Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Addis Ababa Related Abstracts

8 Completion of the Modified World Health Organization (WHO) Partograph during Labour in Public Health Institutions of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Authors: Engida Yisma, Berhanu Dessalegn, Ayalew Astatkie, Nebreed Fesseha

Abstract:

Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends using the partograph to follow labour and delivery, with the objective to improve health care and reduce maternal and foetal morbidity and death. Methods: A retrospective document review was undertaken to assess the completion of the modified WHO partograph during labour in public health institutions of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A total of 420 of the modified WHO partographs used to monitor mothers in labour from five public health institutions that provide maternity care were reviewed. A structured checklist was used to gather the required data. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Frequency distributions, cross-tabulations and a graph were used to describe the results of the study. Results: All facilities were using the modified WHO partograph. The correct completion of the partograph was very low. From 420 partographs reviewed across all the five health facilities, foetal heart rate was recorded into the recommended standard in 129(30.7%) of the partographs, while 138 (32.9%) of cervical dilatation and 87 (20.70%) of uterine contractions were recorded to the recommended standard. The study did not document descent of the presenting part in 353 (84%). Moulding in 364 (86.7%) of the partographs reviewed was not recorded. Documentation of state of the liquor was 113(26.9%), while the maternal blood pressure was recorded to standard only in 78(18.6%) of the partographs reviewed. Conclusions: This study showed a poor completion of the modified WHO partographs during labour in public health institutions of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The findings may reflect poor management of labour and indicate the need for pre-service and periodic on-job training of health workers on the proper completion of the partograph. Regular supportive supervision, provision of guidelines and mandatory health facility policy are also needed in support of a collaborative effort to reduce maternal and perinatal deaths.

Keywords: Ethiopia, modified WHO partograph, completion, public health institutions, Addis Ababa

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7 Injury Characteristics and Outcome of Road Traffic Accident among Victims at Adult Emergency Department of Tikur Anbesa Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Authors: Engida Yisma, Mohammed Seid, Aklilu Azazh, Fikre Enquselassie

Abstract:

Background: Road traffic injuries are the eighth leading cause of death globally, and the leading cause of death for young people. More than a million people die each year on the world’s roads, and the risk of dying as a result of a road traffic injury is highest in the Africa. Methods: A prospective hospital-based study was undertaken to assess injury characteristics and outcome of road traffic accident among victims at Adult Emergency Department of Tikur Anbesa specialized hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A structured pre-tested questionnaire was used to gather the required data. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Results: A total of 230 road traffic accident victims were studied. The majority of the study subjects were men 165 (71.7%) and the male/female ratio was 2.6:1. The victims’ ages ranged from 14 to 80 years with the mean and standard deviations of 32.15 and ± 14.38 years respectively. Daily laborers (95 (41.3%)) and students (28 (12.2%)) were the majority of road traffic accident victims. Long-distance travelling Minibus (16.5%) was responsible for the majority of road traffic crash followed by followed by Taxi (14.8%) and pedestrians (62.6%) accounted for the majority of road traffic accident. Head (50.4%) and musculoskeletal (extremities) (47.0%) were the most common body region injured. Fractures (78.0%) and open wounds (56.5%) were the most common type of injuries sustained. Treatment of fracture was the most common procedure performed in 57.7 % of the victims. The overall length of hospital stay (LOS) ranged from 1 day to 61 days with mean (± standard deviation) of 7.12 ± 10.5 days and the mortality rate was 7.4 %. A significant higher proportion of victims aged 14-55 years were had less likelihood of death compared to those victims aged more than 55 years of age [Adjusted OR = 0.1 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.82)]. Conclusions: This study showed diverse injury characteristics and high morbidity and mortality among the victims attending Adult Emergency Department of Tikur Anbesa specialized hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The findings reflect that road traffic accident is a major public health problem. Urgent road traffic accident preventive measures and prompt treatment of the victims are warranted in order to reduce morbidity and mortality among the victims.

Keywords: Ethiopia, outcome, Addis Ababa, road traffic accident, injury characteristics, Tikur Anbesa specialized hospital

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6 The Adequacy of Antenatal Care Services among Slum Residents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Authors: Yibeltal T. Bayou, Yohana S. Mashalla, Gloria Thupayagale-Tshweneagae

Abstract:

