Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

activated sludge Related Abstracts

11 Total Dissolved Solids and Total Iron in High Rate Activated Sludge System

Authors: M. Y. Saleh, G. M. ELanany, M. H. Elzahar, M. Z. Elshikhipy


Industrial wastewater discharge, which carries high concentrations of dissolved solids and iron, could be treated by high rate activated sludge stage of the multiple-stage sludge treatment plant, a system which is characterized by high treatment efficiency, optimal prices, and small areas compared with conventional activated sludge treatment plants. A pilot plant with an influent industrial discharge flow of 135 L/h was designed following the activated sludge system to simulate between the biological and chemical treatment with the addition of dosages 100, 150, 200 and 250 mg/L alum salt to the aeration tank. The concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) and iron (Fe) in industrial discharge flow had an average range of 140000 TDS and 4.5 mg/L iron. The optimization of the chemical-biological process using a dosage of 200 mg/L alum succeeded to improve the removal efficiency of TDS and total iron to 48.15% and 68.11% respectively.

Keywords: wastewater, TDS, activated sludge, total iron

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10 Removal of Lead in High Rate Activated Sludge System

Authors: Mamdouh Y. Saleh, Gaber EL Enany, Medhat H. Elzahar, Mohamed Z. Elshikhipy, Rana Hamouda


The heavy metals pollution in water, sediments and fish of Lake Manzala affected from the disposal of wastewater, industrial and agricultural drainage water into the lake on the environmental situation. A pilot plant with an industrial discharge flow of 135L/h was designed according to the activated sludge plant to simulate between the biological and chemical treatment with the addition of alum to the aeration tank with dosages of 100, 150, 200, and 250 mg/L. The industrial discharge had concentrations of Lead and BOD5 with an average range 1.22, 145mg/L, respectively. That means the average Pb was high up to 25 times than the allowed permissible concentration. The optimization of the chemical-biological process using 200mg/L alum dosage compared has improvement of Lead and BOD5 removal efficiency to 61.76% and 56%, respectively.

Keywords: Industrial Wastewater, lead, activated sludge, BOD5, alum salt

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9 An Improvement of a Dynamic Model of the Secondary Sedimentation Tank and Field Validation

Authors: Zahir Bakiri, Saci Nacefa


In this paper a comparison in made between two models, with and without dispersion term, and focused on the characterization of the movement of the sludge blanket in the secondary sedimentation tank using the solid flux theory and the velocity settling. This allowed us develop a one-dimensional models, with and without dispersion based on a thorough experimental study carried out in situ and the application of online data which are the mass load flow, transfer concentration, and influent characteristic. On the other hand, in the proposed model, the new settling velocity law (double-exponential function) used is based on the Vesilind function.

Keywords: wastewater, Sedimentation, activated sludge, settling velocity, settling models

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8 Biochemical Identification and Study of Antibiotic Resistance in Isolated Bacteria from WWTP TIMGAD

Authors: Abdessemed Zineb, Atia Yahia, Yeza Salima


Water is self-purified by activated sludge process which makes its uniqueness. The main goal is the microbial biocenosis study of the input and output water of the waste water treatment system plant Timgad. 89.47% of the identified biocenosis belongs to ɤ-Proteobacteria while the remaining 10.52 % is equally divided between α-Proteobacteria and β-Proteobacteria. The antibiotics susceptibility profiles reveal that over 30 % are wild strains while the penicillinases are often present (11.30-20 %) with also other profiles. This proportion is worrying that the water discharged join the Oued Soltez used for irrigation. This disadvantage involves the installation of a chlorination step.

