Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

adobe Related Abstracts

3 The Usage of Adobe in Historical Structures of Van City

Authors: Soner Guler, Eylem Güzel, Mustafa Gulen

Abstract:

The studies concentrated on the historical background of Van show the fact that Van has had a significant position as a settlement since ancient times and that it has hosted many civilizations during history. With the dominance of Ottoman Empire in 16th century, the region had been re-constructed by building new walls at the southern side of Van Castle. These construction activities had mostly been fulfilled by the usage of adobe which had been a fundamental material for thousands of years. As a result of natural disasters, battles and the move at the threshold of 20th century to the new settlement which is 9 kilometers away from the Ancient City Van is an open-air museum with the ruins of churches, mosques and baths. In this study, the usage of adobe in historical structures of Van city is evaluated in detail.

Keywords: Historical Structures, adobe, Van city

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2 Technological Transference Tools to Diffuse Low-Cost Earthquake Resistant Construction with Adobe in Rural Areas of the Peruvian Andes

Authors: Marcial Blondet, Malena Serrano, Álvaro Rubiños, Elin Mattsson

Abstract:

In Peru, there are more than two million houses made of adobe (sun dried mud bricks) or rammed earth (35% of the total houses), in which almost 9 million people live, mainly because they cannot afford to purchase industrialized construction materials. Although adobe houses are cheap to build and thermally comfortable, their seismic performance is very poor, and they usually suffer significant damage or collapse with tragic loss of life. Therefore, over the years, researchers at the Pontifical Catholic University of Peru and other institutions have developed many reinforcement techniques as an effort to improve the structural safety of earthen houses located in seismic areas. However, most rural communities live under unacceptable seismic risk conditions because these techniques have not been adopted massively, mainly due to high cost and lack of diffusion. The nylon rope mesh reinforcement technique is simple and low-cost, and two technological transference tools have been developed to diffuse it among rural communities: 1) Scale seismic simulations using a portable shaking table have been designed to prove its effectiveness to protect adobe houses; 2) A step-by-step illustrated construction manual has been developed to guide the complete building process of a nylon rope mesh reinforced adobe house. As a study case, it was selected the district of Pullo: a small rural community in the Peruvian Andes where more than 80% of its inhabitants live in adobe houses and more than 60% are considered to live in poverty or extreme poverty conditions. The research team carried out a one-day workshop in May 2015 and a two-day workshop in September 2015. Results were positive: First, the nylon rope mesh reinforcement procedure was proven simple enough to be replicated by adults, both young and seniors, and participants handled ropes and knots easily as they use them for daily livestock activity. In addition, nylon ropes were proven highly available in the study area as they were found at two local stores in variety of color and size.. Second, the portable shaking table demonstration successfully showed the effectiveness of the nylon rope mesh reinforcement and generated interest on learning about it. On the first workshop, more than 70% of the participants were willing to formally subscribe and sign up for practical training lessons. On the second workshop, more than 80% of the participants returned the second day to receive introductory practical training. Third, community members found illustrations on the construction manual simple and friendly but the roof system illustrations led to misinterpretation so they were improved. The technological transfer tools developed in this project can be used to train rural dwellers on earthquake-resistant self-construction with adobe, which is still very common in the Peruvian Andes. This approach would allow community members to develop skills and capacities to improve safety of their households on their own, thus, mitigating their high seismic risk and preventing tragic losses. Furthermore, proper training in earthquake-resistant self-construction with adobe would prevent rural dwellers from depending on external aid after an earthquake and become agents of their own development.

Keywords: adobe, Peruvian Andes, safe housing, technological transference

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1 Adobe Attenuation Coefficient Determination and Its Comparison with Other Shielding Materials for Energies Found in Common X-Rays Procedures

Authors: Camarena Rodriguez C. S., Portocarrero Bonifaz A., Palma Esparza R., Romero Carlos N. A.

Abstract:

Adobe is a construction material that fulfills the same function as a conventional brick. Widely used since ancient times, it is present in an appreciable percentage of buildings in Latin America. Adobe is a mixture of clay and sand. The interest in the study of the properties of this material arises due to its presence in the infrastructure of hospital´s radiological services, located in places with low economic resources, for the attenuation of radiation. Some materials such as lead and concrete are the most used for shielding and are widely studied in the literature. The present study will determine the mass attenuation coefficient of Adobe. The minimum required thicknesses for the primary and secondary barriers will be estimated for the shielding of radiological facilities where conventional and dental X-rays are performed. For the experimental procedure, an X-ray source emitted direct radiation towards different thicknesses of an Adobe barrier, and a detector was placed on the other side. For this purpose, an UNFORS Xi solid state detector was used, which collected information on the difference of radiation intensity. The initial parameters of the exposure started at 45 kV; and then the tube tension was varied in increments of 5 kV, reaching a maximum of 125 kV. The X-Ray tube was positioned at a distance of 0.5 m from the surface of the Adobe bricks, and the collimation of the radiation beam was set for an area of 0.15 m x 0.15 m. Finally, mathematical methods were applied to determine the mass attenuation coefficient for different energy ranges. In conclusion, the mass attenuation coefficient for Adobe was determined and the approximate thicknesses of the most common Adobe barriers in the hospital buildings were calculated for their later application in the radiological protection.

Keywords: X-rays, Radiological Protection, shielding, attenuation coefficient, adobe

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