Background: Maternal mortality has been shown to be lower in urban areas than in rural areas. However, disparities for the fast-growing population of urban poor who struggle as much their rural counterparts to access quality healthcare are masked by the urban averages. The aim of this paper is to report on the findings of antenatal adequacy among slum residents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods and Materials: A quantitative and cross-sectional community-based study design was employed. A stratified two-stage cluster sampling technique was used to determine the sample and data was collected using structured questionnaire administered to 837 women aged 15-49 years. Binary logistic regression models were employed to identify predictors of adequacy of antenatal care. Results: The majority of slum residents did not have adequate antenatal care services i.e., only 50.7%, 19.3% and 10.2% of the slum resident women initiated early antenatal care, received adequate antenatal care service contents and had overall adequate antenatal care services. Pregnancy intention, educational status and place of ANC visits were important determinant factors for adequacy of ANC in the study area. Women with secondary and above educational status were 2.9 times more likely to have overall adequate care compared to those with no formal education. Similarly, women whose last pregnancy was intended and clients of private healthcare facilities were 1.8 and 2.8 times more likely to have overall adequate antenatal care compared to those whose last pregnancy was unintended and clients of public healthcare facilities respectively. Conclusion: In order to improve ANC adequacy in the study area, the policymaking, planning, and implementation processes should focus on the poor adequacy of ANC among the disadvantaged groups in particular and the slum residents in general.

Keywords: maternal mortality, Addis Ababa, adequacy of antenatal care, slum residents

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5 The Alarming Caesarean-Section Delivery Rate in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Authors: Yibeltal T. Bayou, Yohana S. Mashalla, Gloria Thupayagale-Tshweneagae

Abstract:

Background: According to the World Health Organization, caesarean section delivery rates of more than 10-15% caesarean section deliveries in any specific geographic region in the world are not justifiable. The aim of the study was to describe the level and analyse determinants of caesarean section delivery in Addis Ababa. Methods: Data was collected in Addis Ababa using a structured questionnaire administered to 901 women aged 15-49 years through a stratified two-stage cluster sampling technique. Binary logistic regression model was employed to identify predictors of caesarean section delivery. Results: Among the 835 women who delivered their last birth at healthcare facilities, 19.2% of them gave birth by caesarean section. About 9.0% of the caesarean section births were due to mother’s request or service provider’s influence without any medical indication. The caesarean section delivery rate was much higher than the recommended rate particularly among the non-slum residents (27.2%); clients of private healthcare facilities (41.1%); currently married women (20.6%); women with secondary (22.2%) and tertiary (33.6%) level of education; and women belonging to the highest wealth quintile household (28.2%). The majority (65.8%) of the caesarean section clients were not informed about the consequences of caesarean section delivery by service providers. The logistic regression model shows that older age (30-49), secondary and above education, non-slum residence, high-risk pregnancy and receiving adequate antenatal care were significantly positively associated with caesarean section delivery. Conclusion: Despite the unreserved effort towards achieving MDG 5 through safe skilled delivery assistance among others, the high caesarean section rate beyond the recommend limit, and the finding that caesarean sections done without medical indications were also alarming. The government and city administration should take appropriate measures before the problems become setbacks in healthcare provision. Further investigations should focus on the effect of caesarean section delivery on maternal and child health outcomes in the study area.

Keywords: caesarean section, Addis Ababa, mode of delivery, slum residence

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4 Rabies Surveillance Data Analysis in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia during 2012/13: Retrospective Cross Sectional Study

Authors: Fantu Lombamo Untiso, Sylvia Murphy, Emily Pieracci

Abstract:

Background: Rabies is a highly fatal viral disease of all warm-blooded animals including human globally. However, effective rabies control program still remains to be a reality and needs to be strengthened. Objective: Reviewing of recorded data and analyzing it to generate information on the status of rabies in Addis Ababa in the year 2012/13. Methods: A retrospective data were used from the Ethiopian Public Health Institute rabies case record book registered in the year 2012/13. Results: Among 1357 suspected rabid animals clinically examined; only 8.84% were positive for rabies. Out of 216 animal brains investigated in the laboratory with Fluorescent Antibody Technique, 55.5% were confirmed rabies positive. Among the laboratory confirmed positive rabies cases, high percentage of the animals came from Yeka (20%) and lower number from Kirkos subcity (3.3%). Out of 1149 humans who came to the institute seeking anti-rabies post-exposure prophylaxis, 85.65% and 7.87% of them were exposed to suspected dogs and cats respectively. 3 human deaths due to rabies were reported in the year after exposure to dog bite of unknown vaccination status. Conclusion: The principal vector of rabies in Addis Ababa is dog. Effective rabies management and control based on confirmed cases and mass-immunization and control of stray dog populations is recommended.

