Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

adolescence Related Abstracts

20 Towards a Model of Support in the Areas of Services of Educational Assistance and Mentoring in Middle Education in Mexico

Authors: Gabriel Chavira, Jorge Orozco, Julio Rolón, Roberto Pichardo, Margarita Zavala, José González

Abstract:

Adolescence is a neuralgic stage in the formation of every human being, generally this stage is when the middle school level is studied. In 2006, Mexico incorporated 'mentoring' space to assist students in their integration and participation in life. In public middle schools, it is sometimes difficult to be aware of situations that affect students because of the number of them and traditional records management. With this, they lose the opportunity to provide timely support as a preventive way. In order to provide this support, it is required to know the students by detecting the relevant information that has greater impact on their learning process. This research is looking to check if it is possible to identify student’s relevant information to detect when it is at risk, and then to propose a model to manage in a proper way such information.

Keywords: adolescence, Mentoring, middle school students, mentoring system support

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19 Towards a Model of Support in the Areas of Services of Educational Assistance and Tutoring in Middle Education in Mexico

Authors: Gabriel Chavira, Jorge Orozco, Julio Rolón, Roberto Pichardo, Margarita Zavala, José González

Abstract:

Adolescence is a neuralgic stage in the formation of every human being, generally at this stage is when the middle school level is studied. In 2006 in Mexico incorporated “mentoring" space to assist students in their integration and participation in life. In public middle schools, is sometimes difficult to be aware of situations that affect students because of the number of them and traditional records management. Whit this they lose the opportunity to provide timely support as a preventive way. In order to provide this support, it is required to know the students by detecting the relevant information that has greater impact on their learning process. This research is looking to check if it is possible to identify student’s relevant information to detect when it is at risk, and then to propose a model to manage in a proper way such information.

Keywords: adolescence, Mentoring, middle school students, mentoring system support

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18 A Study of the Prevalence of Hypertension and Pre Hypertension in Adolescence Age between 10-17 in Ahvaz (2008-2009)

Authors: Armaghan Moravej Aleali, Seyed Mahmoud Latifi, Homeira Rashidi

Abstract:

Objective: High blood pressure in a risk factor for some disease like stroke, coronary heart disease, and renal failure. High blood pressure in children is an increasing health problem. The aim of this present was to determine prevalence of hypertension and pre-hypertension age between 10 to 17 years old. Material & Methods: This descriptive-analytic study was conducted using multiphase sampling method in Ahvaz (Southwest of Iran). A questionnaire include: height, weight, and body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressures filled for each participant. Blood pressure was measured twice for each person. For the diagnosis of hypertension, the fourth report of the Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents of the National Health Institute of United States was used. Results: The subject participants of the study were 1707children and adolescents including 922 boys (54%) and 785 girls 46%). The prevalence of high blood pressure was 1.7% (boys 2.5% girls 0.8%). The prevalence of pre-hypertension was 9 % (7.6% in boys, 10.6% in girls). The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures increased with increasing body mass index. Conclusion: In this study, the prevalence of high blood pressure was found to be lower than other studies in our country. The prevalence of the high blood pressure in boys was significantly higher than girls. This study, like other studies, showed a high correlation between being overweight and an increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

Keywords: adolescence, Hypertension, Childhood, pre-hypertension

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17 Characterization and Predictors of Paranoid Ideation in Youths

Authors: Célia Barreto Carvalho, Joana Cabral, Carolina da Motta, Marina Sousa, Ermelindo Peixoto, Vera Pereira, Suzana Nunes Caldeira

Abstract:

Paranoid ideation is a common thought process that constitutes a defense against perceived social threats. The current study aimed at the characterization of paranoid ideation in youths and to explore the possible predictors involved in the development of paranoid ideations. Paranoid ideation, shame, submission, early childhood memories and current depressive, anxious and stress symptomatology was assessed in a sample of 1516 Portuguese youths. Higher frequencies of paranoid ideation were observed, particularly in females and youths from lower socio-economic status. The main predictors identified relates to submissive behaviors and adverse childhood experiences, and especially to shame feelings. The current study emphasizes that the these predictors are similar to findings in adults and clinical populations, and future implications to research and clinical practice aiming at paranoid ideations are discussed, as well as the pertinence of the study of mediating factors that allow a wider understanding of this thought process in younger populations and the prevention of psychopathology in adulthood.

