Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

acute myocardial infarction Related Abstracts

4 Total Longitudinal Displacement (tLoD) of the Common Carotid Artery (CCA) Does Not Differ between Patients with Moderate or High Cardiovascular Risk (CV) and Patients after Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI)

Authors: P. Serpytis, K. Azukaitis, U. Gargalskaite, R. Navickas, J. Badariene, V. Dzenkeviciute

Abstract:

Purpose: Total longitudinal displacement (tLoD) of the common carotid artery (CCA) wall is a novel ultrasound marker of vascular function that can be evaluated using modified speckle tracking techniques. Decreased CCA tLoD has already been shown to be associated with diabetes and was shown to predict one year cardiovascular outcome in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) . The aim of our study was to evaluate if CCA tLoD differ between patients with moderate or high cardiovascular (CV) risk and patients after recent acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods: 49 patients (54±6 years) with moderate or high CV risk and 42 patients (58±7 years) after recent AMI were included. All patients were non-diabetic. CCA tLoD was evaluated using GE EchoPAC speckle tracking software and expressed as mean of both sides. Data on systolic blood pressure, total and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) level, smoking status and family history of early CV events was evaluated and assessed for association with CCA tLoD. Results: tLoD of CCA did not differ between patients with moderate or high CV risk and patients with very high CV risk after MI (0.265±0.128 mm vs. 0.237±0.103 mm, p>0.05). Lower tLoD was associated with lower HDL cholesterol levels (r=0.211, p=0.04) and male sex (0.228±0.1 vs. 0.297±0.134, p=0.01). Conclusions: tLoD of CCA did not differ between patients with moderate or high CV risk and patients with very high CV risk after AMI. However, lower CCA tLoD was significantly associated with low HDL cholesterol levels and male sex.

Keywords: total longitudinal displacement, carotid artery, cardiovascular risk, acute myocardial infarction

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3 Survival Chances and Costs after Heart Attacks: An Instrumental Variable Approach

Authors: Alice Sanwald, Thomas Schober

Abstract:

We analyze mortality and follow-up costs of heart attack patients using administrative data from Austria (2002-2011). As treatment intensity in a hospital largely depends on whether it has a catheterization laboratory, we focus on the effects of patients' initial admission to these specialized hospitals. To account for the nonrandom selection of patients into hospitals, we exploit individuals' place of residence as a source of exogenous variation in an instrumental variable framework. We find that the initial admission to specialized hospitals increases patients' survival chances substantially. The effect on 3-year mortality is -9.5 percentage points. A separation of the sample into subgroups shows the strongest effects in relative terms for patients below the age of 65. We do not find significant effects on longterm inpatient costs and find only marginal increases in outpatient costs.

Keywords: Mortality, acute myocardial infarction, costs, instrumental variables, heart attack

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2 MicroRNA Profiling Reveals Novel Circulating Biomarkers in Acute Phase of Myocardial Infarction

Authors: A. Maciejak, M. Kiliszek, G. Opolski, D. Tulacz, A. Segiet, K. Matlak, S. Dobrzycki, G. Sygitowicz, B. Burzynska, M. Gora

Abstract:

Introduction and aims: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is one of the most severe cardiovascular diseases affecting millions of patients each year worldwide. An early and accurate diagnosis of AMI is essential for optimal treatment. Therefore, new approaches that can complement and improve current strategies for AMI diagnosis are urgently needed. Recent studies have revealed the presence of stable circulating myocardial-derived microRNAs (miRNAs) in human peripheral blood, suggesting that such miRNAs could serve as potential biomarkers of infarction. The present study aimed to identify differentially expressed circulating miRNAs in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. Materials and methods: miRNA expression profile analysis was performed using Exiqon Serum/Plasma Focus microRNA PCR panel in plasma samples of n=16 patients on the first day of AMI (admission) and in samples from the same patients collected six months after AMI. Selected miRNAs were validated by RT-qPCR using serum samples from an independent set of n=14 AMI patients. Results: The profiling study identified 46 species of plasma miRNAs that were differentially expressed (p < 0.05) on admission compared to six months after AMI. The validation in the independent group of patients confirmed that miR-133b and miR-22-5p were significantly up-regulated upon AMI. Conclusions: Our results suggest that miRNA expression profiling provides better understanding of the changes that occur in the acute phase of MI in the myocardium and could be useful in determination of the potential role of extracellular miRNAs as paracrine signaling molecules. miR-22-5p represents a novel promising biomarker for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction.

Keywords: acute myocardial infarction, circulating microRNAs, microRNA expression profiling, miR-22-5p

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1 Role of Lipid-Lowering Treatment in the Monocyte Phenotype and Chemokine Receptor Levels after Acute Myocardial Infarction

Authors: Carolina N. França, Jônatas B. do Amaral, Maria C.O. Izar, Ighor L. Teixeira, Francisco A. Fonseca

Abstract:

Introduction: Atherosclerosis is a progressive disease, characterized by lipid and fibrotic element deposition in large-caliber arteries. Conditions related to the development of atherosclerosis, as dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, and smoking are associated with endothelial dysfunction. There is a frequent recurrence of cardiovascular outcomes after acute myocardial infarction and, at this sense, cycles of mobilization of monocyte subtypes (classical, intermediate and nonclassical) secondary to myocardial infarction may determine the colonization of atherosclerotic plaques in different stages of the development, contributing to early recurrence of ischemic events. The recruitment of different monocyte subsets during inflammatory process requires the expression of chemokine receptors CCR2, CCR5, and CX3CR1, to promote the migration of monocytes to the inflammatory site. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of lipid-lowering treatment by six months in the monocyte phenotype and chemokine receptor levels of patients after Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI). Methods: This is a PROBE (prospective, randomized, open-label trial with blinded endpoints) study (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02428374). Adult patients (n=147) of both genders, ageing 18-75 years, were randomized in a 2x2 factorial design for treatment with rosuvastatin 20 mg/day or simvastatin 40 mg/day plus ezetimibe 10 mg/day as well as ticagrelor 90 mg 2x/day and clopidogrel 75 mg, in addition to conventional AMI therapy. Blood samples were collected at baseline, after one month and six months of treatment. Monocyte subtypes (classical - inflammatory, intermediate - phagocytic and nonclassical – anti-inflammatory) were identified, quantified and characterized by flow cytometry, as well as the expressions of the chemokine receptors (CCR2, CCR5 and CX3CR1) were also evaluated in the mononuclear cells. Results: After six months of treatment, there was an increase in the percentage of classical monocytes and reduction in the nonclassical monocytes (p=0.038 and p < 0.0001 Friedman Test), without differences for intermediate monocytes. Besides, classical monocytes had higher expressions of CCR5 and CX3CR1 after treatment, without differences related to CCR2 (p < 0.0001 for CCR5 and CX3CR1; p=0.175 for CCR2). Intermediate monocytes had higher expressions of CCR5 and CX3CR1 and lower expression of CCR2 (p = 0.003; p < 0.0001 and p = 0.011, respectively). Nonclassical monocytes had lower expressions of CCR2 and CCR5, without differences for CX3CR1 (p < 0.0001; p = 0.009 and p = 0.138, respectively). There were no differences after the comparison between the four treatment arms. Conclusion: The data suggest a time-dependent modulation of classical and nonclassical monocytes and chemokine receptor levels. The higher percentage of classical monocytes (inflammatory cells) suggest a residual inflammatory risk, even under preconized treatments to AMI. Indeed, these changes do not seem to be affected by choice of the lipid-lowering strategy.

Keywords: Chemokine Receptors, acute myocardial infarction, lipid-lowering treatment, monocyte subtypes

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