Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Active Related Abstracts

3 Getting What You Paid For: Using Mutual Fund Governance to Predict the Activeness of Mutual Funds

Authors: Matthew Morey, Aron Gottesman

Abstract:

This paper examines the relationship between mutual fund governance and the activeness of equity mutual funds. Using a fund’s corporate culture as a proxy for its governance and controlling for other variables, we find that funds with the better governance are significantly more active than other funds. Further, we find the probability of finding a highly active fund increases significantly as the governance of the fund improves. We also find some evidence that the probability of finding a closet index fund increases as the governance of the fund declines. These results demonstrate that mutual fund governance should be considered carefully when making mutual fund investment decisions.

Keywords: Economics, Active, mutual funds, share

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2 Comparison of FASTMAP and B0 Field Map Shimming for 4T MRI

Authors: Mohan L. Jayatiake, Judd Storrs, Jing-Huei Lee

Abstract:

The optimal MRI resolution relies on a homogeneous magnetic field. However, local susceptibility variations can lead to field inhomogeneities that cause artifacts such as image distortion and signal loss. The effects of local susceptibility variation notoriously increase with magnetic field strength. Active shimming improves homogeneity by applying corrective fields generated from shim coils, but requires calculation of optimal current for each shim coil. FASTMAP (fast automatic shimming technique by mapping along projections) is an effective technique for finding optimal currents works well at high-field, but is restricted to shimming spherical regions of interest. The 3D gradient-echo pulse sequence was modified to reduce sensitivity to eddy currents and used to obtain susceptibility field maps at 4T. Measured fields were projected onto first-and second-order spherical harmonic functions corresponding to shim hardware. A spherical phantom was used to calibrate the shim currents. Susceptibility maps of a volunteer’s brain with and without FASTMAP shimming were obtained. Simulations indicate that optimal shim currents derived from the field map may provide better overall shimming of the human brain.

Keywords: Active, passive, shimming, high-field

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
1 Seismic Active Earth Pressure on Retaining Walls with Reinforced Backfill

Authors: Jagdish Prasad Sahoo

Abstract:

The increase in active earth pressure during the event of an earthquake results sliding, overturning and tilting of earth retaining structures. In order to improve upon the stability of structures, the soil mass is often reinforced with various types of reinforcements such as metal strips, geotextiles, and geogrids etc. The stresses generated in the soil mass are transferred to the reinforcements through the interface friction between the earth and the reinforcement, which in turn reduces the lateral earth pressure on the retaining walls. Hence, the evaluation of earth pressure in the presence of seismic forces with an inclusion of reinforcements is important for the design retaining walls in the seismically active zones. In the present analysis, the effect of reinforcing horizontal layers of reinforcements in the form of sheets (Geotextiles and Geogrids) in sand used as backfill, on reducing the active earth pressure due to earthquake body forces has been studied. For carrying out the analysis, pseudo-static approach has been adopted by employing upper bound theorem of limit analysis in combination with finite elements and linear optimization. The computations have been performed with and out reinforcements for different internal friction angle of sand varying from 30 ° to 45 °. The effectiveness of the reinforcement in reducing the active earth pressure on the retaining walls is examined in terms of active earth pressure coefficient for presenting the solutions in a non-dimensional form. The active earth pressure coefficient is expressed as functions of internal friction angle of sand, interface friction angle between sand and reinforcement, soil-wall interface roughness conditions, and coefficient of horizontal seismic acceleration. It has been found that (i) there always exists a certain optimum depth of the reinforcement layers corresponding to which the value of active earth pressure coefficient becomes always the minimum, and (ii) the active earth pressure coefficient decreases significantly with an increase in length of reinforcements only up to a certain length beyond which a further increase in length hardly causes any reduction in the values active earth pressure. The optimum depth of the reinforcement layers and the required length of reinforcements corresponding to the optimum depth of reinforcements have been established. The numerical results developed in this analysis are expected to be useful for purpose of design of retaining walls.

Keywords: Active, reinforcement, Finite elements, Limit Analysis, presudo-static

Procedia PDF Downloads 231