Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Activation Energy Related Abstracts

14 Convective Hot Air Drying of Different Varieties of Blanched Sweet Potato Slices

Authors: M. O. Oke, T. S. Workneh


Drying behaviour of blanched sweet potato in a cabinet dryer using different five air temperatures (40-80oC) and ten sweet potato varieties sliced to 5 mm thickness were investigated. The drying data were fitted to eight models. The Modified Henderson and Pabis model gave the best fit to the experimental moisture ratio data obtained during the drying of all the varieties while Newton (Lewis) and Wang and Singh models gave the least fit. The values of Deff obtained for Bophelo variety (1.27 x 10-9 to 1.77 x 10-9 m2/s) was the least while that of S191 (1.93 x 10-9 to 2.47 x 10-9 m2/s) was the highest which indicates that moisture diffusivity in sweet potato is affected by the genetic factor. Activation energy values ranged from 0.27-6.54 kJ/mol. The lower activation energy indicates that drying of sweet potato slices requires less energy and is hence a cost and energy saving method. The drying behavior of blanched sweet potato was investigated in a cabinet dryer. Drying time decreased considerably with increase in hot air temperature. Out of the eight models fitted, the Modified Henderson and Pabis model gave the best fit to the experimental moisture ratio data on all the varieties while Newton, Wang and Singh models gave the least. The lower activation energy (0.27-6.54 kJ/mol) obtained indicates that drying of sweet potato slices requires less energy and is hence a cost and energy saving method.

Keywords: Activation Energy, sweet potato slice, drying models, moisture ratio, moisture diffusivity

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13 Study of the Microstructural Evolution and Precipitation Kinetic in AZ91 Alloys

Authors: A. Azizi, M. Toubane, L. Chetibi


Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is a widely used technique for the study of phase transformations, particularly in the study of precipitation. The kinetic of the precipitation and dissolution is always related to the concept of activation energy Ea. The determination of the activation energy gives important information about the kinetic of the precipitation reaction. In this work, we were interested in the study of the isothermal and non-isothermal treatments on the decomposition of the supersaturated solid solution in the alloy AZ91 (Mg-9 Al-Zn 1-0.2 Mn. mass fraction %), using Differential Calorimetric method. Through this method, the samples were heat treated up to 425° C, using different rates. To calculate the apparent activation energies associated with the formation of precipitated phases, we used different isoconversional methods. This study was supported by other analysis: X-ray diffraction and microhardness measurements.

Keywords: Calorimetric, Activation Energy, AZ91 alloys, microstructural evolution

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12 Determination of Material Constants and Zener-Hollomon Parameter of AA2017 Aluminium Alloy under Hot Compression Test

Authors: C. H. Shashikanth, M. J. Davidson, V. Suresh Babu


The formability of metals depends on a number of variables such as strain, strain rate, and temperature. Though most of the metals are formable at room temperature, few are not. To evaluate the workability of such metals at elevated temperatures, thermomechanical experiments should be carried out to find out the forming temperatures and strain rates. Though a number of constitutive relations are available to correlate the material parameters and the corresponding formability at elevated temperatures, the constitutive rule proposed by Arrhenius has been used in this work. Thus, in the present work, the material constants such as A (constant), α (stress multiplier), β (constant), and n (stress exponent) of AA 2017 has been found by conducting a series of hot compression tests at different temperatures such as 400°C, 450°C, 500°C, and 550°C and at different strain rates such as 0.16, 0.18, and 0.2. True stress (σt), true strains (εt) deformation activation energy (Q), and the Zener-Hollomon parameter (Z value) were also calculated. The results indicate that the value of ln (Z) decreases as the temperature increases and it increases as the strain rate increases.

