Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

adhesive Related Abstracts

15 FE Analysis of the Notch Effect on the Behavior of Repaired Crack with Bonded Composite Patch in Aircraft Structures

Authors: Faycal Benyahia, Abdelmohsen Albedah, Bel Abbes Bachir Bouiadjra

Abstract:

In this paper, the finite element analysis is applied to study the performance of the bonded composite reinforcement or repair for reducing stress concentration at a semi-circular lateral notch and repairing cracks emanating from this kind of notch. The effects of the adhesive properties on the variation of the stress intensity factor at the crack tip were highlighted. The obtained results show that the stress concentration factor at the notch tip is reduced about 30% and the maximal reduction of the stress intensity factor is about 80%. The adhesive properties must be optimized in order to increase the performance of the patch repair or reinforcement.

Keywords: Composite, bonded repair, notch, crack, adhesive

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14 Investigation of Delamination Process in Adhesively Bonded Hardwood Elements under Changing Environmental Conditions

Authors: M. M. Hassani, S. Ammann, F. K. Wittel, P. Niemz, H. J. Herrmann

Abstract:

Application of engineered wood, especially in the form of glued-laminated timbers has increased significantly. Recent progress in plywood made of high strength and high stiffness hardwoods, like European beech, gives designers in general more freedom by increased dimensional stability and load-bearing capacity. However, the strong hygric dependence of basically all mechanical properties renders many innovative ideas futile. The tendency of hardwood for higher moisture sorption and swelling coefficients lead to significant residual stresses in glued-laminated configurations, cross-laminated patterns in particular. These stress fields cause initiation and evolution of cracks in the bond-lines resulting in: interfacial de-bonding, loss of structural integrity, and reduction of load-carrying capacity. Subsequently, delamination of glued-laminated timbers made of hardwood elements can be considered as the dominant failure mechanism in such composite elements. In addition, long-term creep and mechano-sorption under changing environmental conditions lead to loss of stiffness and can amplify delamination growth over the lifetime of a structure even after decades. In this study we investigate the delamination process of adhesively bonded hardwood (European beech) elements subjected to changing climatic conditions. To gain further insight into the long-term performance of adhesively bonded elements during the design phase of new products, the development and verification of an authentic moisture-dependent constitutive model for various species is of great significance. Since up to now, a comprehensive moisture-dependent rheological model comprising all possibly emerging deformation mechanisms was missing, a 3D orthotropic elasto-plastic, visco-elastic, mechano-sorptive material model for wood, with all material constants being defined as a function of moisture content, was developed. Apart from the solid wood adherends, adhesive layer also plays a crucial role in the generation and distribution of the interfacial stresses. Adhesive substance can be treated as a continuum layer constructed from finite elements, represented as a homogeneous and isotropic material. To obtain a realistic assessment on the mechanical performance of the adhesive layer and a detailed look at the interfacial stress distributions, a generic constitutive model including all potentially activated deformation modes, namely elastic, plastic, and visco-elastic creep was developed. We focused our studies on the three most common adhesive systems for structural timber engineering: one-component polyurethane adhesive (PUR), melamine-urea-formaldehyde (MUF), and phenol-resorcinol-formaldehyde (PRF). The corresponding numerical integration approaches, with additive decomposition of the total strain are implemented within the ABAQUS FEM environment by means of user subroutine UMAT. To predict the true stress state, we perform a history dependent sequential moisture-stress analysis using the developed material models for both wood substrate and adhesive layer. Prediction of the delamination process is founded on the fracture mechanical properties of the adhesive bond-line, measured under different levels of moisture content and application of the cohesive interface elements. Finally, we compare the numerical predictions with the experimental observations of de-bonding in glued-laminated samples under changing environmental conditions.

