Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

acoustic doppler velocimeter Related Abstracts

3 Despiking of Turbulent Flow Data in Gravel Bed Stream

Authors: Ratul Das

Abstract:

The present experimental study insights the decontamination of instantaneous velocity fluctuations captured by Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) in gravel-bed streams to ascertain near-bed turbulence for low Reynolds number. The interference between incidental and reflected pulses produce spikes in the ADV data especially in the near-bed flow zone and therefore filtering the data are very essential. Nortek’s Vectrino four-receiver ADV probe was used to capture the instantaneous three-dimensional velocity fluctuations over a non-cohesive bed. A spike removal algorithm based on the acceleration threshold method was applied to note the bed roughness and its influence on velocity fluctuations and velocity power spectra in the carrier fluid. The velocity power spectra of despiked signals with a best combination of velocity threshold (VT) and acceleration threshold (AT) are proposed which ascertained velocity power spectra a satisfactory fit with the Kolmogorov “–5/3 scaling-law” in the inertial sub-range. Also, velocity distributions below the roughness crest level fairly follows a third-degree polynomial series.

Keywords: Reynolds shear stress, acoustic doppler velocimeter, gravel-bed, spike removal, near-bed turbulence, velocity power spectra

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2 Velocity Distribution in Density Currents Flowing over Rough Beds

Authors: Reza Nasrollahpour, Mohamad Hidayat Bin Jamal, Zulhilmi Bin Ismail

Abstract:

Density currents are generated when the fluid of one density is released into another fluid with a different density. These currents occur in a variety of natural and man-made environments, and this emphasises the importance of studying them. In most practical cases, the density currents flow over the surfaces which are not plane; however, there have been limited investigations in this regard. This study uses laboratory experiments to analyse the influence of bottom roughness on the velocity distribution within these dense underflows. The currents are analysed over a plane surface and three different configurations of beam-roughened beds. The velocity profiles are collected using Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry technique, and the distribution of velocity within these currents is formulated for the tested beds. The results indicate that the empirical power and Gaussian relations can describe the velocity distribution in the inner and outer regions of the profiles, respectively. Moreover, it is found that the bottom roughness is the primary controlling parameter in the inner region.

Keywords: bed roughness, acoustic doppler velocimeter, velocity profiles, density currents

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1 Turbulent Flow Characteristics and Bed Morphology around Circular Bridge Pier

Authors: Pratik Acharya

Abstract:

Scour is the natural phenomenon brought about by erosive action of the flowing stream in alluvial channels. Frequent scouring around bridge piers may cause damage to the structures. In alluvial channels, a complex interaction between the streamflow and the bed particles results in scouring around piers. Thus, the study of characteristics of flow around piers can give sound knowledge about the scouring process. The present research has been done to investigate the turbulent flow characteristics around bridge piers and corresponding changes in bed morphology. Laboratory experiments were carried out in a tilting flume with a sand bed. The velocities around the pier are measured by Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter. Measurements show that at upstream of the pier velocity and Reynolds stresses are negative near the bed and near the free surface at downstream of the pier. At the downstream of the pier, Reynolds stresses changes rapidly due to the formation of wake vortices. Experimental results show that secondary currents are more predominant at the downstream of the pier. As the flowing stream hits the pier, the flow gets separated in the form of downflow along the face of the pier due to a strong pressure gradient and along the sides of the piers. Separation of flow around the pier leads to scour the bed material and develop the vortex. The downflow hits the bed and removes the bed material, which can be carried forward by the flow circulations along sides of the piers. Eroded bed material is deposited along the centerline at the rear side of the pier and produces hump in the downstream region. Initially, the rate of scouring is high and reduces gradually with increasing time. After a certain limit, equilibrium sets between the erosive capacity of the flowing stream and resistance to the motion by bed particles.

Keywords: velocity, pier, scour depth, acoustic doppler velocimeter, Reynolds stress

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