for social skills acquisition aim to decrease the gap between social skills deficits in the individual and normative social skills; nevertheless little is known of typical social skills according to age difference in students. In this study, we developed new quintet of Hokkaido Social Skills Inventory (HSSI) in order to identify age-appropriate social skills for school adaptation. First, we selected 13 categories of social skills for school adaptation from previous studies, and created questionnaire items through discussion by 25 teachers in all three levels from elementary schools to senior high schools. Second, the factor structures of five versions of the social skills scale were investigated on 2nd grade (n = 1,864), 4th grade (n = 1,936), 6th grade (n = 2,085), 7th grade (n = 2,007), and 10th grade (n = 912) students, respectively. The exploratory factor analysis showed that a number of constructing factors of social skills increased as one’s grade in school advanced. The results in the present study can be useful to characterize the age-appropriate social skills for school adaptation.

Keywords: Children, Adolescents, Social Skills, age difference

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69 Peer-Mediated Intervention for Social Communication Difficulties in Adolescents with Autism: Literature Review and Research Recommendations

Authors: Christine L. Cole

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Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) often experience social-communication difficulties that negatively impact their social interactions with typical peers. However, unlike other age and disability groups, there is little intervention research to inform best practice for these students. One evidence-based strategy for younger students with ASD is peer-mediated intervention (PMI). PMI may be particularly promising for use with adolescents, as peers are readily available and natural experts for encouraging authentic high school conversations. This paper provides a review of previous research that evaluated the use of PMI to improve the social-communication skills of students with ASD. Specific intervention features associated with positive student outcomes are identified and recommendations for future research are provided. Adolescents with ASD are targeted due to the critical importance of social conversation at the high school level.

Keywords: Adolescents, autism, Social Communication, peer-mediation

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68 Assessing Empathy of Deliquent Adolescents

Authors: Stephens Oluyemi Adetunji, Nel Norma Margaret, Naidu Narainsamy

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Empathy has been identified by researchers to be a crucial factor in helping adolescents to refrain from delinquent behavior. Adolescent delinquent behavior is a social problem that has become a source of concern to parents, psychologists, educators, correctional services, researchers as well as governments of nations. Empathy is a social skill that enables an individual to understand and to share another’s emotional state. An individual with a high level of empathy will avoid any act or behavior that will affect another person negatively. The need for this study is predicated on the fact that delinquent adolescent behavior could lead to adult criminality. This, in the long run, has the potential of resulting in an increase in crime rate thereby threatening public safety. It has therefore become imperative to explore the level of empathy of delinquent adolescents who have committed crime and are awaiting trial. It is the conjecture of this study that knowledge of the empathy level of delinquent adolescents will provide an opportunity to design an intervention strategy to remediate the deficit. This study was therefore designed to determine the level of empathy of delinquent adolescents. In addition, this study provides a better understanding of factors that may prevent adolescents from developing delinquent behavior, in this case, delinquents’ empathy levels. In the case of participants who have a low level of empathy, remediation strategies to improve their empathy level would be designed. Two research questions were raised to guide this study. A mixed methods research design was employed for the study. The sample consists of fifteen male adolescents who are between 13-18 years old with a mean age of 16.5 years old. The participants are adolescents who are awaiting trial. The non-probability sampling technique was used to obtain the sample for the quantitative study while purposive sampling was used in the case of the qualitative study. A self–report questionnaire and structured interview were used to assess the level of empathy of participants. The data obtained was analysed using the simple percentages for the quantitative data and transcribing the qualitative data. The result indicates that most of the participants have low level of empathy. It is also revealed that there is a difference in the empathy level on the basis of whether they are from parents living together and those whose parents are separated. Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that the level of empathy of participants be improved through training and emphasizing the importance of stimulating family environment for children. It is also recommended that programs such as youth mentoring and youth sheltering be established by the government of South Africa to address the menace of delinquent adolescents.