Keywords: Fracture Mechanics, material model, adhesive, engineered wood, FEM analysis, delamination

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13 Adhesion Problematic for Novel Non-Crimp Fabric and Surface Modification of Carbon-Fibres Using Oxy-Fluorination

Authors: Iris Käppler, Paul Matthäi, Chokri Cherif

Abstract:

In the scope of application of technical textiles, Non-Crimp Fabrics are increasingly used. In general, NCF exhibit excellent load bearing properties, but caused by the manufacturing process, there are some remaining disadvantages which have to be reduced. Regarding to this, a novel technique of processing NCF was developed substituting the binding-thread by an adhesive. This stitch-free method requires new manufacturing concept as well as new basic methods to prove adhesion of glue at fibres and textiles. To improve adhesion properties and the wettability of carbon-fibres by the adhesive, oxyfluorination was used. The modification of carbon-fibres by oxyfluorination was investigated via scanning electron microscope, X-ray photo electron spectroscopy and single fibre tensiometry. Special tensile tests were developed to determine the maximum force required for detachment.

Keywords: adhesive, non-crimp fabric, stitch-free, high-performance fibre

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12 Non-Linear Finite Element Analysis of Bonded Single Lap Joint in Composite Material

Authors: A. Benhamena, L. Aminallah, A. Aid, M. Benguediab, A. Amrouche

Abstract:

The goal of this work is to analyze the severity of interfacial stress distribution in the single lap adhesive joint under tensile loading. The three-dimensional and non-linear finite element method based on the computation of the peel and shear stresses was used to analyze the fracture behaviour of single lap adhesive joint. The effect of the loading magnitude and the overlap length on the distribution of peel and shear stresses was highlighted. A good correlation was found between the FEM simulations and the analytical results.

Keywords: Bending Moment, Finite Element Method, adhesive, aluminum 2024-T3 alloy, single-lap adhesive joints, Interface stress distributions, material nonlinear analysis

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11 Development of Adhesive from Prosopis african Seed Endosperm (OKPEYI)

Authors: Florence Chinyere Nwangwu, Rosemary Ene

Abstract:

An experimental study was carried out to develop an adhesive from Prosopis africana seed endosperm. The Prosopis seeds for this work were obtained from Enugu State in the South East part of Nigeria. The Prosopis seeds were prepared by separating the Prosopis endosperm from the seed coat and cotyledon. The dry adhesive gotten from the endosperm was later dissolved to get the adhesive solution. Confirmatory tests like viscosity, density, pH, and binding strength were carried out. The effect of time, temperature, concentration on the yield and properties of the adhesive were investigated. The results obtained showed that increase in concentration, time, temperature decreases the viscosity of the Prosopis adhesive and yield of Prosopis endosperm. It was also deduced that increase in viscosity increases the binding strength of the Prosopis adhesive. The percentage of the adhesive yield from Prosopis endosperm showed that the commercialization of the seed in Nigeria will be possible and profitable.

Keywords: viscosity, adhesive, Prosopis, endosperm

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10 A Numerical Study of Adherend Geometry on the Stress Distribution in Adhesively Lap Joint

Authors: Ahmet Calik

Abstract:

In present study, the effect of adherend geometry on the tensile strength of adhesively single lap aluminum structures joint, bonded was numerically studied using by three dimensional finite element model. Six joint model were investigated. Analyses were performed in ANSYS commercial software. The results shows that the adherends shape has the highest effect on peel and shear stresses.

Keywords: finite element, adhesive, adherend, single lap joints

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9 Prediction of Fatigue Crack Propagation in Bonded Joints Using Fracture Mechanics

Authors: Reza Hedayati, Meysam Jahanbakhshi

Abstract:

Fracture Mechanics is used to predict debonding propagation in adhesive joint between aluminum and composite plates. Three types of loadings and two types of glass-epoxy composite sequences: [0/90]2s and [0/45/-45/90]s are considered for the composite plate and their results are compared. It was seen that generally the cases with stacking sequence of [0/45/-45/90]s have much shorter lives than cases with [0/90]2s. It was also seen that in cases with λ=0 the ends of the debonding front propagates forward more than its middle, while in cases with λ=0.5 or λ=1 it is vice versa. Moreover, regardless of value of λ, the difference between the debonding propagations of the ends and the middle of the debonding front is very close in cases λ=0.5 and λ=1. Another main conclusion was the non-dimensionalized debonding front profile is almost independent of sequence type or the applied load value.