Keywords: adolescence, parenting styles, Shame, early memories, paranoid ideation, submissiveness

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16 School-Related Variables and Adolescents Substance Use

Authors: Eric Tardif, Nicolas Meylan

Abstract:

Many studies have highlighted the links between substance use and school difficulties. However, most of these studies address only the consumption in terms of frequency without considering the different types of behavior (use, abuse, dependence). Moreover, little is known about the associations between substance use and variables such as school engagement and school burnout recently described as a positive state of mind and an exhaustion syndrome related to school, respectively. Through this study, we wish to describe and compare school-related variables in adolescents with different type of substance use. Our study focuses on 402 Swiss adolescents, aged between 14 and 19 years old. They responded collectively and anonymously to a set of scales assessing substance use and several school variables (social support, stress, burnout, engagement and school climate). First, results on frequency and severity of substance use are relatively close to those observed in other studies. Second, it also appears that certain dimensions of stress, burnout, engagement and school climate are associated with the frequency of alcohol and cannabis consumption. Finally, adolescents’ substance abusers show particularly high scores of burnout, cynicism and stress related to workload, which can be understand as self-medication behavior. Additional analyzes are underway to clarify these associations. Results are discussed in terms of implications for research and clinical practice in academic burnout.

Keywords: adolescence, self-medication, substance use, school engagement, school burnout

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15 Understanding the Cause(S) of Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties of Adolescents with ADHD and Its Implications for the Successful Implementation of Intervention(S)

Authors: Elisavet Kechagia

Abstract:

Due to the interplay of different genetic and environmental risk factors and its heterogeneous nature, the concept of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has shaped controversy and conflicts, which have been, in turn, reflected in the controversial arguments about its treatment. Taking into account recent well evidence-based researches suggesting that ADHD is a condition, in which biopsychosocial factors are all weaved together, the current paper explores the multiple risk-factors that are likely to influence ADHD, with a particular focus on adolescents with ADHD who might experience comorbid social, emotional and behavioural disorders (SEBD). In the first section of this paper, the primary objective was to investigate the conflicting ideas regarding the definition, diagnosis and treatment of ADHD at an international level as well as to critically examine and identify the limitations of the two most prevailing sets of diagnostic criteria that inform current diagnosis, the American Psychiatric Association’s (APA) diagnostic scheme, DSM-V, and the World Health Organisation’s (WHO) classification of diseases, ICD-10. Taking into consideration the findings of current longitudinal studies on ADHD association with high rates of comorbid conditions and social dysfunction, in the second section the author moves towards an investigation of the transitional points −physical, psychological and social ones− that students with ADHD might experience during early adolescence, as informed by neuroscience and developmental contextualism theory. The third section is an exploration of the different perspectives of ADHD as reflected in individuals’ with ADHD self-reports and the KENT project’s findings on school staff’s attitudes and practices. In the last section, given the high rates of SEBDs in adolescents with ADHD, it is examined how cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), coupled with other interventions, could be effective in ameliorating anti-social behaviours and/or other emotional and behavioral difficulties of students with ADHD. The findings of a range of randomised control studies indicate that CBT might have positive outcomes in adolescents with multiple behavioural problems, hence it is suggested to be considered both in schools and other community settings. Finally, taking into account the heterogeneous nature of ADHD, the different biopsychosocial and environmental risk factors that take place during adolescence and the discourse and practices concerning ADHD and SEBD, it is suggested how it might be possible to make sense of and meaningful improvements to the education of adolescents with ADHD within a multi-modal and multi-disciplinary whole-school approach that addresses the multiple problems that not only students with ADHD but also their peers might experience. Further research that would be based on more large-scale controls and would investigate the effectiveness of various interventions, as well as the profiles of those students who have benefited from particular approaches and those who have not, will generate further evidence concerning the psychoeducation of adolescents with ADHD allowing for generalised conclusions to be drawn.