Keywords: Behavior, Adolescents, Empathy, delinquents

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67 Comparison of Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Lean Versus Overweight/Obese Peri-Urban Female Adolescent School Learners in Mthatha, South Africa: A Pilot Case Control Study

Authors: Benedicta N. Nkeh-Chungag, Constance R. Sewani-Rusike, Isaac M. Malema, Daniel T. Goon, Oladele V. Adeniyi, Idowu A. Ajayi

Abstract:

Background: Childhood and adolescent obesity is an important predictor of adult cardiometabolic diseases. Current data on age- and gender-specific cardiometabolic risk factors are lacking in the peri-urban Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. However, such information is important in designing innovative strategies to promote healthy living among children and adolescents. The purpose of this pilot study was to compare and determine the extent of cardiometabolic risk factors between samples of lean and overweight/obese adolescent population in a peri-urban township of South Africa. Methods: In this case-control study, age-matched, non-pregnant and non-lactating female adolescents consisting of equal number of cases (50 overweight/obese) and control (50 lean) participated in the study. Fasting venous blood samples were obtained for total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglyceride (Trig), highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and blood sugar. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, waist and hip circumferences. Body mass index was calculated. Blood pressure was measured; and metabolic syndrome was assessed using appropriate diagnostic criteria for children and adolescents. Results: Of the 76 participants with complete data, 12/38 of the overweight/obese and 1/38 of the lean group met the criteria for adolescent metabolic syndrome. All cardiometabolic risk factors were elevated in the overweight/obese group compared with the lean group: low HDL-C (RR = 2.21), elevated TC (RR = 1.23), elevated LDL-C (RR = 1.42), elevated Trig (RR = 1.73), and elevated hsCRP (RR = 1.9). There were significant atherosclerotic indices among the overweight/obese group compared with the lean group: TC/HDL and LDL/HDL (2.99±0.91 vs 2.63±0.48; p=0.016 and 1.73±0.61 vs 1.41±0.46; p= 0.014, respectively). Conclusion: There are multiple cardiometabolic risk factors among the overweight/obese female adolescent group compared with lean adolescent group in the study. Female adolescent who are overweight and obese have higher relative risks of developing cardiometabolic diseases compared with their lean counterparts in the peri-urban Mthatha, South Africa. School health programme focusing on promoting physical exercise, healthy eating and keeping appropriate weight are needed in the country.

Keywords: Obesity, Adolescents, cardiometabolic risk factors, peri-urban South Africa

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66 Relationship of Teachers' Personality and Peer Pressure on Adolescents' Personality Development in Mainland Local Government Area, Lagos State, Nigeria

Authors: Solomon Olusegun Olugbenro

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The purpose of this study is to ascertain the relationship of teachers' personalty and peer pressure on adolescents' personalty in mainland local government, Lagos State, Nigeria. The research design for this study was survey. A representative fraction of the population of mainland local government of lagos was used as sample. One hundred and fifty (150) teenagers whose age ranged from 11-19 from six randomly selected public and private secondary schools in mainland local government area of lagos were used. A four-point likert type questionnaire was constructed for eliciting data for this study. Data were analysed using t-test. The study revealed that there is a significant relationship between teachers' and adolescents' personality development. The study also revealed that there is significant relationship between peer pressure and adolescents' personality development. It was recommended that teachers should be role models to students as they manipulate environmental factors to assist adolescents in their personality development.

Keywords: Development, Relationship, Behavior, Adolescents, Teachers, Personality, peer pressure, significant

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65 Father Involvement in Delaying Sexual Debut among Adolescents in Nigeria Schools

Authors: Ofole Ndidi

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Context: Empirical studies show that through dual primary attachment mothers and fathers contribute to children’s development and behaviours. While the contribution of mothers is well documented in past researches, fathers’ involvement in Nigeria has received much less attention. As such, exploring fathers’ involvement in sexual behaviours will provide insight for policy implementation and programming designed to delay sexual debut among sexually inexperienced young people in Nigeria. Objective of study: This study examined the extent to which father involvement (father’s parenting style, attitude, father-child communication, father’s marital status, and father’s socio-economic status) could predict delay in sexual debut of a representative sample of Nigeria adolescents in lower secondary. Materials and Methods: Multistage sampling technique was adopted to draw a cross section of 1023 adolescents with the age range of 10-23 years and mean years of 12±2.1 who reported sexually inexperience from six geographical zones in Nigeria. Multiple Regressions was used to analyze the data collected with four standardized self-report measures at 0.05 level of significance. Results: Findings of this study revealed that the independent variables (father’s parenting style, paternal attitudes, paternal–child communication, paternal marital status and paternal socio–economic status) contributed significantly to the delay of sexual debut. However, fathers’ attitude made the most potent contribution (β = 0.255, P < 0.05). Conclusions: The outcomes of this study have implications for programs that are designed to reduce high-risk behaviors among adolescents. It concluded that sexuality education and interventions should involve the fathers in a more integrated and collaborative fashion.