Keywords: activated sludge, biocenosis, antibiotics profiles, penicillinases, physic-chemical quality

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7 Epiphytic Growth on Filamentous Bacteria Found in Activated Sludge: A Morphological Approach

Authors: Sheena Kumari, Faizal Bux, Thobela Conco, Thor Stenstrom, Simona Rosetti, Valter Tandoi


Filamentous bacteria are well documented as causative agents of bulking and foaming in the biological wastewater treatment process. These filamentous bacteria are however closely associated with other non-filamentous organism forming a micro-niche. Among these specific epiphytic bacteria attach to filaments in the consortium of organisms that make up the floc. Neither the eco-physiological role of the epiphytes nor the nature of the interaction between the epiphytic bacteria and the filament hosts they colonize is well understood and in need of in-depth investigations. The focus of this presentation is on the interaction between the epiphytic bacteria and the filament host. Samples from the activated sludge treatment have been repeatedly collected from several wastewater treatment plants in KwaZulu Natal. Extensive investigations have been performed with SEM and TEM electron microscopy, Polarized Light Microscopy with Congo red staining, and Thioflavin T staining to document the interaction. SEM was used to document the morphology of both the filament host and their epiphytes counterparts with the focus on the interface/point of contact between the two, while the main focus of the TEM investigations with the higher magnification aimed to document the ultra-structure features of two organisms relating to the interaction. The interaction of the perpendicular attachment partly seems to be governed by the physiological status of the filaments. The attachment further seems to trigger a response in the filaments with distinct internal visible structures at the attachment sites. It is postulated that these structures most likely are amyloid fibrils. Amyloid fibrils may play an overarching role in different types of attachments and has earlier been noted to play a significant role in biofilm formation in activated sludge. They also play a medical role in degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Diabetes. Further studies aims to define the eco-physiological role of amyloid fibrils in filamentous bacteria, based on their observed presence at interaction sites in this study. This will also relate to additional findings where selectivity within the species of epiphytes attaching to the selected filaments has been noted. The practical implications of the research findings is still to be determined, but the ecophysiological interaction between two closely associated species or groups may have significant impact in the future understanding of wastewater treatment processes and broaden existing knowledge on population dynamics.

Keywords: activated sludge, amyloid proteins, epiphytic bacteria, filamentous bacteria

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6 Lipid from Activated Sludge as a Feedstock for the Production of Biodiesel

Authors: Ifeanyichukwu Edeh, Tim Overton, Steve Bowra


There is increasing interest in utilising low grade or waste biomass for the production of renewable bioenergy vectors i.e. waste to energy. In this study we have chosen to assess, activated sludge, which is a microbial biomass generated during the second stage of waste water treatment as a source of lipid for biodiesel production. To date a significant proportion of biodiesel is produced from used cooking oil and animal fats. It was reasoned that if activated sludge proved a viable feedstock it has the potential to support increase biodiesel production capacity. Activated sludge was obtained at different times of the year and from two different sewage treatment works in the UK. The biomass within the activated sludge slurry was recovered by filtration and the total weight of material calculated by combining the dry weight of the total suspended solid (TSS) and the total dissolved solid (TDS) fractions. Total lipids were extracted from the TSS and TDS using solvent extraction (Folch methods). The classes of lipids within the total lipid extract were characterised using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) by referencing known standards. The fatty acid profile and content of the lipid extract were determined using acid mediated-methanolysis to obtain fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) which were analysed by gas chromatography and HPTLC. The results showed that there were differences in the total biomass content in the activated sludge collected from different sewage works. Lipid yields from TSS obtained from both sewage treatment works differed according to the time of year (between 3.0 and 7.4 wt. %). The lipid yield varied slightly within the same source of biomass but more widely between the two sewage treatment works. The neutral lipid classes identified were acylglycerols, free fatty acids, sterols and wax esters while the phospholipid class included phosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidycholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol. The fatty acid profile revealed the presence of palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid and stearic acid and that unsaturated fatty acids were the most abundant. Following optimisation, the FAME yield was greater than 10 wt. % which was required to have an economic advantage in biodiesel production.