Keywords: Fatigue, adhesive, debonding, APDL, Paris law

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8 Influence of Composite Adherents Properties on the Dynamic Behavior of Double Lap Bonded Joint

Authors: P. Saleh, G. Challita, R. Hazimeh, K. Khalil

Abstract:

In this paper 3D FEM analysis was carried out on double lap bonded joint with composite adherents subjected to dynamic shear. The adherents are made of Carbon/Epoxy while the adhesive is epoxy Araldite 2031. The maximum average shear stress and the stress homogeneity in the adhesive layer were examined. Three fibers textures were considered: UD; 2.5D and 3D with same volume fiber then a parametric study based on changing the thickness and the type of fibers texture in 2.5D was accomplished. Moreover, adherents’ dissimilarity was also investigated. It was found that the main parameter influencing the behavior is the longitudinal stiffness of the adherents. An increase in the adherents’ longitudinal stiffness induces an increase in the maximum average shear stress in the adhesive layer and an improvement in the shear stress homogeneity within the joint. No remarkable improvement was observed for dissimilar adherents.

Keywords: finite element, adhesive, composite adherents, impact shear

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7 Experimental Investigation on Activated Carbon Based Cryosorption Pump

Authors: K. B. Vinay, K. G. Vismay, S. Kasturirengan, G. A. Vivek

Abstract:

Cryosorption pumps are considered to be safe, quiet and ultra-high vacuum production pumps which have their application from Semiconductor industries to ITER [International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor] units. The principle of physisorption of gases over highly porous materials like activated charcoal at cryogenic temperatures (below -1500°C) is involved in determining the pumping speed of gases like Helium, Hydrogen, Argon and Nitrogen. This paper aims at providing detailed overview of development of Cryosorption pump which is the modern ultra-high vacuum pump and characterization of different activated charcoal materials that optimizes the performance of the pump. Different grades of charcoal were tested in order to determine the pumping speed of the pump and were compared with commercially available Varian cryopanel. The results for bare panel, bare panel with adhesive, cryopanel with pellets, and cryopanel with granules were obtained and compared. The comparison showed that cryopanel adhered with small granules gave better pumping speeds than large sized pellets.

Keywords: adhesive, pellets, cryopanel, granules

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6 The Experimental Study of Cold-Formed Steel Truss Connections Capacity: Screw and Adhesive Connection

Authors: Indra Komara, Kıvanç Taşkin, Endah Wahyuni, Priyo Suprobo

Abstract:

A series of connection tests that were composed of Cold-Formed Steel (CFS) sections were made to investigate the capacity of connections in a roof truss frame. The connection is controlled by using the two-different type of connection i.e. screws connection and adhesive. The variation of screws is also added applying 1 screw, 2 screws, and 3 screws. On the other hand, the percentage of adhesively material is increased by the total area of screws connection which is 50%, 75%, and 100%. Behaviors illustrated by each connection are examined, and the design capacities projected from the current CFS design codes are appealed to the experimental results of the connections. This research analyses the principal factors assisting in the ductile response of the CFS truss frame connection measured to propose recommendations for connection design, and novelty so that the connection respond plastically with a significant capacity for no brittle failure. Furthermore, the comparison connection was considered for the analysis of the connection capacity, which was estimated from the specimen’s maximum load capacity and the load-deformation behavior.

Keywords: Capacity, Connections, adhesive, truss, cold-formed steel, bolts

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5 Modification of Polyurethane Adhesive for OSB/EPS Panel Production

Authors: Stepan Hysek, Premysl Sedivka, Petra Gajdacova

Abstract:

Currently, structural composite materials contain cellulose-based particles (wood chips, fibers) bonded with synthetic adhesives containing formaldehyde (urea-formaldehyde, melamine-formaldehyde adhesives and others). Formaldehyde is classified as a volatile substance with provable carcinogenic effects on live organisms, and an emphasis has been put on continual reduction of its content in products. One potential solution could be the development of an agglomerated material which does not contain adhesives releasing formaldehyde. A potential alternative to formaldehyde-based adhesives could be polyurethane adhesives containing no formaldehyde. Such adhesives have been increasingly used in applications where a few years ago formaldehyde-based adhesives were the only option. Advantages of polyurethane adhesive in comparison with others in the industry include the high elasticity of the joint, which is able to resist dynamic stress, and resistance to increased humidity and climatic effects. These properties predict polyurethane adhesives to be used in OSB/EPS panel production. The objective of this paper is to develop an adhesive for bonding of sandwich panels made of material based on wood and other materials, e.g. SIP) and optimization of input components in order to obtain an adhesive with required properties suitable for bonding of the given materials without involvement of formaldehyde. It was found that polyurethane recyclate as a filler is suitable modification of polyurethane adhesive and results have clearly revealed that modified adhesive can be used for OSB/EPS panel production.