Keywords: treatment, adolescence, attention deficit hyperctivity disorder, cognitive behavioural theory, comorbid social emotional behavioural disorders

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14 Gender Differences in Objectively Assessed Physical Activity among Urban 15-Year-Olds

Authors: Marjeta Misigoj Durakovic, Maroje Soric, Lovro Stefan

Abstract:

Background and aim: Physical inactivity has been linked with increased morbidity and premature mortality and adolescence has been recognised as the critical period for a decline in physical activity (PA) level. In order to properly direct interventions aimed at increasing PA, high-risk groups of individuals should be identified. Therefore, the aim of this study is to describe gender differences in: a) PA level; b) weekly PA patterns. Methods: This investigation is a part of the CRO-PALS study which is an on-going longitudinal study conducted in a representative sample of urban youth in Zagreb (Croatia). CRO-PALS involves 903 adolescents and for the purpose of this study data from a subgroup of 190 participants with information on objective PA level were analysed (116 girls; mean age [SD]=15.6[0.3] years). Duration of moderate and vigorous PA was measured during 5 consecutive by a multiple-sensor physical activity monitor (SenseWear Armband, BodyMedia inc., Pittsburgh, USA). Gender differences in PA level were evaluated using independent samples t-test. Differences in school week and weekend levels of activity were assessed using mixed ANOVA with gender as between-subjects factor. The amount of vigorous PA had to be log-transformed to achieve normality in the distribution. Results: Boys were more active than girls. Duration of moderate-to-vigorous PA averaged 111±44 min/day in boys and 80±38 min/day in girls (mean difference=31 min/day, 95%CI=20-43 min/day). Vigorous PA was 2.5 times higher in boys compared to girls (95%CI=1.9-3.5). Participants were more active during school days than on weekends. The magnitude of the difference in moderate-to-vigorous PA was similar in both gender (p value for time*gender interaction = 0.79) and averaged 19 min/day (95%CI=11-27 min/day). Similarly, vigorous PA was 36% lower on weekends compared with school days (95%CI=22-46%) with no gender difference (p value for time*gender interaction = 0.52). Conclusion: PA level was higher in boys than in girls throughout the week. Still, in both boys and girls, the amount of PA reduced markedly on weekends compared with school days.

Keywords: adolescence, multiple-sensor physical activity monitor, physical activity level, weekly physical activity pattern

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13 Causal-Explanatory Model of Academic Performance in Social Anxious Adolescents

Authors: Beatriz Delgado

Abstract:

Although social anxiety is one of the most prevalent disorders in adolescents and causes considerable difficulties and social distress in those with the disorder, to date very few studies have explored the impact of social anxiety on academic adjustment in student populations. The aim of this study was analyze the effect of social anxiety on school functioning in Secondary Education. Specifically, we examined the relationship between social anxiety and self-concept, academic goals, causal attributions, intellectual aptitudes, and learning strategies, personality traits, and academic performance, with the purpose of creating a causal-explanatory model of academic performance. The sample consisted of 2,022 students in the seven to ten grades of Compulsory Secondary Education in Spain (M = 13.18; SD = 1.35; 51.1% boys). We found that: (a) social anxiety has a direct positive effect on internal attributional style, and a direct negative effect on self-concept. Social anxiety also has an indirect negative effect on internal causal attributions; (b) prior performance (first academic trimester) exerts a direct positive effect on intelligence, achievement goals, academic self-concept, and final academic performance (third academic trimester), and a direct negative effect on internal causal attributions. It also has an indirect positive effect on causal attributions (internal and external), learning goals, achievement goals, and study strategies; (c) intelligence has a direct positive effect on learning goals and academic performance (third academic trimester); (d) academic self-concept has a direct positive effect on internal and external attributional style. Also, has an indirect effect on learning goals, achievement goals, and learning strategies; (e) internal attributional style has a direct positive effect on learning strategies and learning goals. Has a positive but indirect effect on achievement goals and learning strategies; (f) external attributional style has a direct negative effect on learning strategies and learning goals and a direct positive effect on internal causal attributions; (g) learning goals have direct positive effect on learning strategies and achievement goals. The structural equation model fit the data well (CFI = .91; RMSEA = .04), explaining 93.8% of the variance in academic performance. Finally, we emphasize that the new causal-explanatory model proposed in the present study represents a significant contribution in that it includes social anxiety as an explanatory variable of cognitive-motivational constructs.