Keywords: Surveillance, Rabies, exposure, Addis Ababa

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3 Prevalence and Associated Factors of Periodontal Disease among Diabetes Patients in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2018

Authors: Addisu Tadesse Sahile, Tennyson Mgutshini

Abstract:

Background: Periodontal disease is a common, complex, inflammatory disease characterized by the destruction of tooth-supporting soft and hard tissues of the periodontium and a major public health problem across developed and developing countries. Objectives: The study was aimed at assessing the prevalence of periodontal disease and associated factors among diabetes patients in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2018. Methods: Institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted on 388 diabetes patients selected by systematic random sampling method from March to May 2018. The study was conducted at two conveniently selected public hospitals in Addis Ababa. Data were collected with pre-tested, structured and translated questionnaire then entered to SPSS version 23 software for analysis. Descriptive statistics as a summary, in line with chi-square and binary logistics regression to identify factors associated with periodontal disease, were applied. A 95% CI with a p-value less than 5% was used as a level of significance. Results: Ninety-one percent (n=353) of participants had periodontal disease while oral examination was done in six regions. While only 9% (n=35) of participants were free of periodontal disease. The number of tooth brushings per day, correct techniques of brushing, malocclusion, and fillings that are defective were associated with periodontal disease at p < 0.05. Conclusion and recommendation: A higher prevalence of periodontal disease among diabetes patient was observed. The frequency of tooth brushing, correct techniques of brushing, malocclusion and defective fillings were associated with periodontal disease. Emphasis has to be given to oral health of diabetes patients by every concerned body so as to control the current higher burden of periodontal disease in diabetes.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, Risk Factors, Addis Ababa, periodontal disease

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2 Enhancing Green Infrastructure as a Climate Change Adaptation Strategy in Addis Ababa: Unlocking Institutional, Socio-Cultural and Cognitive Barriers for Application

Authors: Eyasu Markos Woldesemayat, Paolo Vincenzo Genovese

Abstract:

In recent years with an increase in the concentration of Green House Gases (GHG), Climate Change (CC) externalities are mounting, regardless of governments, are scrambling to implement mitigation and adaptation measures. With multiple social, economic and environmental benefits, Green Infrastructure (GI) has evolved as a highly valuable policy tool to promote sustainable development and smart growth by meeting multiple objectives towards quality of life. However, despite the wide range of benefits, it's uptake in African cities such as Addis Ababa is very low due to several constraining factors. This study, through content analysis and key informant interviews, examined barriers for the uptake of GI among spatial planners in Addis Ababa. Added to this, the study has revealed that the spatial planners had insufficient knowledge about GI planning principles such as multi-functionality, integration, and connectivity, and multiscale. The practice of implementing these holistic principles in urban spatial planning is phenomenally nonexistent. The findings also revealed 20 barriers categorized under four themes, i.e., institutional, socio-cultural, resource, and cognitive barriers. Similarly, it was identified that institutional barriers (0.756), socio-cultural barriers (0.730), cognitive barriers (0.700) and resource barriers (0.642), respectively, are the foremost impending factors for the promotion of GI in Addis Ababa. It was realized that resource barriers were the least constraining factor for enshrining the GI uptake in the city. Strategies to hasten the adoption of GI in the city mainly focus on improving political will, harmonization sectorial plans, improve spatial planning and implementation practice, prioritization of GI in all planning activities, enforcement of environmental laws, introducing collaborative GI governance, creating strong and stable institutions and raising awareness on the need to conserve environment and CC externalities through education and outreach mechanisms.

Keywords: Climate Change, Spatial planning, Green Infrastructure, Addis Ababa, spatial planners

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1 Estimation of Exhaust and Non-Exhaust Particulate Matter Emissions’ Share from On-Road Vehicles in Addis Ababa City

Authors: Solomon Neway Jida, Jean-Francois Hetet, Pascal Chesse

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Vehicular emission is the key source of air pollution in the urban environment. This includes both fine particles (PM2.5) and coarse particulate matters (PM10). However, particulate matter emissions from road traffic comprise emissions from exhaust tailpipe and emissions due to wear and tear of the vehicle part such as brake, tire and clutch and re-suspension of dust (non-exhaust emission). This study estimates the share of the two sources of pollutant particle emissions from on-roadside vehicles in the Addis Ababa municipality, Ethiopia. To calculate its share, two methods were applied; the exhaust-tailpipe emissions were calculated using the Europeans emission inventory Tier II method and Tier I for the non-exhaust emissions (like vehicle tire wear, brake, and road surface wear). The results show that of the total traffic-related particulate emissions in the city, 63% emitted from vehicle exhaust and the remaining 37% from non-exhaust sources. The annual roads transport exhaust emission shares around 2394 tons of particles from all vehicle categories. However, from the total yearly non-exhaust particulate matter emissions’ contribution, tire and brake wear shared around 65% and 35% emanated by road-surface wear. Furthermore, vehicle tire and brake wear were responsible for annual 584.8 tons of coarse particles (PM10) and 314.4 tons of fine particle matter (PM2.5) emissions in the city whereas surface wear emissions were responsible for around 313.7 tons of PM10 and 169.9 tons of PM2.5 pollutant emissions in the city. This suggests that non-exhaust sources might be as significant as exhaust sources and have a considerable contribution to the impact on air quality.

Keywords: particulate matters, Addis Ababa, emission estimation, automotive emission

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