Keywords: polyurethane, adhesive, SIP, recyclate

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4 Experimental Investigation of the Static and Dynamic Behaviour of Double Lap Joints

Authors: H. I. Beloufa, M. Tarfaoui

Abstract:

For many applications, adhesively bonded assemblies have gained an increasing interest in the industry due to several advantages over welding, riveting and bolting, such as reduction of stress concentrations, lightness, low cost and easy manufacturing. This work is largely concerned to show the effects of the loading rate of the adhesively bonded joints under different speed rates. The tensile tests were conducted at four different rates; static (5mm/min, 50mm/min) and dynamic tests (1m/s, and 10m/s). An attempt was made to determine the damage kinetic and a comparison between the use of aluminium and composite laminate substrates is introduced. Aluminum T6082 and glass/vinylester laminated composite Substrates were used to construct aluminum/aluminum and laminate/laminate specimens. The adhesive used in this study was Araldite 2015. The results showed the effects of the loading rate évolution on the double joint strength. The comparison of the results of static and dynamic tests showed a raise of the strength of the specimens while the load velocity is elevated. In the case of composite substrates double joint lap, the stiffness increased by more than 60% between static and dynamic tests. However, in the case of aluminum substrates, the rigidity improved about 28% from static to moderately high velocity loading. For both aluminum and composite double joint lap, the strength increased by approximately 25% when the tensile velocity is increased from 5 mm/min to 50 mm/min (static tests). Nevertheless, the tensile velocity is extended to 1m/s the strength increased by 13% and 25% respectively for composite and aluminum substrates.

Keywords: adhesive, tensile tests, double lap joints, static and dynamic behavior

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3 Adhesive Bonded Joints Characterization and Crack Propagation in Composite Materials under Cyclic Impact Fatigue and Constant Amplitude Fatigue Loadings

Authors: Andres Bautista, Alicia Porras, Juan P. Casas, Maribel Silva

Abstract:

The Colombian aeronautical industry has stimulated research in the mechanical behavior of materials under different loading conditions aircrafts are generally exposed during its operation. The Calima T-90 is the first military aircraft built in the country, used for primary flight training of Colombian Air Force Pilots, therefore, it may be exposed to adverse operating situations such as hard landings which cause impact loads on the aircraft that might produce the impact fatigue phenomenon. The Calima T-90 structure is mainly manufactured by composites materials generating assemblies and subassemblies of different components of it. The main method of bonding these components is by using adhesive joints. Each type of adhesive bond must be studied on its own since its performance depends on the conditions of the manufacturing process and operating characteristics. This study aims to characterize the typical adhesive joints of the aircraft under usual loads. To this purpose, the evaluation of the effect of adhesive thickness on the mechanical performance of the joint under quasi-static loading conditions, constant amplitude fatigue and cyclic impact fatigue using single lap-joint specimens will be performed. Additionally, using a double cantilever beam specimen, the influence of the thickness of the adhesive on the crack growth rate for mode I delamination failure, as a function of the critical energy release rate will be determined. Finally, an analysis of the fracture surface of the test specimens considering the mechanical interaction between the substrate (composite) and the adhesive, provide insights into the magnitude of the damage, the type of failure mechanism that occurs and its correlation with the way crack propagates under the proposed loading conditions.