Keywords: Activation Energy, aluminium alloy, hot compression test, flow stress

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11 Evaluate the Kinetic Parameters and Characterize for Waste Prosopis juliflora Pods

Authors: Jean C. G. Silva, Kaline N. Ferreira, Rennio F. Sena, Flavio L. H. Silva


The Prosopis juliflora (called algaroba in Northeastern Region of Brazil) is a species of medium to large size that can reach 18 meters high, being typical of arid and semi-arid regions by to requirement less water to survive; this is a fundamental attribute from its adaptation. It's considered of multiple uses, because the trunk, the fruit, and the algaroba pods are utilized for several purposes, among them, the production of wood from lumber mill, charcoal, alcohol, animal and human consumption, being hence, a culture of economic and social value. The use of waste Prosopis juliflora can be carried out for like pyrolysis and gasification processes, in order to energy production in those regions where it is grown. Thus this study aims to characterize the residue of the algaroba pods and evaluate the kinetic parameters, activation energy (Ea) and pre-exponential factor (k0), the devolatilization process through the data obtained from TG/DTG curves with different levels of heating rates. At work was used the heating rates of 5 K.min-1, 10 K.min-1, 15 K.min-1, 20 K.min-1 and 30 K.min-1, in inert nitrogen atmosphere (99.997%) under a flow of 40 ml.min-1. The kinetic parameters were obtained using the methods of Friedman and Ozawa-Flynn-Wall.

Keywords: Waste, Activation Energy, devolatilization, kinetic parameters

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10 Metal-Semiconductor Transition in Ultra-Thin Titanium Oxynitride Films Deposited by ALD

Authors: Farzan Gity, Lida Ansari, Ian M. Povey, Roger E. Nagle, James C. Greer


Titanium nitride (TiN) films have been widely used in variety of fields, due to its unique electrical, chemical, physical and mechanical properties, including low electrical resistivity, chemical stability, and high thermal conductivity. In microelectronic devices, thin continuous TiN films are commonly used as diffusion barrier and metal gate material. However, as the film thickness decreases below a few nanometers, electrical properties of the film alter considerably. In this study, the physical and electrical characteristics of 1.5nm to 22nm thin films deposited by Plasma-Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition (PE-ALD) using Tetrakis(dimethylamino)titanium(IV), (TDMAT) chemistry and Ar/N2 plasma on 80nm SiO2 capped in-situ by 2nm Al2O3 are investigated. ALD technique allows uniformly-thick films at monolayer level in a highly controlled manner. The chemistry incorporates low level of oxygen into the TiN films forming titanium oxynitride (TiON). Thickness of the films is characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) which confirms the uniformity of the films. Surface morphology of the films is investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) indicating sub-nanometer surface roughness. Hall measurements are performed to determine the parameters such as carrier mobility, type and concentration, as well as resistivity. The >5nm-thick films exhibit metallic behavior; however, we have observed that thin film resistivity is modulated significantly by film thickness such that there are more than 5 orders of magnitude increment in the sheet resistance at room temperature when comparing 5nm and 1.5nm films. Scattering effects at interfaces and grain boundaries could play a role in thickness-dependent resistivity in addition to quantum confinement effect that could occur at ultra-thin films: based on our measurements the carrier concentration is decreased from 1.5E22 1/cm3 to 5.5E17 1/cm3, while the mobility is increased from < 0.1 cm2/V.s to ~4 cm2/V.s for the 5nm and 1.5nm films, respectively. Also, measurements at different temperatures indicate that the resistivity is relatively constant for the 5nm film, while for the 1.5nm film more than 2 orders of magnitude reduction has been observed over the range of 220K to 400K. The activation energy of the 2.5nm and 1.5nm films is 30meV and 125meV, respectively, indicating that the TiON ultra-thin films are exhibiting semiconducting behaviour attributing this effect to a metal-semiconductor transition. By the same token, the contact is no longer Ohmic for the thinnest film (i.e., 1.5nm-thick film); hence, a modified lift-off process was developed to selectively deposit thicker films allowing us to perform electrical measurements with low contact resistance on the raised contact regions. Our atomic scale simulations based on molecular dynamic-generated amorphous TiON structures with low oxygen content confirm our experimental observations indicating highly n-type thin films.

