Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 56

activated carbon Related Abstracts

56 Adsorption of Chromium Ions from Aqueous Solution by Carbon Adsorbent

Authors: H. Kiani, S. Heydari, H. Sharififard, M. Nabavinia, M. Parvizi


Rapid industrialization has led to increased disposal of heavy metals into the environment. Activated carbon adsorption has proven to be an effective process for the removal of trace metal contaminants from aqueous media. This paper was investigated chromium adsorption efficiency by commercial activated carbon. The sorption studied as a function of activated carbon particle size, dose of activated carbon and initial pH of solution. Adsorption tests for the effects of these factors were designed with Taguchi approach. According to the Taguchi parameter design methodology, L9 orthogonal array was used. Analysis of experimental results showed that the most influential factor was initial pH of solution. The optimum conditions for chromium adsorption by activated carbons were found to be as follows: Initial feed pH 6, adsorbent particle size 0.412 mm and activated carbon dose 6 g/l. Under these conditions, nearly %100 of chromium ions was adsorbed by activated carbon after 2 hours.

Keywords: Adsorption, Chromium, Taguchi method, activated carbon

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55 Efficiency of Modified Granular Activated Carbon Coupled with Membrane Bioreactor for Trace Organic Contaminants Removal

Authors: Mousaab Alrhmoun, Magali Casellas, Michel Baudu, Christophe Dagot


The aim of the study is to improve removal of trace organic contaminants dissolved in activated sludge by the process of filtration with membrane bioreactor combined with modified activated carbon, for a maximum removal of organic compounds characterized by low molecular weight. Special treatment was conducted in laboratory on activated carbon. Tow reaction parameters: The pH of aqueous middle and the type of granular activated carbon were very important to improve the removal and to motivate the electrostatic Interactions of organic compounds with modified activated carbon in addition to physical adsorption, ligand exchange or complexation on the surface activated carbon. The results indicate that modified activated carbon has a strong impact in removal 21 of organic contaminants and in percentage of 100% of the process.

Keywords: Carbon, activated carbon, organic micropolluants, membrane bioreactor

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54 Effect of Ramp Rate on the Preparation of Activated Carbon from Saudi Date Tree Fronds (Agro Waste) by Physical Activation Method

Authors: Muhammad Shoaib, Hassan M Al-Swaidan


Saudi Arabia is the major date producer in the world. In order to maximize the production from date tree, pruning of the date trees is required annually. Large amount of this agriculture waste material (palm tree fronds) is available in Saudi Arabia and considered as an ideal source as a precursor for production of activated carbon (AC). The single step procedure for the preparation of micro porous activated carbon (AC) from Saudi date tree fronds using mixture of gases (N2 and CO2) is carried out at carbonization/activation temperature at 850°C and at different ramp rates of 10, 20 and 30 degree per minute. Alloy 330 horizontal reactor is used for tube furnace. Flow rate of nitrogen and carbon dioxide gases are kept at 150 ml/min and 50 ml/min respectively during the preparation. Characterization results reveal that the BET surface area, pore volume, and average pore diameter of the resulting activated carbon generally decreases with the increase in ramp rate. The activated carbon prepared at a ramp rate of 10 degrees/minute attains larger surface area and can offer higher potential to produce activated carbon of greater adsorption capacity from agriculture wastes such as date fronds. The BET surface areas of the activated carbons prepared at a ramp rate of 10, 20 and 30 degree/minute after 30 minutes activation time are 1094, 1020 and 515 m2/g, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for surface morphology, and FTIR for functional groups was carried out that also verified the same trend. Moreover, by increasing the ramp rate from 10 and 20 degrees/min the yield remains same, i.e. 18%, whereas at a ramp rate of 30 degrees/min the yield increases from 18 to 20%. Thus, it is feasible to produce high-quality micro porous activated carbon from date frond agro waste using N2 carbonization followed by physical activation with CO2 and N2 mixture. This micro porous activated carbon can be used as adsorbent of heavy metals from wastewater, NOx SOx emission adsorption from ambient air and electricity generation plants, purification of gases, sewage treatment and many other applications.

Keywords: Applied Chemistry, Agricultural waste, activated carbon, date tree fronds

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53 Immobilization of Lipase Enzyme by Low Cost Material: A Statistical Approach

Authors: Md. Z. Alam, Devi R. Asih, Md. N. Salleh


Immobilization of lipase enzyme produced from palm oil mill effluent (POME) by the activated carbon (AC) among the low cost support materials was optimized. The results indicated that immobilization of 94% was achieved by AC as the most suitable support material. A sequential optimization strategy based on a statistical experimental design, including one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) method was used to determine the equilibrium time. Three components influencing lipase immobilization were optimized by the response surface methodology (RSM) based on the face-centered central composite design (FCCCD). On the statistical analysis of the results, the optimum enzyme concentration loading, agitation rate and carbon active dosage were found to be 30 U/ml, 300 rpm and 8 g/L respectively, with a maximum immobilization activity of 3732.9 U/g-AC after 2 hrs of immobilization. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a high regression coefficient (R2) of 0.999, which indicated a satisfactory fit of the model with the experimental data. The parameters were statistically significant at p<0.05.