Keywords: Composites, Fatigue, crack propagation, adhesive

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2 Multiaxial Stress Based High Cycle Fatigue Model for Adhesive Joint Interfaces

Authors: Martin Alexander Eder, Sergei Semenov

Abstract:

Many glass-epoxy composite structures, such as large utility wind turbine rotor blades (WTBs), comprise of adhesive joints with typically thick bond lines used to connect the different components during assembly. Performance optimization of rotor blades to increase power output by simultaneously maintaining high stiffness-to-low-mass ratios entails intricate geometries in conjunction with complex anisotropic material behavior. Consequently, adhesive joints in WTBs are subject to multiaxial stress states with significant stress gradients depending on the local joint geometry. Moreover, the dynamic aero-elastic interaction of the WTB with the airflow generates non-proportional, variable amplitude stress histories in the material. Empiricism shows that a prominent failure type in WTBs is high cycle fatigue failure of adhesive bond line interfaces, which in fact over time developed into a design driver as WTB sizes increase rapidly. Structural optimization employed at an early design stage, therefore, sets high demands on computationally efficient interface fatigue models capable of predicting the critical locations prone for interface failure. The numerical stress-based interface fatigue model presented in this work uses the Drucker-Prager criterion to compute three different damage indices corresponding to the two interface shear tractions and the outward normal traction. The two-parameter Drucker-Prager model was chosen because of its ability to consider shear strength enhancement under compression and shear strength reduction under tension. The governing interface damage index is taken as the maximum of the triple. The damage indices are computed through the well-known linear Palmgren-Miner rule after separate rain flow-counting of the equivalent shear stress history and the equivalent pure normal stress history. The equivalent stress signals are obtained by self-similar scaling of the Drucker-Prager surface whose shape is defined by the uniaxial tensile strength and the shear strength such that it intersects with the stress point at every time step. This approach implicitly assumes that the damage caused by the prevailing multiaxial stress state is the same as the damage caused by an amplified equivalent uniaxial stress state in the three interface directions. The model was implemented as Python plug-in for the commercially available finite element code Abaqus for its use with solid elements. The model was used to predict the interface damage of an adhesively bonded, tapered glass-epoxy composite cantilever I-beam tested by LM Wind Power under constant amplitude compression-compression tip load in the high cycle fatigue regime. Results show that the model was able to predict the location of debonding in the adhesive interface between the webfoot and the cap. Moreover, with a set of two different constant life diagrams namely in shear and tension, it was possible to predict both the fatigue lifetime and the failure mode of the sub-component with reasonable accuracy. It can be concluded that the fidelity, robustness and computational efficiency of the proposed model make it especially suitable for rapid fatigue damage screening of large 3D finite element models subject to complex dynamic load histories.

Keywords: Interface, Fatigue, adhesive, multiaxial stress

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1 Effects of Different Thermal Processing Routes and Their Parameters on the Formation of Voids in PA6 Bonded Aluminum Joints

Authors: Muhammad Irfan, Guillermo Requena, Jan Haubrich

Abstract:

Adhesively bonded aluminum joints are common in automotive and aircraft industries and are one of the enablers of lightweight construction to minimize the carbon emissions during transportation for a sustainable life. This study is focused on the effects of two thermal processing routes, i.e., by direct and induction heating, and their parameters on void formation in PA6 bonded aluminum EN-AW6082 joints. The joints were characterized microanalytically as well as by lap shear experiments. The aging resistance of the joints was studied by accelerated aging tests at 80°C hot water. It was found that the processing of single lap joints by direct heating in a convection oven causes the formation of a large number of voids in the bond line. The formation of voids in the convection oven was due to longer processing times and was independent of any surface pretreatments of the metal as well as the processing temperature. However, when processing at low temperatures, a large number of small-sized voids were observed under the optical microscope, and they were larger in size but reduced in numbers at higher temperatures. An induction heating process was developed, which not only successfully reduced or eliminated the voids in PA6 bonded joints but also reduced the processing times for joining significantly. Consistent with the trend in direct heating, longer processing times and higher temperatures in induction heating also led to an increased formation of voids in the bond line. Subsequent single lap shear tests revealed that the increasing void contents led to a 21% reduction in lap shear strengths (i.e., from ~47 MPa for induction heating to ~37 MPa for direct heating). Also, there was a 17% reduction in lap shear strengths when the consolidation temperature was raised from 220˚C to 300˚C during induction heating. However, below a certain threshold of void contents, there was no observable effect on the lap shear strengths as well as on hydrothermal aging resistance of the joints consolidated by the induction heating process.

Keywords: Mechanical Properties, Induction Heating, Aluminium, Pretreatment, adhesive, void, convection oven, nylon6 (PA6)

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