Keywords: adolescence, social anxiety, Academic Performance, cognitive-motivational variables

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12 Development of an Instrument: The Contemporary Adolescent Well-Being Scale (CAWBS)

Authors: Camille Rault, Mark Bahr

Abstract:

The aim of the present study was to develop a contemporaneous instrument measuring adolescent’s subjective well-being (SWB). The instrument development underwent a three-phase pilot study. Phase one (N = 31) used a qualitative approach to generate domains of SWB relevant to adolescents. During the second phase (N = 22), items were tested targeting these domains. Finally, the third phase (N = 22) assisted in addition, deletion and refinement according to the first two phases of the pilot. A total of 49 items were retained for the final version of the instrument. The Contemporary Adolescent Well-Being Scale (CAWBS) was administered to 1071 school children (599 girls) aged between ten to 18 years old (M = 14,70; SD = 1.45) from Queensland, Australia. Results confirmed the seven-factor construct hypothesized and explained 45% of the variance. The questionnaire pertained to seven domains of adolescent’s SWB, namely; Overall life satisfaction; Bullying; Body image; Social connectedness; Activities; Control appraisal; and Negative feelings. Reliability was shown to be acceptable with Cronbach’s alpha ranging from .58 to .89. Future research should refine the CAWBS and investigate the psychometric properties of this instrument.

Keywords: adolescence, subjective well-being, construct validity, instrument

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11 Unspoken Playground Rules Prompt Adolescents to Avoid Physical Activity: A Focus Group Study of Constructs in the Prototype Willingness Model

Authors: Helen Dawes, Catherine Wheatley, Emma L. Davies

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The health benefits of exercise are widely recognised, but numerous interventions have failed to halt a sharp decline in physical activity during early adolescence. Many such projects are underpinned by the Theory of Planned Behaviour, yet this model of rational decision-making leaves variance in behavior unexplained. This study investigated whether the Prototype Willingness Model, which proposes a second, reactive decision-making path to account for spontaneous responses to the social environment, has potential to improve understanding of adolescent exercise behaviour in school by exploring constructs in the model with young people. PE teachers in 4 Oxfordshire schools each nominated 6 pupils who were active in school, and 6 who were inactive, to participate in the study. Of these, 45 (22 male) aged 12-13 took part in 8 focus group discussions. These were transcribed and subjected to deductive thematic analysis to search for themes relating to the prototype willingness model. Participants appeared to make rational decisions about commuting to school or attending sports clubs, but spontaneous choices to be inactive during both break and PE. These reactive decisions seemed influenced by a social context described as more ‘judgmental’ than primary school, characterised by anxiety about physical competence, negative peer evaluation and inactive playground norms. Participants described their images of typical active and inactive adolescents: active images included negative social characteristics including ‘show-off’. There was little concern about the long-term risks of inactivity, although participants seemed to recognise that physical activity is healthy. The Prototype Willingness Model might more fully explain young adolescents’ physical activity in school than rational behavioural models, indicating potential for physical activity interventions that target social anxieties in response to the changing playground environment. Images of active types could be more complex than earlier research has suggested, and their negative characteristics might influence willingness to be active.