Keywords: Adsorption, activated carbon, immobilization, POME based lipase

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52 Fabrication of Activated Carbon from Palm Trunksfor Removal of Harmful Dyes

Authors: Eman Alzahrani


Date palm trees are abundant and cheap natural resources in Saudi Arabia. In this study, an activated carbon was prepared from palm trunks by chemical processes. The chemical activation was performed by impregnation of the raw materials after grinding with H3PO4 solution (63%), followed by placing of the sample solution on a muffle furnace at 400ºC for 30 min, and then at 800ºC for 10 min. The morphology of the fabricated material was checked using scanning electron microscopy that showed the rough surfaces on the carbon samples. The use of fabricated activated carbon for removal of eosin dye from aqueous solutions at different contact time, initial dye concentration, pH and adsorbent doses was investigated. The experimental results show that the adsorption process attains equilibrium within 20 min. The adsorption isotherm equilibrium was studied by means of the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms, and it was found that the data fit the Langmuir isotherm equation with maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 126.58 mg g-1. The results indicated that the home made activated carbon prepared from palm trunks has the ability to remove eosin dye from aqueous solution and it will be a promising adsorbent for the removal of harmful dyes from waste water.

Keywords: Adsorption, activated carbon, isotherm, date palm trunks, H3PO4 activation, dye removal, eosin dye

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51 Removal of Heavy Metal Using Continous Mode

Authors: M. Abd elfattah, M. Ossman, Nahla A. Taha


The present work explored the use of Egyptian rice straw, an agricultural waste that leads to global warming problem through brown cloud, as a potential feedstock for the preparation of activated carbon by physical and chemical activation. The results of this study showed that it is feasible to prepare activated carbons with relatively high surface areas and pore volumes from the Egyptian rice straw by direct chemical and physical activation. The produced activated carbon from the two methods (AC1 and AC2) could be used as potential adsorbent for the removal of Fe(III) from aqueous solution contains heavy metals and polluted water. The adsorption of Fe(III) was depended on the pH of the solution. The optimal Fe(III) removal efficiency occurs at pH 5. Based on the results, the optimum contact time is 60 minutes and adsorbent dosage is 3 g/L. The adsorption breakthrough curves obtained at different bed depths indicated increase of breakthrough time with increase in bed depths. A rise in inlet Fe(III) concentration reduces the throughput volume before the packed bed gets saturated. AC1 showed higher affinity for Fe(III) as compared to Raw rice husk.

Keywords: pyrolysis, rice straw, activated carbon, Fe(III), fixed bed column

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50 Adsorption Isotherm, Kinetic and Mechanism Studies of Some Substituted Phenols from Aqueous Solution by Jujuba Seeds Activated Carbon

Authors: O. Benturki, A. Benturki


Activated carbon was prepared from Jujube seeds by chemical activation with potassium hydroxide (KOH), followed by pyrolysis at 800°C. Batch studies were conducted for kinetic, thermodynamic and equilibrium studies on the adsorption of phenol (P) and 2-4 dichlorophenol (2-4 DCP) from aqueous solution, than the adsorption capacities followed the order of 2-4 dichlorophenol > phenol. The operating variables studied were initial phenols concentration, contact time, temperature and solution pH. Results show that the pH value of 7 is favorable for the adsorption of phenols. The sorption data have been analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The isotherm data followed Langmuir Model. The adsorption processes conformed to the pseudo-second-order rate kinetics. Thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy, entropy and Gibb’s free energy changes were also calculated and it was found that the sorption of phenols by Jujuba seeds activated carbon was a spontaneous process The maximum adsorption efficiency of phenol and 2-4 dichlorophenol was 142.85 mg.g−1 and 250 mg.g−1, respectively.

Keywords: Adsorption, Phenols, activated carbon, isotherms, Jujuba seeds, langmuir

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49 Ligand-Depended Adsorption Characteristics of Silver Nanoparticles on Activated Carbon

Authors: Hamza Şimşir, Nurettin Eltugral, Selhan Karagoz


Surface modification and functionalization has been an important tool for scientists in order to open new frontiers in nano science and nanotechnology. Desired surface characteristics for the intended applications can be achieved with surface functionalization. In this work, the effect of water soluble ligands on the adsorption capabilities of silver nanoparticles onto AC which was synthesized from German beech wood, was investigated. Sodium borohydride (NaBH4) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were used as the ligands. Silver nanoparticles with different surface coatings have average sizes range from 10 to 13 nm. They were synthesized in aqueous media by reducing Ag (I) ion in the presence of ligands. These particles displayed adsorption tendencies towards AC when they were mixed together and shaken in distilled water. Silver nanoparticles (NaBH4-AgNPs) reduced and stabilized by NaBH4 adsorbed onto AC with a homogenous dispersion of aggregates with sizes in the range of 100-400 nm. Beside, silver nanoparticles, which were prepared in the presence of both NaBH4 and PVA (NaBH4/PVA-Ag NPs), demonstrated that NaBH4/PVA-Ag NPs adsorbed and dispersed homogenously but, they aggregated with larger sizes on the AC surface (range from 300 to 600 nm). In addition, desorption resistance of Ag nanoparticles were investigated in distilled water. According to the results AgNPs were not desorbed on the AC surface in distilled water.