Keywords: Adolescents, Nigeria, father, sexual debut

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64 The Utilisation of Storytelling as a Therapeutic Intervention by Educational Psychologists to Address Behavioural Challenges Relating to Grief of Adolescent Clients

Authors: Laila Jeebodh Desai

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Storytelling as a therapeutic intervention entails the narrating of events by externalising emotions, thoughts and responses to life-changing events such as loss and grief. This creates the opportunity for clients to engage with psychologists by projecting various beliefs and challenges, such as grief, through a range of therapeutic modalities. This study conducts an inquiry into the ways in which storytelling can be utilised by educational psychologists with adolescent clients to address behavioural challenges relating to grief. This qualitative study therefore aims to facilitate an understanding of the use and benefits of storytelling as a therapeutic intervention. This has been achieved by examining interviews with four educational psychologists who have utilised storytelling as a therapeutic intervention with adolescent clients to overcome challenges with grief. The participants (educational psychologists) discussed case studies during interviews, which provided evidence of their practical administration of storytelling as a therapeutic intervention incorporating integrated theoretical approaches through the use of blended therapeutic techniques. Behavioural challenges relating to grief were also predominant in the case study information provided by the participants. The participants further confirmed that the term ‘grief’ included different types of loss that were experienced among adolescent clients. The implications and recommendations of the findings encouraged the utilisation of storytelling as a therapeutic intervention with adolescent clients in addressing behavioural challenges related to grief, based on the outcome of the case studies discussed by the participants.

Keywords: Adolescents, storytelling, therapeutic intervention, grief

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63 Overweight and Neurocognitive Functioning: Unraveling the Antagonistic Relationship in Adolescents

Authors: Swati Bajpai, S. P. K Jena

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Background: There is dramatic increase in the prevalence and severity of overweight in adolescents, raising concerns about their psychosocial and cognitive consequences, thereby indicating the immediate need to understand the effects of increased weight on scholastic performance. Although the body of research is currently limited, available results have identified an inverse relationship between obesity and cognition in adolescents. Aim: to examine the association between increased Body Mass Index in adolescents and their neurocognitive functioning. Methods: A case –control study of 28 subjects in the age group of 11-17 years (14 Males and 14 females) was taken on the basis of main inclusion criteria (Body Mass Index). All of them were randomized to (experimental group: overweight) and (control group: normal weighted). A complete neurocognitive assessment was carried out using validated psychological scales namely, Color Progressive Matrices (to assess intelligence); Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test (Perceptual motor functioning); PGI-Memory Scale for Children (memory functioning) and Malin’s Intelligence Scale Indian Children (verbal and performance ability). Results: statistical analysis of the results depicted that 57% of the experimental group lack in cognitive abilities, especially in general knowledge (99.1±12.0 vs. 102.8±6.7), working memory (91.5±8.4 vs. 93.1±8.7), concrete ability (82.3±11.5 vs. 92.6±1.7) and perceptual motor functioning (1.5±1.0 vs. 0.3±0.9) as compared to control group. Conclusion: Our investigations suggest that weight gain results, at least in part, from a neurological predisposition characterized by reduced executive function, and in turn obesity itself has a compounding negative impact on the brain. Though, larger sample is needed to make more affirmative claims.

Keywords: Obesity, Adolescents, body mass index, neurocognition

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62 Home Environment and Peer Pressure as Predictors of Disruptive Behaviour and Risky Sexual Behaviour of Secondary School Class Two Adolescents in Enugu State, Nigeria