Keywords: Physical Activity, adolescence, School, prototype willingness model

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10 Prevalence and the Results of the Czech Nationwide Survey and Personality Traits of Adolescence Playing Computer Games

Authors: Jaroslava Sucha, Martin Dolejs, Helena Pipova, Panajotis Cakirpaloglu

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The paper introduces the research project which is focused on evaluating the level of pathological relation towards computer or video games playing (including any games played by using a screen such as a mobile or a tablet). The study involves representative sample of the Czech adolescents between ages 11 and 19. This poster presents the psychometric indicators of the new psychologic assessment method (mean, standard deviation, reliability, validity) which will be able to detect an acceptable level of games’ playing and at the same time will detect and describe the level of gaming which might be potentially risky. The prevalence of risky computer game playing at Czech adolescents in age 11 to 19 will be mentioned. The research study also aims to describe the personality profile of the problematic players with respect to the digital games. The research area will encompass risky behaviour, aggression, the level of self-esteem, impulsivity, anxiety and depression. The contribution will introduce a new test method for the assessment of pathological playing computer games. The research will give the first screening information of playing computer games in the Czech Republic by adolescents between 11-19 years. The results clarify what relationship exists between playing computer games and selected personality characteristics (it will describe personality of the gamer, who is in the category of ‘pathological playing computer games’).

Keywords: adolescence, computer games, Personality Traits, risk behaviour

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9 Discrepant Views of Social Competence and Links with Social Phobia

Authors: Pamela-Zoe Topalli, Niina Junttila, Päivi M. Niemi, Klaus Ranta

Abstract:

Adolescents’ biased perceptions about their social competence (SC), whether negatively or positively, serve to influence their socioemotional adjustment such as early feelings of social phobia (nowadays referred to as Social Anxiety Disorder-SAD). Despite the importance of biased self-perceptions in adolescents’ psychosocial adjustment, the extent to which discrepancies between self- and others’ evaluations of one’s SC are linked to social phobic symptoms remains unclear in the literature. This study examined the perceptual discrepancy profiles between self- and peers’ as well as between self- and teachers’ evaluations of adolescents’ SC and the interrelations of these profiles with self-reported social phobic symptoms. The participants were 390 3rd graders (15 years old) of Finnish lower secondary school (50.8% boys, 49.2% girls). In contrast with variable-centered approaches that have mainly been used by previous studies when focusing on this subject, this study used latent profile analysis (LPA), a person-centered approach which can provide information regarding risk profiles by capturing the heterogeneity within a population and classifying individuals into groups. LPA revealed the following five classes of discrepancy profiles: i) extremely negatively biased perceptions of SC, ii) negatively biased perceptions of SC, iii) quite realistic perceptions of SC, iv) positively biased perceptions of SC, and v) extremely positively biased perceptions of SC. Adolescents with extremely negatively biased perceptions and negatively biased perceptions of their own SC reported the highest number of social phobic symptoms. Adolescents with quite realistic, positively biased and extremely positively biased perceptions reported the lowest number of socio-phobic symptoms. The results point out the negatively and the extremely negatively biased perceptions as possible contributors to social phobic symptoms. Moreover, the association of quite realistic perceptions with low number of social phobic symptoms indicates its potential protective power against social phobia. Finally, positively and extremely positively biased perceptions of SC are negatively associated with social phobic symptoms in this study. However, the profile of extremely positively biased perceptions might be linked as well with the existence of externalizing problems such as antisocial behavior (e.g. disruptive impulsivity). The current findings highlight the importance of considering discrepancies between self- and others’ perceptions of one’s SC in clinical and research efforts. Interventions designed to prevent or moderate social phobic symptoms need to take into account individual needs rather than aiming for uniform treatment. Implications and future directions are discussed.

Keywords: adolescence, social phobia, social competence, latent profile analysis, perceptual discrepancies

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8 Psychological Factors Influencing Adolescent Career Choices in Southern Nigeria

Authors: Iniye Irene Wodi, Ibebietei Temple Offor

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Adolescence is a transition period from childhood to adulthood and one of the challenges of this period to the adolescent is the choice of a career. Choosing a career can be influenced by various factors some of which could be psychological. The study, therefore, investigated the psychological factors that influence adolescents’ choice of career in the southern part of Nigeria. Adolescents from selected secondary schools were drawn for the study using multi-stage sampling techniques. Motivating factors for adolescent career choice questionnaire (MFACC) was used for the study. The instrument was validated by experts in test and measurement. A reliability coefficient of 0.79 was obtained for the instrument using Pearson Product moment after a test-retest. The findings revealed that students’ occupational needs, interest, self-concept and societal values motivated adolescents career choices. Based on these findings, recommendations were made chief among which was the need for society to place more emphasis on acceptable and beneficial values as this would influence career decisions adolescents make. They also influence the occupational needs and interests of the adolescents.