Keywords: Adsorption, Silver Nanoparticles, activated carbon, ligand

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48 Carbon Supported Cu and TiO2 Catalysts Applied for Ozone Decomposition

Authors: Katya Milenova, Penko Nikolov, Irina Stambolova, Plamen Nikolov, Vladimir Blaskov


In the recent article, a comparison was made between Cu and TiO2 supported catalysts on activated carbon for ozone decomposition reaction. The activated carbon support in the case of TiO2/AC sample was prepared by physicochemical pyrolysis and for Cu/AC samples the supports are chemically modified carbons. The prepared catalysts were synthesized by impregnation method. The samples were annealed in two different regimes-in air and under vacuum. To examine adsorption efficiency of the samples BET method was used. All investigated catalysts supported on chemically modified carbons have higher specific surface area compared to the specific surface area of TiO2 supported catalysts, varying in the range 590÷620 m2/g. The method of synthesis of the precursors had influenced catalytic activity.

Keywords: Adsorption, Copper, TiO2, activated carbon, ozone decomposition

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47 The Proton Flow Battery for Storing Renewable Energy: A Theoretical Model of Electrochemical Hydrogen Storage in an Activated Carbon Electrode

Authors: A. J. Andrews, Sh. Heidari, A. Oberoi


Electrochemical storage of hydrogen in activated carbon electrodes as part of a reversible fuel cell offers a potentially attractive option for storing surplus electrical energy from inherently variable solar and wind energy resources. Such a system – which we have called a proton flow battery – promises to have a roundtrip energy efficiency comparable to lithium ion batteries, while having higher gravimetric and volumetric energy densities. In this paper, a theoretical model is presented of the process of H+ ion (proton) conduction through an acid electrolyte into a highly porous activated carbon electrode where it is neutralised and absorbed on the inner surfaces of pores. A Butler-Volmer type equation relates the rate of adsorption to the potential difference between the activated carbon surface and the electrolyte. This model for the hydrogen storage electrode is then incorporated into a more general computer model based on MATLAB software of the entire electrochemical cell including the oxygen electrode. Hence a theoretical voltage-current curve is generated for given input parameters for a particular activated carbon electrode. It is shown that theoretical VI curves produced by the model can be fitted accurately to experimental data from an actual electrochemical cell with the same characteristics. By obtaining the best-fit values of input parameters, such as the exchange current density and charge transfer coefficient for the hydrogen adsorption reaction, an improved understanding of the adsorption reaction is obtained. This new model will assist in designing improved proton flow batteries for storing solar and wind energy.

Keywords: activated carbon, electrochemical hydrogen storage, proton flow battery, butler-volmer equation

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46 Synthesis and Applications of Biosorbent from Barley Husk for Adsorption of Heavy Metals and Bacteria from Water

Authors: Sunil S. Bhagwat, Sudarshan Kalsulkar


Biosorption is a physiochemical process that occurs naturally in certain biomass which allows it to passively concentrate and bind contaminants onto its cellular structure. Activated carbons (AC) are one such efficient biosorbents made by utilizing lignocellulosic materials from agricultural waste. Steam activated carbon (AC) was synthesized from Barley husk. Its synthesis parameters of time and temperature were optimized. Its physico-chemical properties like density, surface area, pore volume, Methylene blue and Iodine values were characterized. BET surface area was found to be 42 m²/g. Batch Adsorption tests were carried out to determine the maximum adsorption capacity (qmax) for various metal ions. Cd+2 48.74 mg/g, Pb+2 19.28 mg/g, Hg+2 39.1mg/g were the respective qmax values. pH and time were optimized for adsorption of each ion. Column Adsorptions were carried for each to obtain breakthrough data. Microbial adsorption was carried using E. coli K12 strain. 78% reduction in cell count was observed at operating conditions. Thus the synthesized Barley husk AC can be an economically feasible replacement for commercially available AC prepared from the costlier coconut shells. Breweries and malting industries where barley husk is a primary waste generated on a large scale can be a good source for bulk raw material.

Keywords: Water Treatment, decontamination, activated carbon, biosorption, Barley husk, heavy metal removal

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45 The Proton Flow Battery for Storing Renewable Energy: Hydrogen Storage Capacity of Selected Activated Carbon Electrodes Made from Brown Coal

Authors: Amandeep Singh Oberoi, John Andrews, Alan L. Chaffee, Lachlan Ciddor


Electrochemical storage of hydrogen in activated carbon electrodes as part of a reversible fuel cell offers a potentially attractive option for storing surplus electrical energy from inherently variable solar and wind energy resources. Such a system – which we have called a proton flow battery – promises to have roundtrip energy efficiency comparable to lithium ion batteries, while having higher gravimetric and volumetric energy densities. Activated carbons with high internal surface area, high pore volume, light weight and easy availability have attracted considerable research interest as a solid-state hydrogen storage medium. This paper compares the physical characteristics and hydrogen storage capacities of four activated carbon electrodes made by different methods from brown coal. The fabrication methods for these samples are explained. Their proton conductivity was measured using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and their hydrogen storage capacity by galvanostatic charging and discharging in a three-electrode electrolytic cell with 1 mol sulphuric acid as electrolyte. The highest hydrogen storage capacity obtained was 1.29 wt%, which compares favourably with metal hydrides used in commercially available solid-state hydrogen storages. The hydrogen storage capacity of the samples increased monotonically with increasing BET surface area (calculated from CO2 adsorption method). The results point the way towards selecting high-performing electrodes for proton flow batteries that the competitiveness of this energy storage technology.