Keywords: Activation Energy, resistivity, ALD, metal-semiconductor transition, titanium oxynitride, ultra-thin film

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9 Effect of Plasma Discharge Power on Activation Energies of Plasma Poly(Ethylene Oxide) Thin Films

Authors: Sahin Yakut, H. Kemal Ulutas, Deniz Deger


Plasma Assisted Physical Vapor Deposition (PAPVD) method used to produce Poly(ethylene oxide) (pPEO) thin films. Depositions were progressed at various plasma discharge powers as 0, 2, 5 and 30 W for pPEO at 500nm film thicknesses. The capacitance and dielectric dissipation of the thin films were measured at 0,1-107 Hz frequency range and 173-353 K temperature range by an impedance analyzer. Then, alternative conductivity (σac) and activation energies were derived from capacitance and dielectric dissipation. σac of conventional PEO (PEO precursor) was measured to determine the effect of plasma discharge. Differences were observed between the alternative conductivity of PEO’s and pPEO’s depending on plasma discharge power. By this purpose, structural characterization techniques such as Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) were applied on pPEO thin films. Structural analysis showed that density of crosslinking is plasma power dependent. The crosslinking density increases with increasing plasma discharge power and this increase is displayed as increasing dynamic glass transition temperatures at DSC results. Also, shifting of frequencies of some type of bond vibrations, belonging to bond vibrations produced after fragmentation because of plasma discharge, were observed at FTIR results. The dynamic glass transition temperatures obtained from alternative conductivity results for pPEO consistent with the results of DSC. Activation energies exhibit Arrhenius behavior. Activation energies decrease with increasing plasma discharge power. This behavior supports the suggestion expressing that long polymer chains and long oligomers are fragmented into smaller oligomers or radicals.

Keywords: Organic thin films, Activation Energy, plasma polymer, dielectric spectroscopy

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8 Catalytic Effect of Graphene Oxide on the Oxidation of Paraffin-Based Fuels

Authors: Lin-Lin Liu, Song-Qi Hu, Yin Wang


Paraffin-based fuels are regarded to be a promising fuel of hybrid rocked motor because of the high regression rate, low price, and environmental friendliness. Graphene Oxide (GO) is an attractive energetic material which is expected to be widely used in propellants, explosives, and some high energy fuels. Paraffin-based fuels with paraffin and GO as raw materials were prepared, and the oxidation process of the samples was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis differential scanning calorimetry (TG/DSC) under oxygen (O₂) and nitrous oxide (N₂O) atmospheres. The oxidation reaction kinetics of the fuels was estimated through the non-isothermal measurements and model-free isoconversional methods based on the experimental results of TGA. The results show that paraffin-based fuels are easier oxidized under O₂ rather than N₂O with atmospheres due to the lower activation energy; GO plays a catalytic role for the oxidation of paraffin-based fuels under the both atmospheres, and the activation energy of the oxidation process decreases with the increase of GO; catalytic effect of GO on the oxidation of paraffin-based fuels are more obvious under O₂ atmospheres than under N₂O atmospheres.

Keywords: Oxidation, Graphene Oxide, Activation Energy, TGA, paraffin-based fuels

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7 Research of the Activation Energy of Conductivity in P-I-N SiC Structures Fabricated by Doping with Aluminum Using the Low-Temperature Diffusion Method

Authors: Ilkham Gafurovich Atabaev, Khimmatali Nomozovich Juraev


The activation energy of conductivity in p-i-n SiC structures fabricated by doping with Aluminum using the new low-temperature diffusion method is investigated. In this method, diffusion is stimulated by the flux of carbon and silicon vacancies created by surface oxidation. The activation energy of conductivity in the p - layer is 0.25 eV and it is close to the ionization energy of Aluminum in 4H-SiC from 0.21 to 0.27 eV for the hexagonal and cubic positions of aluminum in the silicon sublattice for weakly doped crystals. The conductivity of the i-layer (measured in the reverse biased diode) shows 2 activation energies: 0.02 eV and 0.62 eV. Apparently, the 0.62 eV level is a deep trap level and it is a complex of Aluminum with a vacancy. According to the published data, an analogous level system (with activation energies of 0.05, 0.07, 0.09 and 0.67 eV) was observed in the ion Aluminum doped 4H-SiC samples.

Keywords: Aluminum, Activation Energy, SiC, low temperature diffusion

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6 Thin-Layer Drying Characteristics and Modelling of Instant Coffee Solution

Authors: Apolinar Picado, Ronald Solís, Rafael Gamero


The thin-layer drying characteristics of instant coffee solution were investigated in a laboratory tunnel dryer. Drying experiments were carried out at three temperatures (80, 100 and 120 °C) and an air velocity of 1.2 m/s. Drying experimental data obtained are fitted to six (6) thin-layer drying models using the non-linear least squares regression analysis. The acceptability of the thin-layer drying model has been based on a value of the correlation coefficient that should be close to one, and low values for root mean square error (RMSE) and chi-square (x²). According to this evaluation, the most suitable model for describing drying process of thin-layer instant coffee solution is the Page model. Further, the effective moisture diffusivity and the activation energy were computed employing the drying experimental data. The effective moisture diffusivity values varied from 1.6133 × 10⁻⁹ to 1.6224 × 10⁻⁹ m²/s over the temperature range studied and the activation energy was estimated to be 162.62 J/mol.