Keywords: adolescence, Psychological Factors, career choice, societal values

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7 A Risk Pathway of Distal and Proximal Factors for Self-Injury among Adolescents

Authors: Sarit Gideoni Cohen

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The aim of the study was to examine possible risk pathway which initiated by the distal risk factors of insecure attachment to the mother, the father and peers and then developed by means of proximal risk factors: stressful life events and emotional distress. 275 participants (aged 13-26) from high-schools, youth groups and university were requited. Twenty-two percent participants reported at least one episode of self-injury. The relationship between paternal and peer attachment were partly mediated by stressful life events and depressive symptoms. Paternal and peer attachment influences during adolescence as contributing to risk pathway for self-injury were acknowledged.

Keywords: adolescence, Depression, attachment, self-injury, stressful life-events

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6 A Comparative Analysis of the Psychological Well-Being of Teenage Fathers and Teenage Mothers

Authors: Maria Francesca Maunes

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Life is never the same when an adolescent becomes a teenage parent. Living in a developing country with the highest rate of teenage pregnancy in the Asia-Pacific region, it is necessary to address the psychological well-being of Filipino teenage parents and be put into consideration. Thus, this quantitative study used both descriptive statistics and quantitative techniques on a total of 70 participants, consisting of 32 teenage fathers and 38 teenage mothers to describe the level of psychological well-being among teenage parents according to the six domains of Ryff’s eudaimonic well-being—autonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth, positive relations with others, purpose in life, and self-acceptance, and to determine the difference between the psychological well-being of teenage fathers and teenage mothers. Results show that there is no significant difference in the overall psychological well-being between the two groups of participants, yet, when compared by each domain, it is found that there is a significant difference between their purpose in life. While both teenage fathers and teenage mothers are high scorers across all the domains, this does not serve as an assurance that the sustained increase in the number of teenage pregnancies in the Philippines does not anymore pose as a national issue. This could only signify that despite dire circumstances, Filipino teenage parents are able to continue make meaning in their lives and strive to keep living in comfort and contentment, not only for themselves but for their children as well. Additional findings as well as its implications are further discussed. Recommendations and suggestions for further study are presented.

Keywords: Positive Psychology, adolescence, Adolescent Psychology, teenage mothers, eudaimonic psychological well-being, teenage fathers, teenage parents, teenage pregnancy in the Philippines

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5 Trajectories of Conduct Problems and Cumulative Risk from Early Childhood to Adolescence

Authors: Leslie M. Gutman

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Conduct problems (CP) represent a major dilemma, with wide-ranging and long-lasting individual and societal impacts. Children experience heterogeneous patterns of conduct problems; based on the age of onset, developmental course and related risk factors from around age 3. Early childhood represents a potential window for intervention efforts aimed at changing the trajectory of early starting conduct problems. Using the UK Millennium Cohort Study (n = 17,206 children), this study (a) identifies trajectories of conduct problems from ages 3 to 14 years and (b) assesses the cumulative and interactive effects of individual, family and socioeconomic risk factors from ages 9 months to 14 years. The same factors according to three domains were assessed, including child (i.e., low verbal ability, hyperactivity/inattention, peer problems, emotional problems), family (i.e., single families, parental poor physical and mental health, large family size) and socioeconomic (i.e., low family income, low parental education, unemployment, social housing). A cumulative risk score for the child, family, and socioeconomic domains at each age was calculated. It was then examined how the cumulative risk scores explain variation in the trajectories of conduct problems. Lastly, interactive effects among the different domains of cumulative risk were tested. Using group-based trajectory modeling, four distinct trajectories were found including a ‘low’ problem group and three groups showing childhood-onset conduct problems: ‘school-age onset’; ‘early-onset, desisting’; and ‘early-onset, persisting’. The ‘low’ group (57% of the sample) showed a low probability of conducts problems, close to zero, from 3 to 14 years. The ‘early-onset, desisting’ group (23% of the sample) demonstrated a moderate probability of CP in early childhood, with a decline from 3 to 5 years and a low probability thereafter. The ‘early-onset, persistent’ group (8%) followed a high probability of conduct problems, which declined from 11 years but was close to 70% at 14 years. In the ‘school-age onset’ group, 12% of the sample showed a moderate probability of conduct problems from 3 and 5 years, with a sharp increase by 7 years, increasing to 50% at 14 years. In terms of individual risk, all factors increased the likelihood of being in the childhood-onset groups compared to the ‘low’ group. For cumulative risk, the socioeconomic domain at 9 months and 3 years, the family domain at all ages except 14 years and child domain at all ages were found to differentiate childhood-onset groups from the ‘low’ group. Cumulative risk at 9 months and 3 years did not differentiate between the ‘school-onset’ group and ‘low’ group. Significant interactions were found between the domains for the ‘early-onset, desisting group’ suggesting that low levels of risk in one domain may buffer the effects of high risk in another domain. The implications of these findings for preventive interventions will be highlighted.