Keywords: activated carbon, proton conductivity, electrochemical hydrogen storage, proton flow battery

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44 Activated Carbons Prepared from Date Pits for Hydrogen Storage

Authors: M. Belhachemi, M. Monteiro de Castro, M. Casco, A. Sepúlveda-Escribano, F. Rodríguez-Reinoso


In this study, activated carbons were prepared from Algerian date pits using thermal activation with CO2 or steam. The prepared activated carbons were doped by vanadium oxide in order to increase the H2 adsorption capacity. The adsorbents were characterized by N2 and CO2 adsorption at 77 K and 273K, respectively. The hydrogen adsorption experiments were carried at 298K in the 0–100 bar pressure range using a volumetric equipment. The results show that the H2 adsorption capacity is influenced by the size and volume of micropores in the activated carbon adsorbent. Furthermore, vanadium doping of activated carbons has a slight positive effect on H2 storage.

Keywords: Hydrogen Storage, Adsorption, activated carbon, vanadium doping

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43 Removal of Perchloroethylene, a Common Pollutant, in Groundwater Using Activated Carbon

Authors: Marianne Miguet, Gaël Plantard, Yves Jaeger, Vincent Goetz


The contamination of groundwater is a major concern. A common pollutant, the perchloroethylene, is the target contaminant. Water treatment process as Granular Activated Carbons are very efficient but requires pilot-scale testing to determine the full-scale GAC performance. First, the batch mode was used to get a reliable experimental method to estimate the adsorption capacity of a common volatile compound is settled. The Langmuir model is acceptable to fit the isotherms. Dynamic tests were performed with three columns and different operating conditions. A database of concentration profiles and breakthroughs were obtained. The resolution of the set of differential equations is acceptable to fit the dynamics tests and could be used for a full-scale adsorber.

Keywords: Groundwater, activated carbon, perchloroethylene, full-scale

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42 Adsorption of Paracetamol Using Activated Carbon of Dende and Babassu Coconut Mesocarp

Authors: R. C. Ferreira, H. H. C. De Lima, A. A. Cândido, O. M. Couto Junior, P. A. Arroyo, K. Q De Carvalho, G. F. Gauze, M. A. S. D. Barros


Removal of the widespread used drug paracetamol from water was investigated using activated carbon originated from dende coconut mesocarp and babassu coconut mesocarp. Kinetic and equilibrium data were obtained at different values of pH. Babassu activated carbon showed higher efficiency due to its acidity and higher microporosity. Pseudo-second order model was better adjusted to the kinetic results. Equilibrium data may be represented by Langmuir equation. Lower solution pH provided better removal efficiency as the carbonil groups may be attracted by the positively charged carbon surface.

Keywords: Adsorption, activated carbon, babassu, dende

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41 Influence of Water Hardness on Column Adsorption of Paracetamol by Biomass of Babassu Coconut Shell

Authors: O. M. Couto Junior, P. A. Arroyo, M. A. S. D. Barros, I. Matos, I. M. Fonseca, E. A. Silva


This study was the adsorption of paracetamol from aqueous solutions on fixed beds of activated carbon from babassy coconut shell. Several operation conditions on the shape of breakthrough curves were investigated and proposed model is successfully validated with the literature data and obtained experimental data. The initial paracetamol concentration increases from 20 to 50 mg.L-1, and the break point time decreases, tb, from 18.00 to 10.50 hours. The fraction of unused bed length, HUNB, at break-through point is obtained in the range of 1.62 to 2.81 for 20 to 50 mg.L-1 of initial paracetamol concentration. The presence of Ca+2 and Mg+2 are responsible for increasing the hardness of the water, affects significantly the adsorption kinetics, and lower removal efficiency by adsorption of paracetamol on activated carbons. The axial dispersion coefficients, DL, was constants for concentrated feed solution, but this parameter has different values for deionized and hardness water. The mass transfer coefficient, Ks, was increasing with concentrated feed solution.

Keywords: Adsorption, paracetamol, activated carbon, water hardness

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40 Thermal Regeneration of CO2 Spent Palm Shell-Polyetheretherketone Activated Carbon Sorbents

Authors: Usman D. Hamza, Noor S. Nasri, Mohammed Jibril, Husna M. Zain


Activated carbons (M4P0, M4P2, and M5P2) used in this research were produced from palm shell and polyetherether ketone (PEEK) via carbonization, impregnation, and microwave activation. The adsorption/desorption process was carried out using static volumetric adsorption. Regeneration is important in the overall economy of the process and waste minimization. This work focuses on the thermal regeneration of the CO2 exhausted microwave activated carbons. The regeneration strategy adopted was thermal with nitrogen purge desorption with N2 feed flow rate of 20 ml/min for 1 h at atmospheric pressure followed by drying at 1500C. Seven successive adsorption/regeneration processes were carried out on the material. It was found that after seven adsorption regeneration cycles; the regeneration efficiency (RE) for CO2 activated carbon from palm shell only (M4P0) was more than 90% while that of hybrid palm shell-PEEK (M4P2, M5P2) was above 95%. The cyclic adsorption and regeneration shows the stability of the adsorbent materials.

