Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

acidification Related Abstracts

6 Factors Affecting Aluminum Dissolve from Acidified Water Purification Sludge

Authors: Wen Po Cheng, Chi Hua Fu, Ping Hung Chen, Ruey Fang Yu

Abstract:

Recovering resources from water purification sludge (WPS) have been gradually stipulated in environmental protection laws and regulations in many nations. Hence, reusing the WPS is becoming an important topic, and recovering alum from WPS is one of the many practical alternatives. Most previous research efforts have been conducted on studying the amphoteric characteristic of aluminum hydroxide for investigating the optimum pH range to dissolve the Al(III) species from WPS, but it has been lack of reaction kinetics or mechanisms related discussion. Therefore, in this investigation, water purification sludge (WPS) solution was broken by ultrasound to make particle size of reactants smaller, specific surface area larger. According to the reaction kinetics, these phenomena let the dissolved aluminum salt quantity increased and the reaction rate go faster.

Keywords: Recovery, acidification, Sludge, Aluminum

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5 Environmental Threats and Great Barrier Reef: A Vulnerability Assessment of World’s Best Tropical Marine Ecosystems

Authors: Ravi Kant Anand, Nikkey Keshri

Abstract:

The Great Barrier Reef of Australia is known for its beautiful landscapes and seascapes with ecological importance. This site was selected as a World Heritage site in 1981 and popularized internationally for tourism, recreational activities and fishing. But the major environmental hazards such as climate change, pollution, overfishing and shipping are making worst the site of marine ecosystem. Climate change is directly hitting on Great Barrier Reef through increasing level of sea, acidification of ocean, increasing in temperature, uneven precipitation, changes in the El Nino and increasing level of cyclones and storms. Apart from that pollution is second biggest factor which vanishing the coral reef ecosystem. Pollution including over increasement of pesticides and chemicals, eutrophication, pollution through mining, sediment runoff, loss of coastal wetland and oil spills. Coral bleaching is the biggest problem because of the environmental threatening agents. Acidification of ocean water reduced the formation of calcium carbonate skeleton. The floral ecosystem (including sea grasses and mangroves) of ocean water is the key source of food for fishes and other faunal organisms but the powerful waves, extreme temperature, destructive storms and river run- off causing the threat for them. If one natural system is under threat, it means the whole marine food web is affected from algae to whale. Poisoning of marine water through different polluting agents have been affecting the production of corals, breeding of fishes, weakening of marine health and increased in death of fishes and corals. In lieu of World Heritage site, tourism sector is directly affected and causing increasement in unemployment. Fishing sector also affected. Fluctuation in the temperature of ocean water affects the production of corals because it needs desolate place, proper sunlight and temperature up to 21 degree centigrade. But storms, El Nino, rise in temperature and sea level are induced for continuous reduction of the coral production. If we do not restrict the environmental problems of Great Barrier Reef than the best known ecological beauty with coral reefs, pelagic environments, algal meadows, coasts and estuaries, mangroves forests and sea grasses, fish species, coral gardens and the one of the best tourist spots will lost in upcoming years. My research will focus on the different environmental threats, its socio-economic impacts and different conservative measures.

Keywords: Climate Change, Eutrophication, acidification, Overfishing

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4 Technological Characterization of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Algerian's Goat's Milk

Authors: A. Cheriguene, F. Chougrani

Abstract:

A total of 153 wild lactic acid bacteria were isolated from goat’s milk collected from different areas in Western Algeria. The strains were identified using phenotypical, biochemical and physiological properties. API system and SDS-PAGE technique was also used in identification of the strains. Six genera were found Enterococcus (41.83%), Lactobacillus (29.40%), Lactococcus (19.60%), Leuconostoc (4.57%), Streptococcus thermophilus (3.26%) and Pediococcus (1.30%). The most abundant species were Enterococcus faecium (24 isolates), Enterococcus durans (22 isolates), Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (25 isolates), Lactobacillus rhamnosus (09 isolates) and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (07 isolates). The strains were screened for production and technological properties such as acid production, aminopeptidase activity, autolytic properties, antimicrobial activity and exopolysaccharide production. In general most tested isolates showed a good biomass separation when collected by centrifugation; as for the production of the lactic acid, results revealed that our strains are weakly acidifying; nevertheless, lactococci showed a best acidifying activity compared to lactobacilli. Aminopeptidase activity was also weak in most strains; but, it was generally higher for lactobacilli compared to lactococci, where we recorded 30 units for Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus M14. Autolytic activity was generally higher for most strains, more particularly lactobacilli where we recorded values of 71.13% and 70% of autolysis rate respectively in Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains 9S10 and 9S7. Antimicrobial activity was detected in 50% of the isolates, particularly in lactobacilli where 80% of strains tested were able to inhibit the growth of other strains. Two strains could produce exopolysaccharides, E. faecium 8M6 and E. durans 7S8. Some strains were able to maintain two or three technological characteristics together.