Keywords: Activation Energy, diffusivity, instant coffee, thin-layer models

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5 Kinetic Studies on CO₂ Gasification of Low and High Ash Indian Coals in Context of Underground Coal Gasification

Authors: Geeta Kumari, Prabu Vairakannu


Underground coal gasification (UCG) technology is an efficient and an economic in-situ clean coal technology, which converts unmineable coals into calorific valuable gases. This technology avoids ash disposal, coal mining, and storage problems. CO₂ gas can be a potential gasifying medium for UCG. CO₂ is a greenhouse gas and, the liberation of this gas to the atmosphere from thermal power plant industries leads to global warming. Hence, the capture and reutilization of CO₂ gas are crucial for clean energy production. However, the reactivity of high ash Indian coals with CO₂ needs to be assessed. In the present study, two varieties of Indian coals (low ash and high ash) are used for thermogravimetric analyses (TGA). Two low ash north east Indian coals (LAC) and a typical high ash Indian coal (HAC) are procured from the coal mines of India. Low ash coal with 9% ash (LAC-1) and 4% ash (LAC-2) and high ash coal (HAC) with 42% ash are used for the study. TGA studies are carried out to evaluate the activation energy for pyrolysis and gasification of coal under N₂ and CO₂ atmosphere. Coats and Redfern method is used to estimate the activation energy of coal under different temperature regimes. Volumetric model is assumed for the estimation of the activation energy. The activation energy estimated under different temperature range. The inherent properties of coals play a major role in their reactivity. The results show that the activation energy decreases with the decrease in the inherent percentage of coal ash due to the ash layer hindrance. A reverse trend was observed with volatile matter. High volatile matter of coal leads to the estimation of low activation energy. It was observed that the activation energy under CO₂ atmosphere at 400-600°C is less as compared to N₂ inert atmosphere. At this temperature range, it is estimated that 15-23% reduction in the activation energy under CO₂ atmosphere. This shows the reactivity of CO₂ gas with higher hydrocarbons of the coal volatile matters. The reactivity of CO₂ with the volatile matter of coal might occur through dry reforming reaction in which CO₂ reacts with higher hydrocarbon, aromatics of the tar content. The observed trend of Ea in the temperature range of 150-200˚C and 400-600˚C is HAC > LAC-1 >LAC-2 in both N₂ and CO₂ atmosphere. At the temperature range of 850-1000˚C, higher activation energy is estimated when compared to those values in the temperature range of 400-600°C. Above 800°C, char gasification through Boudouard reaction progressed under CO₂ atmosphere. It was observed that 8-20 kJ/mol of activation energy is increased during char gasification above 800°C compared to volatile matter pyrolysis between the temperature ranges of 400-600°C. The overall activation energy of the coals in the temperature range of 30-1000˚C is higher in N₂ atmosphere than CO₂ atmosphere. It can be concluded that higher hydrocarbons such as tar effectively undergoes cracking and reforming reactions in presence of CO₂. Thus, CO₂ gas is beneficial for the production of high calorific value syngas using high ash Indian coals.

Keywords: Activation Energy, Clean Coal Technology, underground coal gasification, CO₂ gasification

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4 Drying Characteristics of Shrimp by Using the Traditional Method of Oven

Authors: I. A. Simsek, S. N. Dogan, A. S. Kipcak, E. Morodor Derun, N. Tugrul


In this study, the drying characteristics of shrimp are studied by using the traditional drying method of oven. Drying temperatures are selected between 60-80°C. Obtained experimental drying results are applied to eleven mathematical models of Alibas, Aghbashlo et al., Henderson and Pabis, Jena and Das, Lewis, Logaritmic, Midilli and Kucuk, Page, Parabolic, Wang and Singh and Weibull. The best model was selected as parabolic based on the highest coefficient of determination (R²) (0.999990 at 80°C) and the lowest χ² (0.000002 at 80°C), and the lowest root mean square error (RMSE) (0.000976 at 80°C) values are compared to other models. The effective moisture diffusivity (Deff) values were calculated using the Fick’s second law’s cylindrical coordinate approximation and are found between 6.61×10⁻⁸ and 6.66×10⁻⁷ m²/s. The activation energy (Ea) was calculated using modified form of Arrhenius equation and is found as 18.315 kW/kg.