Keywords: Early Childhood, adolescence, conduct problems, cumulative risk, developmental trajectories

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4 Prevalence of Behavioral and Emotional Problems in School Going Adolescents in India

Authors: Anshu Gupta, Charu Gupta

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Background: Adolescence is the transitional period between puberty and adulthood. It is marked by immense turmoil in emotional and behavioral spheres. Adolescents are at risk of an array of behavioral and emotional problems, resulting in social, academic and vocational function impairments. Conflicts in the family and inability of the parents to cope with the changing demands of an adolescent have a negative impact on the overall development of the child. This augers ill for the individual’s future, resulting in depression, delinquency and suicides among other problems. Aim: The aim of the study was to compare the prevalence of behavioral and emotional problems in school going adolescents aged 13 to 15 years residing in Ludhiana city. Method: A total of 1380 school children in the age group of 13 to 15 years were assessed by the adolescent health screening questionnaire (FAPS) and Youth Self-Report (2001) questionnaire. Statistical significance was ascertained by t-test, chi-square test (x²) and ANOVA, as appropriate. Results: A considerably high prevalence of behavioral and emotional problems was found in school going adolescents (26.5%), more in girls (31.7%) than in boys (24.4%). In case of boys, the maximum problem was in the 13 year age group, i.e., 28.2%, followed by a significant decline by the age of 14 years, i.e., 24.2% and 15 years, i.e., 19.6%. In case of girls also, the maximum problem was in the 13 year age group, i.e., 32.4% followed by a marginal decline in the 14 years i.e., 31.8% and 15 year age group, i.e., 30.2%. Demographic factors were non contributory. Internalizing syndrome (22.4%) was the most common problem followed by the neither internalizing nor externalizing (17.6%) group. In internalizing group, most (26.5%) of the students were observed to be anxious/ depressed. Social problem was observed to be the most frequent (10.6%) among neither internalizing nor externalizing group. Aggressive behavior was the commonest (8.4%) among externalizing group. Internalizing problems, mainly anxiety and depression, were commoner in females (30.6%) than males (24.6%). More boys (16%) than girls (13.4%) were reported to suffer from externalizing disorders. A critical review of the data showed that most of the adolescents had poor knowledge about reproductive health. Almost 36% reported that the source of their information on sexual and reproductive health being friends and the electronic media. There was a high percentage of adolescents who reported being worried about sexual abuse (20.2%) with majority of them being girls (93.6%) reflecting poorly on the social setup in the country. About 41% of adolescents reported being concerned about body weight and most of them being girls (92.4%). Up to 14.5% reported having thoughts of using alcohol or drugs perhaps due to the easy availability of substances of abuse in this part of the country. 12.8% (mostly girls) reported suicidal thoughts. Summary/conclusion: There is a high prevalence of emotional and behavioral problems among school-going adolescents. Resolution of these problems during adolescence is essential for attaining a healthy adulthood. The need of the hour is to spread awareness among caregivers and formulation of effective management strategies including school mental health programme.