Keywords: Thermal, Regeneration, activated carbon, palm shell-PEEK

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39 Decoloriation of Rhodamine-B Dye by Pseudomonas putida on Activated Carbon

Authors: U. K. Ghosh, A. Ullhyan


Activated carbon prepared from mustard stalk was applied to decolorize Rhodamine-B dye bearing synthetic wastewater by simple adsorption and simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation (SAB) using Pseudomonas putida MTCC 1194. Results showed that percentage of Rhodamine-B dye removal was 82% for adsorption and 99.3% for SAB at pH 6.5, adsorbent dose 10 g/L and temperature 32ºC.

Keywords: Adsorption, activated carbon, pseudomonas putida, mustard stalk, Rhodamine-B, SAB

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38 Colour and Curcuminoids Removal from Turmeric Wastewater Using Activated Carbon Adsorption

Authors: Nattawat Thongpraphai, Anusorn Boonpoke


This study aimed to determine the removal of colour and curcuminoids from turmeric wastewater using granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption. The adsorption isotherm and kinetic behavior of colour and curcuminoids was invested using batch and fixed bed columns tests. The results indicated that the removal efficiency of colour and curcuminoids were 80.13 and 78.64%, respectively at 8 hr of equilibrium time. The adsorption isotherm of colour and curcuminoids were well fitted with the Freundlich adsorption model. The maximum adsorption capacity of colour and curcuminoids were 130 Pt-Co/g and 17 mg/g, respectively. The continuous experiment data showed that the exhaustion concentration of colour and curcuminoids occurred at 39 hr of operation time. The adsorption characteristic of colour and curcuminoids from turmeric wastewater by GAC can be described by the Thomas model. The maximum adsorption capacity obtained from kinetic approach were 39954 Pt-Co/g and 0.0516 mg/kg for colour and curcuminoids, respectively. Moreover, the decrease of colour and curcuminoids concentration during the service time showed a similar trend.

Keywords: Adsorption, Colour, activated carbon, turmeric, curcuminoids

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37 The Adsorption of Zinc Metal in Waste Water Using ZnCl2 Activated Pomegranate Peel

Authors: A. S. Kipcak, S. Piskin, N. Tugrul, S. N. Turkmen, E. M. Derun


Activated carbon is an amorphous carbon chain which has extremely extended surface area. High surface area of activated carbon is due to the porous structure. Activated carbon, using a variety of materials such as coal and cellulosic materials; can be obtained by both physical and chemical methods. The prepared activated carbon can be used for decolorize, deodorize and also can be used for removal of organic and non-organic pollution. In this study, pomegranate peel was subjected to 800W microwave power for 1 to 4 minutes. Also fresh pomegranate peel was used for the reference material. Then ZnCl2 was used for the chemical activation purpose. After the activation process, activated pomegranate peels were used for the adsorption of Zn metal (40 ppm) in the waste water. As a result of the adsorption experiments, removal of heavy metals ranged from 89% to 85%.

Keywords: Microwave, Adsorption, activated carbon, chemical activation, pomegranate peel

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36 Adsorption of Basic Dyes Using Activated Carbon Prepared from Date Palm Fibre

Authors: Riham Hazzaa, Mohamed Hussien Abd El Megid


Dyes are toxic and cause severe problems to aquatic environment. The use of agricultural solid wastes is considered as low-cost and eco-friendly adsorbents for removing dyes from waste water. Date palm fibre, an abundant agricultural by-product in Egypt was used to prepare activated carbon by physical activation method. This study investigates the use of date palm fiber (DPF) and activated carbon (DPFAC) for the removal of a basic dye, methylene blue (MB) from simulated waste water. The effects of temperature, pH of solution, initial dye (concentration, adsorbent dosage and contact time were studied. The experimental equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Dubinin, Radushkevich and Harkins–Jura isotherms. Adsorption kinetics data were modeled using the pseudo-first and pseudo-second order and Elvoich equations. The mechanism of the adsorption process was determined from the intraparticle diffusion model. The results revealed that as the initial dye concentration , amount of adsorbent and temperature increased, the percentage of dye removal increased. The optimum pH required for maximum removal was found to be 6. The adsorption of methylene blue dye was better described by the pseudo-second-order equation. Results indicated that DPFAC and DPF could be an alternative for more costly adsorbents used for dye removal.