Keywords: Modelling, Drying, Shrimp, Activation Energy, oven, effective moisture diffusivity

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3 Thermally Stimulated Depolarization Current (TSDC) and Transient Current Study in Polysulfone (PSF) and Polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF) Blends

Authors: S. Patel, T. Mitra, R. Dubey, J. Keller


In the present investigations, an attempt has been made to study the charge storage mechanism and mechanism for the flow of transient charging and discharging current in an amorphous polymer (Polysulfone) (PSF) and a semi-crystalline polar Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) blends in ratio PSF: PVDF: 80:20;85:15;90:10 and 95:05 at various poling temperatures (i.e. 60, 75, 90 and 1150C) and with field strength (100, 150, 200 and 250kVcm⁻¹). Thermally stimulated depolarizing current TSDC thermograms for (Polysulfone (PSF) and Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) Blends sample have been obtained under different polarizing conditions. Peaks are found at high-temperature side. The variation of structure on blending and poling condition affects the magnitude of TSDC. The activation energy values have been calculated using the initial rise method of Garlick and Gibson. The transient current with the similar polarizing condition has been investigated over a period of 3X10³ sec. The observed characteristics obey Curie-Von Schweidler law in the studied temperature range. The charging current versus polarizing temperature curves at a constant time, i.e., isochronal current characteristics were studied and the activation energies were calculated. The activation energy in transient thermograms calculated by different methods is in good agreement with the values obtained from TSDC studies.

Keywords: Activation Energy, polysulfone (PSF), polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF), thermally stimulated depolarizing current (TSDC)

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2 Influence of Moringa Leaves Extract on the Response of Hb Molecule to Dose Rates’ Changes: II. Relaxation Time and Its Thermodynamic Driven State Functions

Authors: Mohamed M. M. Elnasharty, Azhar M. Elwan


Irradiation deposits energy through ionisation changing the bio-system’s net dipole, allowing the use of dielectric parameters and thermodynamic state functions related to these parameters as biophysical detectors to electrical inhomogeneity within the biosystem. This part is concerned with the effect of Moringa leaves extract, natural supplement, on the response of the biosystem to two different dose rates of irradiation. Having Hb molecule as a representative to the biosystem to be least invasive to the biosystem, dielectric measurements were used to extract the relaxation time of certain process found in the Hb spectrum within the indicated frequency window and the interrelated thermodynamic state functions were calculated from the deduced relaxation time. The results showed that relaxation time was decreased for both dose rates indicating a strong influence of Moringa on the response of biosystem and consequently Hb molecule. This influence was presented in the relaxation time and other parameters as well.

Keywords: Activation Energy, relaxation time, DC conductivity, dielectric relaxation, enthalpy change, Moringa leaves extract

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1 Determination of Natural Logarithm of Diffusion Coefficient and Activation Energy of Thin Layer Drying Process of Ginger Rhizome Slices

Authors: Austin Ikechukwu Gbasouzor, Sam Nna Omenyi, Sabuj Malli


This study is an extension of the previous work done with ARS-680 Environmental Chamber. Drying is a complex operation that demands much energy and time. Drying is essentially important for preservation of ginger rhizome. Drying of ginger was modeled, and then the effective diffusion coefficient and activation energy where determined. For this purpose, the experiments were done at six levels of varied temperature ranging from (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60°C). The average effective diffusion coefficient for their studies samples for temperature range of 40°C to 70°C was 4.48 x10-10m²/s, 4.96 x10-10m²/s, and 5.31 x10-10m²/s for 0.8, 1.5 and 3m/s drying air velocity respectively. These values closely agreed with the values of effective diffusion coefficients obtained in these studies for the variously treated ginger rhizomes and test conducted.

Keywords: Activation Energy, moisture ratio, drying time, drying model, diffusion coefficients, ginger rhizomes, thin layer

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