Authors: Dorothy Ebere Adimora

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The study investigated the predictive power of home environment and peer pressure on disruptive behaviour and risky sexual behaviour of Secondary School Class Two Adolescents in Enugu State, Nigeria. The design of the study is a cross sectional survey of correlational study. The study was carried out in the six Education zones in Enugu state, Nigeria. Enugu State is divided into six education zones, namely Agbani, Awgu, Enugu, Nsukka, Obollo-Afor and Udi. The population for the study was all the 31,680 senior secondary class two adolescents in 285 secondary schools in Enugu State, Nigeria in 2014/2015 academic session. The target population was students in SSS.2 senior secondary class two. They constitute one-sixth of the entire student population in the state. The sample of the study was 528, a multi stage sampling technique was employed to draw the sample. Four research questions and four null hypotheses guided the study. The instruments for data collection were an interview session and a structured questionnaire of four clusters, they are; home environment, peer pressure, risky sexual behaviour and disruptive behaviour disorder questionnaires. The instruments were validated by 3 experts, two in psychology and one in measurement and Evaluation in Faculty of Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. The reliability coefficient of the instruments was ascertained by subjection to field trial. The adolescents were asked to complete the questionnaire on their home environment, peer pressure, disruptive behaviour disorder and risky sexual behaviours. The risky sexual behaviours were ascertained based on interview conducted on their actual sexual practice within the past 12 months. The research questions were analyzed using Pearson r and R-square, while the hypotheses were tested using ANOVA and multiple regression analysis at 0.05 level of significance. The results of this survey revealed that the adolescents are sexually active in very young ages. The mean age at sexual debut for the adolescents covered in this survey is a pointer to the fact that some of them started engaging in sexual activities long ago. It was also found that the adolescents engage in disruptive behaviour as a result of their poor home environment factors and association with negative peers. Based on the findings, it was recommended that the adolescents should be exposed to enhanced home environment such as parents’ responsiveness, organization of the environment, availability of appropriate learning materials, opportunities for daily stimulation and to offer a proper guidance to these adolescents to avoid negative peer influence which could result in risky sexual behaviour and disruptive behaviour disorder.

Keywords: Sexuality, Adolescents, Parenting, peer group, conduct disorder

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61 Hong Kong Chinese-Speaking Adolescents Diagnosed with Dyslexia: What Is and Is Not Improved?

Authors: Kevin Kien Hoa Chung

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The present study was to investigate cognitive-linguistic skills that might distinguish the improved dyslexics from the non-improved dyslexics. Twenty-eight improved dyslexics and 28 non-improved dyslexics were selected from a pool of 254 students diagnosed as dyslexics in Grade 1 to 2. These students were administered measures: morphological skills, visual-orthographic skills, rapid naming skills, working memory, reading comprehension, writing, word reading, word dictation, and one-minute word reading. Findings showed that the improved dyslexics performed better than the non-improved dyslexics in visual-orthographic skills, word reading, one-minute reading, writing, and reading comprehension. Furthermore, the improved dyslexics showed fewer cognitive-linguistic deficits compared with the non-improved dyslexics. Among the 4 cognitive-linguistic measures, morphological skills and visual-orthographic skills showed the greatest power in discriminating the improved and non-improved dyslexics. Results underscore the importance of cognitive-linguistic skills underlying the manifestations of the improved and non-improved dyslexia in Chinese adolescents.

Keywords: Adolescents, Chinese Language, improved dyslexics, non-improved dyslexics

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60 Uderstanding Females' Perspective of Healthy Parental Involvement in Their University's Lives

Authors: Mona Bakry Abdel Meguid Abdelaal

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Despite growing evidence that parental involvement in their adolescents’ lives affects the way they perceive the community around them, little effort has been made to address the importance of this relationship and how it affect the adolescents' interaction with their environment. Adolescents are influenced by their parents while they are growing up and this socialization process services to shape the adolescents sense of self, influencing not only how adolescents feel about themselves, but affecting how they interact with their surroundings. In order to effectively understand this issue, it is important to understand the adolescents’ understanding of healthy parental involvement in their lives, in addition to the obstacles that hinder their communication styles with their parents. Understanding parental involvement in their adolescents’ lives will provide further understanding of the role that social work can perform in this field. The rationale for undertaking this study grew out of the literature on adolescents’ studies in addition to the researchers’ interaction with freshmen female students, who are still in the adolescent stage, in the university. The primary purpose of this study was to understand female adolescents’ awareness of healthy parental involvement in their freshmen year in the university life, as well as obstacles that might hinder that healthy involvement. Using semi-structured interview with a purposive sample of the first year female students in the university, the study managed to determine if the type of parental involvement and parental emotional responsiveness between the adolescents and their parents affects the way they interact with their environment, in addition, to determine the obstacles that hamper the communication between adolescents and their parents.

