Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

activities of daily living Related Abstracts

3 Evaluating Machine Learning Techniques for Activity Classification in Smart Home Environments

Authors: Talal Alshammari, Nasser Alshammari, Mohamed Sedky, Chris Howard


With the widespread adoption of the Internet-connected devices, and with the prevalence of the Internet of Things (IoT) applications, there is an increased interest in machine learning techniques that can provide useful and interesting services in the smart home domain. The areas that machine learning techniques can help advance are varied and ever-evolving. Classifying smart home inhabitants’ Activities of Daily Living (ADLs), is one prominent example. The ability of machine learning technique to find meaningful spatio-temporal relations of high-dimensional data is an important requirement as well. This paper presents a comparative evaluation of state-of-the-art machine learning techniques to classify ADLs in the smart home domain. Forty-two synthetic datasets and two real-world datasets with multiple inhabitants are used to evaluate and compare the performance of the identified machine learning techniques. Our results show significant performance differences between the evaluated techniques. Such as AdaBoost, Cortical Learning Algorithm (CLA), Decision Trees, Hidden Markov Model (HMM), Multi-layer Perceptron (MLP), Structured Perceptron and Support Vector Machines (SVM). Overall, neural network based techniques have shown superiority over the other tested techniques.

Keywords: Internet of Things, Machine Learning, classification, prediction, Smart Home, activities of daily living

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2 Effects of Robot-Assisted Hand Training on Upper Extremity Performance in Patients with Stroke: A Randomized Crossover Controlled, Assessor-Blinded Study

Authors: Hsin-Chieh Lee, Fen-Ling Kuo, Jui-Chi Lin


Background: Upper extremity functional impairment that occurs after stroke includes hemiplegia, synergy movement, muscle hypertonicity, and somatosensory impairment, which result in inefficient and inaccurate movement. Robot-assisted rehabilitation is an intensive training approach that is effective in sensorimotor and hand function recovery. However, these systems mostly focused on the proximal part of the upper limb rather than the distal part. The device used in our study was Gloreha Sinfonia, which focuses on the distal part of the upper limb and uses a dynamic support system to facilitate the whole limb function. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of robot-assisted therapy (RT) with Gloreha device on sensorimotor, and ADLs in patients with stroke. Method: Patients with stroke (N=25) participated AB or BA (A = 12 RT sessions and B = 12 conventional therapy (CT) sessions) for 6 weeks (60 min at each session, twice a week), with 1-month break for washout period. The performance of the patients was assessed by a blinded assessor at 4 time points (pretest 1, posttest 1, pretest 2, posttest 2) which including the Fugl–Meyer Assessment-upper extremity (FMA-UE), box and block test, electromyography of the extensor digitorum communis (EDC) and brachioradialis, a grip dynamometer for motor evaluation; Semmes–Weinstein hand monofilament and Revision of the Nottingham Sensory Assessment for sensory evaluation; and the Modified Barthel Index (MBI) for assessing the ADL ability. Result: RT group significantly improved FMA-UE proximal scores (p = 0.038), FMA-UE total scores (p = 0.046), and MBI (p = 0.030). The EDC exhibited higher efficiency during the small block grasping task in the RT group than in the CT group (p = 0.050). Conclusions: RT with the Gloreha device might lead to beneficial effects on arm motor function, ADL ability, and EDC muscle recruitment efficacy in patients with subacute to chronic stroke.

Keywords: Stroke, activities of daily living, hand function, robotic rehabilitation

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1 The Effects on Hand Function with Robot-Assisted Rehabilitation for Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Pilot Study

Authors: Hsin-Chieh Lee, Fen-Ling Kuo, Jui-Chi Lin, Han-Yun Hsiao


Background: Children with cerebral palsy (CP) usually suffered from mild to maximum upper limb dysfunction such as having difficulty in reaching and picking up objects, which profoundly affects their participation in activities of daily living (ADLs). Robot-assisted rehabilitation provides intensive physical training in improving sensorimotor function of the hand. Many researchers have extensively studied the effects of robot-assisted therapy (RT) for the paretic upper limb in patients with stroke in recent years. However, few studies have examined the effect of RT on hand function in children with CP. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of Gloreha Sinfonia, a robotic device with a dynamic arm support system mainly focus on distal upper-limb training, on improvements of hand function and ADLs in children with CP. Methods: Seven children with moderate CP were recruited in this case series study. RT using Gloreha Sinfonia was performed 2 sessions per week, 60 min per session for 6 consecutive weeks, with 12 times in total. Outcome measures included the Fugl-Meyer Assessment-upper extremity (FMA-UE), the Box and Block Test, the electromyography activity of the extensor digitorum communis muscle (EDC) and brachioradialis (BR), a grip dynamometer for motor evaluation, and the ABILHAND-Kids for measuring manual ability to manage daily activities, were performed at baseline, after 12 sessions (end of treatment) and at the 1-month follow-up. Results: After 6 weeks of robot-assisted treatment of hand function, there were significant increases in FMA-UE shoulder/elbow scores (p=0.002), FMA-UE wrist/hand scores (p=0.002), and FMA-UE total scores (p=0.002). There were also significant improvements in the BR mean value (p = 0.015) and electrical agonist-antagonist muscle ratio (p=0.041) in grasping a 1-inch cube task. These gains were maintained for a month after the end of the intervention. Conclusion: RT using Gloreha Sinfonia for hand function training may contribute toward the improvement of upper extremity function and efficacy in recruiting BR muscle in children with CP. The results were maintained at one month after intervention.

Keywords: Cerebral Palsy, activities of daily living, hand function, robotic rehabilitation

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