Keywords: Biodiesel, lipid, activated sludge, methanolysis

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5 Implementation of IWA-ASM1 Model for Simulating the Wastewater Treatment Plant of Beja by GPS-X 5.1

Authors: Fezzani Boubaker


The modified activated sludge model (ASM1 or Mantis) is a generic structured model and a common platform for dynamic simulation of varieties of aerobic processes for optimization and upgrading of existing plants and for new facilities design. In this study, the modified ASM1 included in the GPS-X software was used to simulate the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) of Beja treating domestic sewage mixed with baker‘s yeast factory effluent. The results of daily measurements and operating records were used to calibrate the model. A sensitivity and an automatic optimization analysis were conducted to determine the most sensitive and optimal parameters. The results indicated that the ASM1 model could simulate with good accuracy: the COD concentration of effluents from the WWTP of Beja for all months of the year 2012. In addition, it prevents the disruption observed at the output of the plant by injecting the baker‘s yeast factory effluent at high concentrations varied between 20 and 80 g/l.

Keywords: Simulation, Modelling, activated sludge, baker’s yeast effluent, ASM1, GPS-X 5.1 software

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4 Catalytic Hydrothermal Decarboxylation of Lipid from Activated Sludge for Renewable Diesel Production

Authors: Ifeanyichukwu Edeh, Tim Overton, Steve Bowra


Currently biodiesel is produced from plant oils or animal’s fats by a liquid-phase catalysed transesterification process at low temperature. Although biodiesel is renewable and to a large extent sustainable, inherent properties such as poor cold flow, low oxidation stability, low cetane value restrict application to blends with fossil fuels. An alternative to biodiesel is renewable diesel produced by catalytic hydrotreating of oils and fats and is considered a drop in fuel because its properties are similar to petroleum diesel. In addition to developing alternative productions routes there is continued interest in reducing the cost of the feed stock, waste cooking oils and fats are increasingly used as the feedstocks due to low cost. However, use of oils and fat are highly adulterated resulting in high free fatty acid content which turn impacts on the efficiency of FAME production. Therefore, in light of the need to develop, alternative lipid feed stocks and related efficient catalysis the present study investigates the potential of producing renewable diesel from the lipids-extracted from activated sludge, a waste water treatment by-product, through catalytic hydrothermal decarboxylation. The microbial lipids were first extracted from the activated sludge using the Folch et al method before hydrothermal decarboxylation reactions were carried out using palladium (Pd/C) and platinum (Pt/C) on activated carbon as the catalysts in a batch reactor. The impact of three temperatures 290, 300, 330 °C and residence time between 30 min and 4hrs was assessed. At the end of the reaction, the products were recovered using organic solvents and characterized using gas chromatography (GC). The principle products of the reaction were pentadecane and heptadecane. The highest yields of pentadecane and heptadecane from lipid-extract were 23.23% and 15.21%, respectively. These yields were obtained at 290 °C and residence time 1h using Pt/C. To the best of our knowledge, the current work is the first investigation on the hydrothermal decarboxylation of lipid-extract from activated sludge.

Keywords: lipid, activated sludge, hydrothermal decarboxylation, renewable diesel

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3 Impacts of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles on Functional Bacterial Community in Activated Sludge

Authors: I. Kamika, S. Azizi, M. Tekere


Nanotechnology promises significant improvements of advanced materials and manufacturing techniques with a vast range of applications, which are critical for the future competitiveness of national industries. The manipulations and productions of materials, whilst, controlling the optical properties and surface area to a nanosize scale enabled a birth of a new field known as nanotechnology. However, their rapidly developing industry raises concerns about the environmental impacts of nanoparticles, as their effects on functional bacterial community in wastewater treatment remain unclear. The present research assessed the impact of cerium Oxide nanoparticles (nCeO) on the bacterial microbiome of an activated sludge system, which influenced its performance of this system on nutrient removal. Out of 15875 reads sequenced, a total of 13133 reads were non-chimeric. The wastewater samples were more dominant to the unclassified bacteria (51.07% of bacteria community) followed with the classified bacteria (48.93). Proteobacteria was the most dominant phylum in both classified and unclassified bacteria, whereas 18% of bacteria could even not be assigned a phylum and remained unclassified suggesting hitherto vast untapped microbial diversity. The bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) ranged from 1014 to 2629 over the experimental period. The denitrification related species including Diaphorobacter species, Thauera species and those in the Sphaerotilus and Leptothrix group were found to be inhibited in a high concentration of CeO-NP. The diversity indices suggested that the bacterial community inhabiting the wastewater samples were less diverse as the concentration of CeO increases. The canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) results highlighted that the bacterial community variance had the strongest relationship with water temperature, conductivity, pH, and dissolved oxygen (DO) content as well as nCeO. The results provided the relationships between the microbial community and environmental variables in the wastewater samples.