Keywords: Adsorption, activated carbon, basic dye, palm fiber

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35 Comparative Evaluation of Kinetic Model of Chromium and Lead Uptake from Aqueous Solution by Activated Balanitesaegyptiaca Seeds

Authors: Mohammed Umar Manko


A series of batch experiments were conducted in order to investigate the feasibility of Balanitesaegyptiaca seeds based activated carbon as compared with industrial activated carbon for the removal of chromium and lead ions from aqueous solution by the adsorption process within 30 to 150 minutes contact time. The activated samples were prepared using zinc chloride and tetraoxophophate(VI) acid. The results obtained showed that the activated carbon of Balanitesaegyptiaca seeds studied had relatively high adsorption capacities for these heavy metal ions compared with industrial Activated Carbon. The percentage removal of Cr (VI) and lead (II) ions by the three activated carbon samples were 64%, 70% and 71%; 60%, 66% and 60% respectively. Adsorption equilibrium was established in 90 minutes for the heavy metal ions. The equilibrium data fitted the pseudo second order out of the pseudo first, pseudo second, Elovich ,Natarajan and Khalaf models tested. The investigation also showed that the adsorbents can effectively remove metal ions from similar wastewater and aqueous media.

Keywords: Chromium, activated carbon, lead, pseudo second order, Elovich model

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34 Simultaneous Adsorption and Characterization of NOx and SOx Emissions from Power Generation Plant on Sliced Porous Activated Carbon Prepared by Physical Activation

Authors: Muhammad Shoaib, Hassan M. Al-Swaidan


Air pollution has been a major challenge for the scientists today, due to the release of toxic emissions from various industries like power plants, desalination plants, industrial processes and transportation vehicles. Harmful emissions into the air represent an environmental pressure that reflects negatively on human health and productivity, thus leading to a real loss in the national economy. Variety of air pollutants in the form of carbon oxides, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, suspended particulate material etc. are present in air due to the combustion of different types of fuels like crude oil, diesel oil and natural gas. Among various pollutants, NOx and SOx emissions are considered as highly toxic due to its carcinogenicity and its relation with various health disorders. In Kingdom of Saudi Arabia electricity is generated by burning of crude, diesel or natural gas in the turbines of electricity stations. Out of these three, crude oil is used extensively for electricity generation. Due to the burning of the crude oil there are heavy contents of gaseous pollutants like sulfur dioxides (SOx) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), gases which are ultimately discharged in to the environment and is a serious environmental threat. The breakthrough point in case of lab studies using 1 gm of sliced activated carbon adsorbant comes after 20 and 30 minutes for NOx and SOx, respectively, whereas in case of PP8 plant breakthrough point comes in seconds. The saturation point in case of lab studies comes after 100 and 120 minutes and for actual PP8 plant it comes after 60 and 90 minutes for NOx and SOx adsorption, respectively. Surface characterization of NOx and SOx adsorption on SAC confirms the presence of peaks in the FT-IR spectrum. CHNS study verifies that the SAC is suitable for NOx and SOx along with some other C and H containing compounds coming out from stack emission stream from the turbines of a power plant.

Keywords: Power Plants, activated carbon, flue gases, NOx and SOx adsorption, physical activation

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33 Bio-Remediation of Lead-Contaminated Water Using Adsorbent Derived from Papaya Peel

Authors: Sharifah Rafidah Wan Alwi, Ida Idayu Muhamad, Nahid Ghasemi, Sahar Abbaszadeh, Colin Webb


Toxic heavy metal discharges into environment due to rapid industrialization is a serious pollution problem that has drawn global attention towards their adverse impacts on both the structure of ecological systems as well as human health. Lead as toxic and bio-accumulating elements through the food chain, is regularly entering to water bodies from discharges of industries such as plating, mining activities, battery manufacture, paint manufacture, etc. The application of conventional methods to degrease and remove Pb(II) ion from wastewater is often restricted due to technical and economic constrains. Therefore, the use of various agro-wastes as low-cost bioadsorbent is found to be attractive since they are abundantly available and cheap. In this study, activated carbon of papaya peel (AC-PP) (as locally available agricultural waste) was employed to evaluate its Pb(II) uptake capacity from single-solute solutions in sets of batch mode experiments. To assess the surface characteristics of the adsorbents, the scanning electron microscope (SEM) coupled with energy disperse X-ray (EDX), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis were utilized. The removal amount of Pb(II) was determined by atomic adsorption spectrometry (AAS). The effects of pH, contact time, the initial concentration of Pb(II) and adsorbent dosage were investigated. The pH value = 5 was observed as optimum solution pH. The optimum initial concentration of Pb(II) in the solution for AC-PP was found to be 200 mg/l where the amount of Pb(II) removed was 36.42 mg/g. At the agitating time of 2 h, the adsorption processes using 100 mg dosage of AC-PP reached equilibrium. The experimental results exhibit high capability and metal affinity of modified papaya peel waste with removal efficiency of 93.22 %. The evaluation results show that the equilibrium adsorption of Pb(II) was best expressed by Freundlich isotherm model (R2 > 0.93). The experimental results confirmed that AC-PP potentially can be employed as an alternative adsorbent for Pb(II) uptake from industrial wastewater for the design of an environmentally friendly yet economical wastewater treatment process.