Keywords: Interaction, Adolescents, parental involvement, university life

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59 Prevalence and Correlates of Anemia in Adolescents in Riyadh City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Aljohara M. Alquaiz, Tawfik A. M. Khoja, Abdullah Alsharif, Ambreen Kazi, Ashry Gad Mohamed, Hamad Al Mane, Abdullah Aldiris, Shaffi Ahamed Shaikh

Abstract:

Objective: To determine the prevalence and correlates of anemia in male and female adolescents in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Design: A cross-sectional community based study setting: Five primary health care centers in Riyadh. Subjects: We invited 203 male and 292 female adolescents aged 13-18 years for interview, anthropometric measurements and complete blood count. Blood hemoglobin was measured with coulter cellular analysis system using light scatter method. Results: Using the WHO cut-off of Hb < 12gms/dl, 16.7%(34) males and 34%(100) females were suffering from anemia. The mean Hb (±SD) in males and females was 13.5(±1.4) and 12.3(±1.2) mg/dl, respectively. Mean(±SD) MCV, MCH, MCHC and RDW in male and female adolescents were 77.8(±6.2) vs76.4(±10.3)fL, 26.1(±2.7) vs25.5(±2.6)pg, 32.7(±2.4) vs32.2(±2.6)g/dL, 13.9(±1.4) vs13.6(±1.3)%, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that positive family history of iron deficiency anemia(IDA)(OR 4.7,95%CI 1.7–12.2), infrequent intake (OR 3.7,95%CI 1.3–10.0) and never intake of fresh juices(OR 3.5,95%CI 1.4–9.5), 13 to 14 years age (OR 3.1,95%CI 1.2–9.3) were significantly associated with anemia in male adolescents; whereas in females: family history of IDA (OR 3.4, 95%CI 1.5–7.6), being over-weight(OR 3.0,95%CI 1.4–6.1), no intake of fresh juice (OR 2.6,95%CI 1.4–5.1), living in an apartment (OR 2.0, 95%CI 1.1-3.8) or living in small house (OR 2.5, 95%CI 1.2-5.3) were significantly associated with anemia. Conclusion: Anemia is more prevalent among Saudi female adolescents as compared to males. Important factors like positive family history of IDA, overweight, lack of fresh juice intake and low socioeconomic status are significantly associated with anemia in adolescents.

Keywords: Obesity, Adolescents, Anemia, correlates

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58 Magnitude and Determinants of Overweight and Obesity among High School Adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Authors: Mulugeta Shegaze, Mekitie Wondafrash, Alemayehu A. Alemayehu, Shikur Mohammed, Zewdu Shewangezaw, Mukerem Abdo, Gebresilasea Gendisha

Abstract:

Background: The 2004 World Health Assembly called for specific actions to halt the overweight and obesity epidemic that is currently penetrating urban populations in the developing world. Adolescents require particular attention due to their vulnerability to develop obesity and the fact that adolescent weight tracks strongly into adulthood. However, there is scarcity of information on the modifiable risk factors to be targeted for primary intervention among urban adolescents in Ethiopia. This study was aimed at determining the magnitude and risk factors of overweight and obesity among high school adolescents in Addis Ababa. Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted in February and March 2014 on 456 randomly selected adolescents from 20 high schools in Addis Ababa city.  Demographic data and other risk factors of overweight and obesity were collected using self-administered structured questionnaire, whereas anthropometric measurements of weight and height were taken using calibrated equipment and standardized techniques. The WHO STEPS instrument for chronic disease risk was applied to assess dietary habit and physical activity. Overweight and obesity status was determined based on BMI-for-age percentiles of WHO 2007 reference population. Results: The prevalence rates of overweight, obesity, and overall overweight/ obesity among high school adolescents in Addis Ababa were 9.7% (95%CI = 6.9-12.4%), 4.2% (95%CI = 2.3-6.0%), and 13.9% (95%CI = 10.6-17.1%), respectively. Overweight/obesity prevalence was highest among female adolescents, in private schools, and in the higher wealth category. In multivariable regression model, being female [AOR(95%CI) = 5.4(2.5,12.1)], being from private school [AOR(95%CI) = 3.0(1.4,6.2)], having >3 regular meals [AOR(95%CI) = 4.0(1.3,13.0)], consumption of sweet foods [AOR(95%CI) = 5.0(2.4,10.3)] and spending >3 hours/day sitting [AOR(95%CI) = 3.5(1.7,7.2)] were found to increase overweight/ obesity risk, whereas high Total Physical Activity level [AOR(95%CI) = 0.21(0.08,0.57)] and better nutrition knowledge [AOR(95%CI) = 0.160.07,0.37)] were found protective. Conclusions: More than one in ten of the high school adolescents were affected by overweight/obesity with dietary habit and physical activity are important modifiable risk factors. Well-tailored nutrition education program targeting lifestyle change should be initiated with more emphasis to female adolescents and students in private schools.