Keywords: Behavioral, adolescence, Emotional, internalizing problem

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3 Interpersonal Emotion Regulation in Adolescence: An Enhanced Critical Incident Study

Authors: Setareh Shayanfar

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Given the increasing importance of peer relationships during adolescence, the present study aimed to examine peer interactions that facilitate or hinder adolescents’ regulation of negative emotions. Using the Enhanced Critical Incident Technique, 1-hour semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 junior high school adolescents. Participants were asked to recall situations when they experienced strong negative emotions during the past school year, indicate the peer interactions that helped or hindered their emotion regulation, and identify prospective interactions with the potential to help regulate their emotions. Data analysis extracted 182 critical incidents, including 109 helping incidents, 45 hindering incidents, and 28 wish list items, which generated 10 categories nested within four overarching themes: Positive Personal Support included (a) supportive presence, (b) expressing concern, (c) empathizing, and (d) encouraging and cheering up; while Strategy Transmission included (e) sharing perspective, and (f) giving advice; Activated Support included (g) taking action, and (h) distracting; while Negative Personal Interactions included (i) withdrawing and (j) punishing. Implications for mental health and service providers, as well as recommendations for future research, are presented.

Keywords: adolescence, emotion regulation, peers, enhanced critical incident technique

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2 Avatar Customization and the Identity of Adolescents: Pilot Study on the Relationship between Virtual Representation in a Computer Game and Berzonsky's Style of Identity

Authors: Monika Paleczna, Barbara Szmigielska

Abstract:

Adolescence is a developmental period, covering the period from 10 to 20 years of age, in which young people face many challenges. One of the most important tasks of the adolescence period is getting a structured identity. The development of identity is possible by undertaking various activities. Nowadays, virtual activities are very common among young people. One of the main adolescents’ activities in the online environment is playing computer games. An important element of the games that influences the joy of playing is avatar – a virtual player representation. Nevertheless, not much research concerns the psychological aspects associated with creating one’s character in the game. One of the most important issues is the question about the relationship between identity in the real world and its representation in the world of computer games. The concept of identity created by Berzonsky is considered as one of the best defined concepts of identity. He defines identity as both a structure and a process and distinguishes three styles of identity: informational, normative, and diffuse/avoidant. Considering how much time adolescents spend playing computer games, the question about the relationship between their identity and the virtual representation in the game seems to be extremely interesting. 30 high school students will participate in the pilot study. In the first part of the study, they will create their own avatar. Then they will play a computer game using their own created characters. The computer game was designed and programmed specifically for this project. Finally, subjects will complete Identity Style Inventory. The purpose of the poster is to present the results of the pilot study. So far, the development of identity in adolescents has been studied primarily in the context of the real world. Research on teen identity in the virtual world mainly focused on chat behaviors and blogs. Still, little research has focused on computer games and those that have been conducted concern mostly the identity of adults.

Keywords: Identity, adolescence, Computer Game, avatar

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1 Psychosocial Predictors of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury in Adolescents: Literature Review

Authors: K. Grigoryan, T. Jurcik

Abstract:

Interpersonal and school-related factors, along with individual characteristics, can predict non-suicidal self-injures (NSSI). The objective of this review is to describe psychosocial variables associated with NSSI among adolescents. A better understanding of this phenomenon may facilitate the identification of potentially effective interventions for adolescents. Relevant empirical studies and reviews from clinical, cross-cultural, and social psychology, as well as cognitive psychology literature, were synthesized into two broad topics: social/interpersonal and individual factors. Variables related to the occurrence of NSSI are discussed, including social support, peer modeling, abuse, personality traits, sense of belongingness, self-compassion, and others. Based on these findings, specific clinical recommendations were identified that need to be further evaluated empirically. The systemic interventions recommended in this review may further promote research in circumventing this social and clinical problem.

Keywords: adolescence, Mental Health, Psychosocial Factors, non-suicidal self-injury

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