Keywords: wastewater treatment, activated carbon, bioadsorption, lead removal, papaya peel

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32 Adsorption Studies of Lead from Aqueos Solutions on Cocount Shell Activated Carbon

Authors: G. E. Sharaf El-Deen, S. E. A. Sharaf El-Deen


Activated carbon was prepared from coconut shell (ACS); a discarded agricultural waste was used to produce bioadsorbent through easy and environmental friendly processes. This activated carbon based biosorbent was evaluated for adsorptive removal of lead from water. The characterisation results showed this biosorbent had very high specific surface area and functional groups. The adsorption equilibrium data was well described by Langmuir, whilst kinetics data by pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and Intraparticle diffusion models. The adsorption process could be described by the pseudo-second order kinetic.

Keywords: activated carbon, coconut shell, lead removal, adsorption isotherm and kinetics

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31 Elimination of Phosphorus by Activated Carbon Prepared from Algerian Dates Stones

Authors: A. Kamarchoua, A. A. Bebaa, A. Douadi


The current work has a goal of the preparation of activated carbon from the stones of dates from southern Algeria (El-Oued province) using a simple pyrolysis proceeded by chemical impregnation in sulphuric acid. For the preparation of the carbon, we choose the diameter of the pellets (0.5-1)mm, activation by acid and water (1:1), carbonization at 450˚C. The prepared carbon has the following characteristics: specific surface 125.86 m2/g, methylene blue number 40, CCE = 0.3meq.g/l, IR and micrographics SEM. The activated carbon thus obtained is used at the water purification in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) at Kouinine, El- Oued province, to totally eliminate phosphorus. We analyzed the water at the WWTP before the purification procedure. In this study, we have looked at the effect of the following parameters on the adsorption of carbon: the pH, the contact time (Tc) and the agitation speed (Va). The best conditions for phosphorus adsorption are: pH=4 or pH >5, Tc = 60 min and Va = 900 rotations per minute.

Keywords: pyrolysis, activated carbon, date stones, phosphate pollutants

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30 Preparation and Chemical Characterization of Eco-Friendly Activated Carbon Produced from Apricot Stones

Authors: Sabolč Pap, Srđana Kolaković, Jelena Radonić, Ivana Mihajlović, Dragan Adamović, Mirjana Vojinović Miloradov, Maja Turk Sekulić


Activated carbon is one of the most used and tested adsorbents in the removal of industrial organic compounds, heavy metals, pharmaceuticals and dyes. Different types of lignocellulosic materials were used as potential precursors in the production of low cost activated carbon. There are, two different processes for the preparation and production of activated carbon: physical and chemical. Chemical activation includes impregnating the lignocellulosic raw materials with chemical agents (H3PO4, HNO3, H2SO4 and NaOH). After impregnation, the materials are carbonized and washed to eliminate the residues. The chemical activation, which was used in this study, has two important advantages when compared to the physical activation. The first advantage is the lower temperature at which the process is conducted, and the second is that the yield (mass efficiency of activation) of the chemical activation tends to be greater. Preparation of activated carbon included the following steps: apricot stones were crushed in a mill and washed with distilled water. Later, the fruit stones were impregnated with a solution of 50% H3PO4. After impregnation, the solution was filtered to remove the residual acid. Subsequently impregnated samples were air dried at room temperature. The samples were placed in a furnace and heated (10 °C/min) to the final carbonization temperature of 500 °C for 2 h without the use of nitrogen. After cooling, the adsorbent was washed with distilled water to achieve acid free conditions and its pH was monitored until the filtrate pH value exceeded 4. Chemical characterizations of the prepared activated carbon were analyzed by FTIR spectroscopy. FTIR spectra were recorded with a (Thermo Nicolet Nexus 670 FTIR) spectrometer, from 400 to 4000 cm-1 wavenumbers, identifying the functional groups on the surface of the activated carbon. The FTIR spectra of adsorbent showed a broad band at 3405.91 cm-1 due to O–H stretching vibration and a peak at 489.00 cm-1 due to O–H bending vibration. Peaks between the range of 3700 and 3200 cm−1 represent the overlapping peaks of stretching vibrations of O–H and N–H groups. The distinct absorption peaks at 2919.86 cm−1 and 2848.24 cm−1 could be assigned to -CH stretching vibrations of –CH2 and –CH3 functional groups. The adsorption peak at 1566.38 cm−1 could be characterized by primary and secondary amide bands. The sharp bond within 1164.76 – 987.86 cm−1 is attributed to the C–O groups, which confirms the lignin structure of the activated carbon. The present study has shown that the activated carbons prepared from apricot stone have a functional group on their surface, which can positively affect the adsorption characteristics with this material.