Keywords: Obesity, Overweight, Adolescents, NCDs

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57 Health and Performance Fitness Assessment of Adolescents in Middle Income Schools in Lagos State

Authors: Onabajo Paul

Abstract:

The testing and assessment of physical fitness of school-aged adolescents in Nigeria has been going on for several decades. Originally, these tests strictly focused on identifying health and physical fitness status and comparing the results of adolescents with others. There is a considerable interest in health and performance fitness of adolescents in which results attained are compared with criteria representing positive health rather than simply on score comparisons with others. Despite the fact that physical education program is being studied in secondary schools and physical activities are encouraged, it is observed that regular assessment of students’ fitness level and health status seems to be scarce or not being done in these schools. The purpose of the study was to assess the heath and performance fitness of adolescents in middle-income schools in Lagos State. A total number of 150 students were selected using the simple random sampling technique. Participants were measured on hand grip strength, sit-up, pacer 20 meter shuttle run, standing long jump, weight and height. The data collected were analyzed with descriptive statistics of means, standard deviations, and range and compared with fitness norms. It was concluded that majority 111(74.0%) of the adolescents achieved the healthy fitness zone, 33(22.0%) were very lean, and 6(4.0%) needed improvement according to the normative standard of Body Mass Index test. For muscular strength, majority 78(52.0%) were weak, 66(44.0%) were normal, and 6(4.0%) were strong according to the normative standard of hand-grip strength test. For aerobic capacity fitness, majority 93(62.0%) needed improvement and were at health risk, 36(24.0%) achieved healthy fitness zone, and 21(14.0%) needed improvement according to the normative standard of PACER test. Majority 48(32.0%) of the participants had good hip flexibility, 38(25.3%) had fair status, 27(18.0%) needed improvement, 24(16.0%) had very good hip flexibility status, and 13(8.7%) of the participants had excellent status. Majority 61(40.7%) had average muscular endurance status, 30(20.0%) had poor status, 29(18.3%) had good status, 28(18.7%) had fair muscular endurance status, and 2(1.3%) of the participants had excellent status according to the normative standard of sit-up test. Majority 52(34.7%) had low jump ability fitness, 47(31.3%) had marginal fitness, 31(20.7%) had good fitness, and 20(13.3%) had high performance fitness according to the normative standard of standing long jump test. Based on the findings, it was concluded that majority of the adolescents had better Body Mass Index status, and performed well in both hip flexibility and muscular endurance tests. Whereas majority of the adolescents performed poorly in aerobic capacity test, muscular strength and jump ability test. It was recommended that to enhance wellness, adolescents should be involved in physical activities and recreation lasting 30 minutes three times a week. Schools should engage in fitness program for students on regular basis at both senior and junior classes so as to develop good cardio-respiratory, muscular fitness and improve overall health of the students.

Keywords: Adolescents, Physical Fitness, health-related fitness, performance-related fitness

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56 Coping Strategies for Stress Used by Adolescent Girls in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Hafsa Raheel

Abstract:

Objectives: Secondary school girls, ages 15–19 years old were surveyed to find out the coping strategies they used when stressed. Adolescents, who are affected with stress and depression early in life, suffer from depression throughout their lives, especially if they are utilizing improper ways to cope with it. Methods: A cross-sectional school-based survey among 1028 adolescent girls was conducted among the secondary schools in Riyadh city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Results: About 25% stated that they cry, 19% listen to music, 15% start eating a lot, 12% sit alone/isolate themselves, 11% pray/read the Quran, 10% get into a verbal argument or a fight. Only a few, 3% exercise, and 2% stated that they find someone to discuss and talk to. Conclusion: The majority of the adolescent girls in our survey rely on emotion-related coping mechanisms rather than problem-solving mechanisms. This can cause long-term implications in these adolescents as there is an increased probability to develop depression later on in life. Policy makers need to implement strategies for early identification of stress and depression. Talking to friends and family can serve as an effective way to cope with stress.