Keywords: Nanotechnology, Nanoparticles, wastewater, activated sludge, cerium oxide, bacterial community, next generation

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2 A Combined Activated Sludge-Filtration-Ozonation Process for Abattoir Wastewater Treatment

Authors: Pello Alfonso-Muniozguren, Madeleine Bussemaker, Ralph Chadeesingh, Caryn Jones, David Oakley, Judy Lee, Devendra Saroj


Current industrialized livestock agriculture is growing every year leading to an increase in the generation of wastewater that varies considerably in terms of organic content and microbial population. Therefore, suitable wastewater treatment methods are required to ensure the wastewater quality meet regulations before discharge. In the present study, a combined lab scale activated sludge-filtration-ozonation system was used to treat a pre-treated abattoir wastewater. A hydraulic retention time of 24 hours and a solid retention time of 13 days were used for the activated sludge process, followed by a filtration step (4-7 µm) and using ozone as tertiary treatment. An average reduction of 93% and 98% was achieved for Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), respectively, obtaining final values of 128 mg/L COD and 12 mg/L BOD. For the Total Suspended Solids (TSS), the average reduction increased to 99% in the same system, reducing the final value down to 3 mg/L. Additionally, 98% reduction in Phosphorus (P) and a complete inactivation of Total Coliforms (TC) was obtained after 17 min ozonation time. For Total Viable Counts (TVC), a drastic reduction was observed with 30 min ozonation time (6 log inactivation) at an ozone dose of 71 mg O3/L. Overall, the combined process was sufficient to meet discharge requirements without further treatment for the measured parameters (COD, BOD, TSS, P, TC, and TVC).

Keywords: Waste Water Treatment, ozone, activated sludge, abattoir waste water

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1 Microalgae Bacteria Granules, an Alternative Technology to the Conventional Wastewater Treatment: Structural and Metabolic Characterization

Authors: M. Nita-Lazar, E. Manea, C. Bumbac, A. Banciu, C. Stoica


The population and economic growth have generated a significant new number of pollutant compounds which have to be degraded before reaching the environment. The wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have been the last barrier between the domestic and/or industrial wastewaters and the environment. At present, the conventional WWTPs have very high operational costs, most of them linked to the aeration process (60-65% from total energy costs related to wastewater treatment). In addition, they have had a low efficiency in pollutants removal such as pharmaceutical and other resilient anthropogenic compounds. In our study, we have been focused on new wastewater treatment strategies to enhance the efficiency of pollutants removal and decrease the wastewater treatment operational costs. The usage of mixed microalgae-bacteria granules technology generated high efficiency and low costs by a better harvesting and less expensive aeration. The intertrophic relationships between microalgae and bacteria have been characterized by the structure of the population community to their metabolic relationships. The results, obtained by microscopic studies, showed well-organized and stratified microalgae-bacteria granules where bacteria have been enveloped in the microalgal structures. Moreover, their population community structure has been modulated as well as their nitrification, denitrification processes (analysis based on qPCR genes expression) by the type of the pollutant compounds and amounts. In conclusion, the understanding and modulation of intertrophic relationships between microalgae and bacteria could be an economical and technological viable alternative to the conventional wastewater treatment. Acknowledgements: This research was supported by grant PN-III-P4-ID-PCE-2016-0865 from the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research and Innovation CNCS/CCCDI-UEFISCDI.

Keywords: Bacteria, Microalgae, activated sludge, granules

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