Keywords: FTIR, activated carbon, H3PO4, lignocellulosic raw materials

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29 BTEX Removal from Water: A Comparative Analysis of Efficiency of Low Cost Adsorbents and Granular Activated Carbon

Authors: Juliet Okoli


The removal of BTEX (Benzene, toluene, Ethylbenzene and p-Xylene) from water by orange peel and eggshell compared to GAC were investigated. The influence of various factors such as contact time, dosage and pH on BTEX removal by virgin orange peel and egg shell were accessed using the batch adsorption set-up. These were also compared to that of GAC which serves as a benchmark for this study. Further modification (preparation of Activated carbon) of these virgin low-cost adsorbents was also carried out. The batch adsorption result showed that the optimum contact time, dosage and pH for BTEX removal by virgin LCAs were 180 minutes, 0.5g and 7 and that of GAC was 30mintues, 0.2g and 7. The maximum adsorption capacity for total BTEX showed by orange peel and egg shell were 42mg/g and 59mg/g respectively while that of GAC was 864mg/g. The adsorbent preference for adsorbate were in order of X>E>T>B. A comparison of batch and column set-up showed that the batch set-up was more efficient than the column set-up. The isotherm data for the virgin LCA and GAC prove to fit the Freundlich isotherm better than the Langmuir model, which produced n values >1 in case of GAC and n< 1 in case of virgin LCAs; indicating a more appropriate adsorption of BTEX onto the GAC. The adsorption kinetics for the three studied adsorbents were described well by the pseudo-second order, suggesting chemisorption as the rate limiting step. This was further confirmed by desorption study, as low levels of BTEX (<10%) were recovered from the spent adsorbents especially for GAC (<3%). Further activation of the LCAs which was compared to the virgin LCAs, revealed that the virgin LCAs had minor higher adsorption capacity than the activated LCAs. Economic analysis revealed that the total cost required to clean-up 9,600m3 of BTEX contaminated water using LCA was just 2.8% lesser than GAC, a difference which could be considered negligible. However, this area still requires a more detailed cost-benefit analysis, and if similar conclusions are reached; a low-cost adsorbent, easy to obtain are still promising adsorbents for BTEX removal from aqueous solution; however, the GAC are still more superior to these materials.

Keywords: Water Treatment, activated carbon, low cost adsorbents, BTEX removal

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28 Statistical Optimization of Adsorption of a Harmful Dye from Aqueous Solution

Authors: M. Arun, A. Kannan


Textile industries cater to varied customer preferences and contribute substantially to the economy. However, these textile industries also produce a considerable amount of effluents. Prominent among these are the azo dyes which impart considerable color and toxicity even at low concentrations. Azo dyes are also used as coloring agents in food and pharmaceutical industry. Despite their applications, azo dyes are also notorious pollutants and carcinogens. Popular techniques like photo-degradation, biodegradation and the use of oxidizing agents are not applicable for all kinds of dyes, as most of them are stable to these techniques. Chemical coagulation produces a large amount of toxic sludge which is undesirable and is also ineffective towards a number of dyes. Most of the azo dyes are stable to UV-visible light irradiation and may even resist aerobic degradation. Adsorption has been the most preferred technique owing to its less cost, high capacity and process efficiency and the possibility of regenerating and recycling the adsorbent. Adsorption is also most preferred because it may produce high quality of the treated effluent and it is able to remove different kinds of dyes. However, the adsorption process is influenced by many variables whose inter-dependence makes it difficult to identify optimum conditions. The variables include stirring speed, temperature, initial concentration and adsorbent dosage. Further, the internal diffusional resistance inside the adsorbent particle leads to slow uptake of the solute within the adsorbent. Hence, it is necessary to identify optimum conditions that lead to high capacity and uptake rate of these pollutants. In this work, commercially available activated carbon was chosen as the adsorbent owing to its high surface area. A typical azo dye found in textile effluent waters, viz. the monoazo Acid Orange 10 dye (CAS: 1936-15-8) has been chosen as the representative pollutant. Adsorption studies were mainly focused at obtaining equilibrium and kinetic data for the batch adsorption process at different process conditions. Studies were conducted at different stirring speed, temperature, adsorbent dosage and initial dye concentration settings. The Full Factorial Design was the chosen statistical design framework for carrying out the experiments and identifying the important factors and their interactions. The optimum conditions identified from the experimental model were validated with actual experiments at the recommended settings. The equilibrium and kinetic data obtained were fitted to different models and the model parameters were estimated. This gives more details about the nature of adsorption taking place. Critical data required to design batch adsorption systems for removal of Acid Orange 10 dye and identification of factors that critically influence the separation efficiency are the key outcomes from this research.

Keywords: activated carbon, acid orange 10, optimum adsorption conditions, statistical design

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27 Removal of Organics Pollutants from Wastewater by Activated Carbon Prepared from Dates Stones of Southern Algeria

Authors: Abasse Kamarchou, Ahmed Abdelhafid Bebba, Ali Douadi


The objective of this work is the preparation of an activated carbon from waste date palm from El Oued region, namely the date stones and its use in the treatment of wastewater in this region. The study of the characteristics of this coal has the following results: specific surface 125.86 m2 / g, pore volume 0.039 cm3 / g, pore diameter of 16.25 microns, surface micropores 92.28 m2 / g, the outer surface 33,57 m2 /g, methylene blue number of 13.6 mg / g, iodine number 735.2 mg /g, the functional groups are the number of 4.10-2 mol / g. The optimum conditions for pH, stirring speed, initial concentration, contact time were determined. For organic pollutants, the best conditions are: pH > 8 and pH < 5, a contact time of 5 minutes and an agitation rate of 200 - 300 rpm.

Keywords: wastewater, date palm, activated carbon, El-Oued

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