Keywords: Lactic Acid Bacteria, acidification, technological properties, aminopeptidase acivity (AP), autolysis

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3 Life Cycle Assessment to Study the Acidification and Eutrophication Impacts of Sweet Cherry Production

Authors: D. López, G. Bravo, A. Iriarte

Abstract:

Several organizations and governments have created a demand for information about the environmental impacts of agricultural products. Today, the export oriented fruit sector in Chile is being challenged to quantify and reduce their environmental impacts. Chile is the largest southern hemisphere producer and exporter of sweet cherry fruit. Chilean sweet cherry production reached a volume of 80,000 tons in 2012. The main destination market for the Chilean cherry in 2012 was Asia (including Hong Kong and China), taking in 69% of exported volume. Another important market was the United States with 16% participation, followed by Latin America (7%) and Europe (6%). Concerning geographical distribution, the Chilean conventional cherry production is focused in the center-south area, between the regions of Maule and O’Higgins; both regions represent 81% of the planted surface. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is widely accepted as one of the major methodologies for assessing environmental impacts of products or services. The LCA identifies the material, energy, material, and waste flows of a product or service, and their impact on the environment. There are scant studies that examine the impacts of sweet cherry cultivation, such as acidification and eutrophication. Within this context, the main objective of this study is to evaluate, using the LCA, the acidification and eutrophication impacts of sweet cherry production in Chile. The additional objective is to identify the agricultural inputs that contributed significantly to the impacts of this fruit. The system under study included all the life cycle stages from the cradle to the farm gate (harvested sweet cherry). The data of sweet cherry production correspond to nationwide representative practices and are based on technical-economic studies and field information obtained in several face-to-face interviews. The study takes into account the following agricultural inputs: fertilizers, pesticides, diesel consumption for agricultural operations, machinery and electricity for irrigation. The results indicated that the mineral fertilizers are the most important contributors to the acidification and eutrophication impacts of the sheet cherry cultivation. Improvement options are suggested for the hotspot in order to reduce the environmental impacts. The results allow planning and promoting low impacts procedures across fruit companies, as well as policymakers, and other stakeholders on the subject. In this context, this study is one of the first assessments of the environmental impacts of sweet cherry production. New field data or evaluation of other life cycle stages could further improve the knowledge on the impacts of this fruit. This study may contribute to environmental information in other countries where there is similar agricultural production for sweet cherry.

Keywords: Life Cycle Assessment, Eutrophication, acidification, sweet cherry production

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2 Impact of Nitrogenous Wastewater and Seawater Acidification on Algae

Authors: Pei Luen Jiang

Abstract:

Oysters (Ostreidae) and hard clams (Meretrix lusoria) are important shallow sea-cultured shellfish in Taiwan, and are mainly farmed in Changhua, Yunlin, Chiayi and Tainan. As these shellfish are fed primarily on natural plankton, the artificial feed is not required, leading to high economic value in aquatic farming. However, in recent years, though mariculture production areas have expanded steadily, large-scale deaths of farmed shellfish have also become increasingly common due to climate change and human factors. Through studies over the past few years, our research team has determined the impact of nitrogen deprivation on growth and morphological variations in algae and sea anemones (Actiniaria) and identified the target genes affected by adverse environmental factors. In mariculture, high-density farming is commonly adopted, which results in elevated concentrations of nitrogenous waste in the water. In addition, excessive carbon dioxide from the atmosphere also dissolves in seawater, causing a steady decrease in the pH of seawater, leading to acidification. This study to observe the impact of high concentrations of nitrogen sources and carbon dioxide on algae.

Keywords: Nitrogen, acidification, Algae, Shellfish

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1 Chemical Analysis and Sensory Evaluation of 'Domiati Cheese' Using Strains Isolated from Algerian Goat's Milk

Authors: A. Cheriguene, F. Chougrani

Abstract:

A total of 120 wild lactic acid bacteria were isolated from goat’s milk collected from different areas in Western Algeria. The strains were screened for production and technological properties such as acid production, aminopeptidase activity, autolytic properties, antimicrobial activity, and exopolysaccharide production. In general most tested isolates showed a good biomass separation when collected by centrifugation; as for the production of the lactic acid, results revealed that our strains are weakly acidifying; nevertheless, lactococci showed a best acidifying activity compared to lactobacilli. Aminopeptidase activity was also weak in most strains; but, it was generally higher for lactobacilli compared to lactococci. Autolytic activity was generally higher for most strains, more particularly lactobacilli. Antimicrobial activity was detected in 50% of the isolates, particularly in lactobacilli where 80% of strains tested were able to inhibit the growth of other strains. The survey of the profile of the texture, the proteolysis as well as the development of the flavor in the Domiati cheese made on the basis of our isolated strains have been led during the ripening. The sensory assessment shows that the cheese salted in milk received the best scores in relation to cheese salted after drainage. Textural characteristics, such as hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness decreased in the two treatments during the 60 days of ripening. Otherwise, it has been noted that adhesiveness and adhesive force increased in the cheese salted in milk.

Keywords: Lactic Acid Bacteria, Bacteriocin, acidification, textural properties, technological properties, exopolysaccharide

Procedia PDF Downloads 29