Keywords: Mental Health, Adolescents, stress, Saudi Arabia

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55 Depression and Associated Factors among Adolescent Females in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A Cross‑Sectional Study

Authors: Hafsa Raheel

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Background: Adolescents who suffer from depression early in life, have an increase in suicidal tendency, anxiety, conduct disorders, substance abuse, and continue to be depressed, later on in life. This study was conducted to identify the prevalence and correlates of depression among adolescent girls in Riyadh city in order to carry out early intervention. Methods: A cross‑sectional, school‑based survey was conducted among 1028 adolescent girls aged 15–19 years in secondary schools of Riyadh city. Riyadh was divided into clusters and within each cluster, both public and private schools were enrolled. From the selected schools students from grade 10–12 were surveyed. Survey was conducted using a structured questionnaire including the beck depression inventory‑II, and questions exploring the correlates of depression. Results: About 30% of participants were found to be depressed. Depression was more prevalent among female adolescents whose household income was inferior to 12,000 Saudi Riyal/month (odds ratio [OR] 2.17, confidence interval [CI] 0.97–6.84), did not have a good relationship with peers and family members (OR 4.63, CI 2.56–8.41), lived with single parent or alone (OR 1.77, CI 0.97–3.23), had been emotionally abused (OR 3.45, CI 2.56–8.41), and those who had been subjected to physical violence at least once (OR 3.34, CI 1.89–5.91). Conclusions: Strategies need to be developed to identify early signs and symptoms of depression among Saudi female adolescents. Training can be given to groups of students to help their peers, and also to the teachers to identify, and help students identify early signs of depression and provide them with better‑coping strategies to combat progression of depression and anxiety among such adolescents.

Keywords: Mental Health, Depression, Adolescents, Saudi Arabia

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54 'Sit Down, Breathe, and Feel What?' Bringing a Contemplative Intervention into a Public Urban Middle School

Authors: Lunthita M. Duthely, John T. Avella, John Ganapati Coleman

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For as many as one in three adolescents living in the United States, the adolescent years is a period of low well-being and mental health challenges—from depressive symptoms to mild to moderate psychological diagnoses. Longitudinal population health studies demonstrated that these challenges persist in young adulthood, and beyond. The positive psychology (PS) approach is a more preventative approach to well-being, which contrasts the traditional, deficits approach to curing mental illness. The research among adult populations formed the basis for PS studies among adolescents. The empirical evidence for the effectiveness of PS interventions exists for both adult and youth populations. Positive Psychology interventions target individuals’ strengths, such as hope and optimism, and positive emotions, such as gratitude. Positive psychology interventions such as increasing gratitude, proved effective in many outcomes among youth, including psychological, social, and academically-related outcomes. Although gratitude-inducing studies have been conducted for the past decade in the United States, few studies have been conducted among samples of urban youth, particularly youth of diverse cultural backgrounds. For nearly two decades, the secular practice of meditation has been tested among adults and more recently among youth, focused mostly among clinical samples. The field of Contemplative Sciences explores practices such as Hatha Yoga, Tai Chi, and Meditation, as preventative practices among children and adolescents. A more recent initiative is to explore Contemplative Practices in the school environment. Contemplative Practices yield a variety of positive outcomes, including academic, social, psychological, physiological, and neurological changes among children and adolescents. Again, few studies were conducted among adolescents of diverse cultural backgrounds. The purpose of this doctoral dissertation research study was to test a gratitude-meditation intervention among middle school students attending a public charter school, located in an urban region of Metropolitan Miami. The objective of this presentation is to summarize the challenges and success of bringing a positive psychology and meditation intervention into an urban middle school. Also, the most recent findings on positive psychology and meditation interventions conducted in school environments will be presented as well.

Keywords: Positive Psychology, Adolescents, school engagement, gratitude, contemplative intervention, secular meditation, Sri Chinmoy

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53 Neural Changes Associated with Successful Antidepressant Treatment in Adolescents with Major Depressive Disorder

Authors: Dung V. H. Pham, Kathryn Cullen

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Introduction: 40% of adolescents with major depression (MDD) are unresponsive to 1st line antidepressant treatment. The neural mechanism underlying treatment-responsive and treatment-resistant depression in adolescent are unclear. Amygdala is important for emotion processing and has been implicated in mood disorders. Past research has shown abnormal amygdala connectivity in adolescents with MDD. This research study changes in amygdala resting-state functional connectivity to find neural correlates of successful antidepressant treatment. Methods: Thirteen adolescents aged 12-19 underwent rfMRI before and after 8-week antidepressant treatment and completed BDI-II at each scan. A whole-brain approach, using anatomically defined amygdala ROIs (1) identified brain regions that are highly synchronous with the amygdala, (2) correlated neural changes with changes in overall depression and specific symptom clusters within depression. Results: Some neural correlates were common across domains: (1) decreased amygdala RSFC with the default mode network (posterior cingulate, precuneus) is associated with improvement in overall depression and many symptom clusters, (2) increased amygdala RSFC with fusiform gyrus is associated with symptom improvement across many symptom clusters. We also found unique neural changes associated with symptom improvement in each symptom cluster. Conclusion: This is the first preliminary study that looks at neural correlates of antidepressant treatment response to overall depression as well as different clusters of symptoms of depression. The finding suggests both overlapping and distinct neural mechanisms underlying improvement in each symptom clusters within depression. Some brain regions found are also implicated in MDD among adults in previous literature.

Keywords: Depression, Adolescents, Antidepressants, fmri

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52 Examination of Relationship between Internet Addiction and Cyber Bullying in Adolescents

Authors: Ismail Ay, Adem Peker, Yüksel Eroğlu

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As the information and communication technologies have become embedded in everyday life of adolescents, both their possible benefits and risks to adolescents are being identified. The information and communication technologies provide opportunities for adolescents to connect with peers and to access to information. However, as with other social connections, users of information and communication devices have the potential to meet and interact with in harmful ways. One emerging example of such interaction is cyber bullying. Cyber bullying occurs when someone uses the information and communication technologies to harass or embarrass another person. Cyber bullying can take the form of malicious text messages and e-mails, spreading rumours, and excluding people from online groups. Cyber bullying has been linked to psychological problems for cyber bullies and victims. Therefore, it is important to determine how internet addiction contributes to cyber bullying. Building on this question, this study takes a closer look at the relationship between internet addiction and cyber bullying. For this purpose, in this study, based on descriptive relational model, it was hypothesized that loss of control, excessive desire to stay online, and negativity in social relationships, which are dimensions of internet addiction, would be associated positively with cyber bullying and victimization. Participants were 383 high school students (176 girls and 207 boys; mean age, 15.7 years). Internet addiction was measured by using Internet Addiction Scale. The Cyber Victim and Bullying Scale was utilized to measure cyber bullying and victimization. The scales were administered to the students in groups in the classrooms. In this study, stepwise regression analyses were utilized to examine the relationships between dimensions of internet addiction and cyber bullying and victimization. Before applying stepwise regression analysis, assumptions of regression were verified. According to stepwise regression analysis, cyber bullying was predicted by loss of control (β=.26, p<.001) and negativity in social relationships (β=.13, p<.001). These variables accounted for 9 % of the total variance, with the loss of control explaining the higher percentage (8 %). On the other hand, cyber victimization was predicted by loss of control (β=.19, p<.001) and negativity in social relationships (β=.12, p<.001). These variables altogether accounted for 8 % of the variance in cyber victimization, with the best predictor loss of control (7 % of the total variance). The results of this study demonstrated that, as expected, loss of control and negativity in social relationships predicted cyber bullying and victimization positively. However, excessive desire to stay online did not emerge a significant predictor of both cyberbullying and victimization. Consequently, this study would enhance our understanding of the predictors of cyber bullying and victimization since the results proposed that internet addiction is related with cyber bullying and victimization.

Keywords: Adolescents, Regression, Internet Addiction, cyber bullying

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