Commenced in January 2007
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Paper Count: 10

acetylcholinesterase Related Abstracts

10 Biosensors for Parathion Based on Au-Pd Nanoparticles Modified Electrodes

Authors: Tian-Fang Kang, Chao-Nan Ge, Rui Li

Abstract:

An electrochemical biosensor for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides was developed based on electrochemical co-deposition of Au and Pd nanoparticles on glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS) analysis was used for characterization of the surface structure. Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) demonstrates that the films are uniform and the nanoclusters are homogeneously distributed on the GCE surface. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was immobilized on the Au and Pd nanoparticle modified electrode (Au-Pd/GCE) by cross-linking with glutaraldehyde. The electrochemical behavior of thiocholine at the biosensor (AChE/Au-Pd/GCE) was studied. The biosensors exhibited substantial electrocatalytic effect on the oxidation of thiocholine. The peak current of linear scan voltammetry (LSV) of thiocholine at the biosensor is proportional to the concentration of acetylthiocholine chloride (ATCl) over the range of 2.5 × 10-6 to 2.5 × 10-4 M in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.0). The percent inhibition of acetylcholinesterase was proportional to the logarithm of parathion concentration in the range of 4.0 × 10-9 to 1.0 × 10-6 M. The detection limit of parathion was 2.6 × 10-9 M. The proposed method exhibited high sensitivity and good reproducibility.

Keywords: Electrochemical Biosensors, acetylcholinesterase, Au-Pd nanoparticles, parathion

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9 Cholinesterase Inhibitory Indole Alkaloids from the Bark of Rauvolfia reflexa

Authors: Hapipah Mohd Ali, Hamed Karimian, Mehran Fadaeinasab, Alireza Basiri, Yalda Kia, Vikneswaran Murugaiyah

Abstract:

Two new, rauvolfine C and 3- methyl-10,11-dimethoxyl-6- methoxycarbonyl- β- carboline, along with five known indole alkaloids, macusine B, vinorine, undulifoline, isoresrpiline and rescinnamine were isolated from the bark of Rauvolfia reflexa. All the compounds showed good to moderate cholinesterase inhibitory activity with IC50 values in the range of 8.06 to 73.23 πM, except rauvolfine C that was inactive against acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Rescinnamine, a dual inhibitor was found to be the most potent inhibitor among the isolated alkaloids against both AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). Molecular docking revealed that rescinnamine interacted differently on AChE and BChE, by means of hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding.

Keywords: Molecular Docking, acetylcholinesterase, Rauvolfia reflexa, indole alkaloids, butyrylcholinesterase

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8 Biomonitoring of Marine Environment by Using a Bioindicator Donax trunculus (Mollusca, Bivalvia) from the Gulf of Annaba (Algeria): Biomarkers Responses

Authors: Noureddine Soltani, Karima Sifi

Abstract:

Annaba gulf is the most important touristic and economic area located on the east coast of Algeria. However, these fishery resources are threatened by the pollution due to the progress of economic activity. As part of a biomonitoring program on the quality of waters of the Gulf of Annaba, the specific activity of two biomarkers, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glutathion S-transferase (GST) has been measured in edible bivalve Donax trunculus. The samples have been collected during the year 2013 in two sites: El Battah, distant from polluted sources, and Sidi Salem, located near the harbor and different industrial waste. The results showed a significant inhibition of AChE activity and a significant increase in the activity of the GST in samples collected from Sidi Salem as compared to El Battah. The inhibition of the AChE and the increase of the GST in Sidi Salem are in relation with the level of exposition of this site to the pollution.

Keywords: Pollution, Biomonitoring, acetylcholinesterase, Donax trunculus, annaba gulf, glutathion s-transferase

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7 Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Doped Poly (3,4 Ethylenedioxythiophene) Composites Based Electrochemical Nano-Biosensor for Organophosphate Detection

Authors: Navpreet Kaur, Himkusha Thakur, Nirmal Prabhakar

Abstract:

One of the most publicized and controversial issue in crop production is the use of agrichemicals- also known as pesticides. This is evident in many reports that Organophosphate (OP) insecticides, among the broad range of pesticides are mainly involved in acute and chronic poisoning cases. Therefore, detection of OPs is very necessary for health protection, food and environmental safety. In our study, a nanocomposite of poly (3,4 ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) has been deposited electrochemically onto the surface of fluorine doped tin oxide sheets (FTO) for the analysis of malathion OP. The -COOH functionalization of MWCNTs has been done for the covalent binding with amino groups of AChE enzyme. The use of PEDOT-MWCNT films exhibited an excellent conductivity, enables fast transfer kinetics and provided a favourable biocompatible microenvironment for AChE, for the significant malathion OP detection. The prepared PEDOT-MWCNT/FTO and AChE/PEDOT-MWCNT/FTO nano-biosensors were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), Field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and electrochemical studies. Electrochemical studies were done using Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) or Differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). Various optimization studies were done for different parameters including pH (7.5), AChE concentration (50 mU), substrate concentration (0.3 mM) and inhibition time (10 min). The detection limit for malathion OP was calculated to be 1 fM within the linear range 1 fM to 1 µM. The activity of inhibited AChE enzyme was restored to 98% of its original value by 2-pyridine aldoxime methiodide (2-PAM) (5 mM) treatment for 11 min. The oxime 2-PAM is able to remove malathion from the active site of AChE by means of trans-esterification reaction. The storage stability and reusability of the prepared nano-biosensor is observed to be 30 days and seven times, respectively. The application of the developed nano-biosensor has also been evaluated for spiked lettuce sample. Recoveries of malathion from the spiked lettuce sample ranged between 96-98%. The low detection limit obtained by the developed nano-biosensor made them reliable, sensitive and a low cost process.

Keywords: malathion, acetylcholinesterase, organophosphates, PEDOT-MWCNT, nano-biosensor, oxime (2-PAM)

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6 An Electrochemical Enzymatic Biosensor Based on Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Poly (3,4 Ethylenedioxythiophene) Nanocomposites for Organophosphate Detection

Authors: Navpreet Kaur, Himkusha Thakur, Nirmal Prabhakar

Abstract:

The most controversial issue in crop production is the use of Organophosphate insecticides. This is evident in many reports that Organophosphate (OP) insecticides, among the broad range of pesticides are mainly involved in acute and chronic poisoning cases. OPs detection is of crucial importance for health protection, food and environmental safety. In our study, a nanocomposite of poly (3,4 ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) has been deposited electrochemically onto the surface of fluorine doped tin oxide sheets (FTO) for the analysis of malathion OP. The -COOH functionalization of MWCNTs has been done for the covalent binding with amino groups of AChE enzyme. The use of PEDOT-MWCNT films exhibited an excellent conductivity, enables fast transfer kinetics and provided a favourable biocompatible microenvironment for AChE, for the significant malathion OP detection. The prepared biosensors were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), Field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and electrochemical studies. Various optimization studies were done for different parameters including pH (7.5), AChE concentration (50 mU), substrate concentration (0.3 mM) and inhibition time (10 min). Substrate kinetics has been performed and studied for the determination of Michaelis Menten constant. The detection limit for malathion OP was calculated to be 1 fM within the linear range 1 fM to 1 µM. The activity of inhibited AChE enzyme was restored to 98% of its original value by 2-pyridine aldoxime methiodide (2-PAM) (5 mM) treatment for 11 min. The oxime 2-PAM is able to remove malathion from the active site of AChE by means of trans-esterification reaction. The storage stability and reusability of the prepared biosensor is observed to be 30 days and seven times, respectively. The application of the developed biosensor has also been evaluated for spiked lettuce sample. Recoveries of malathion from the spiked lettuce sample ranged between 96-98%. The low detection limit obtained by the developed biosensor made them reliable, sensitive and a low cost process.

Keywords: Biosensor, malathion, acetylcholinesterase, organophosphates, PEDOT-MWCNT, oxime (2-PAM)

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5 Synthesis and Anticholinesterase Activity of Carvacrol Derivatives

Authors: Fatih Sonmez

Abstract:

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease and it is the most common form of dementia that affects aged people. Acetylcholinesterase is a hydrolase involved in the termination of impulse transmission at cholinergic synapses by rapid hydrolysis of the neurotransmitter ACh in the central and peripheral nervous system. Carvacrol (5-iso-propyl-2-methyl-phenol) is a main bioactive monoterpene isolated from many medicinal herbs, such as Thymus vulgaris, Monarda punctate and Origanum vulgare spp. It is known that carvacrol has been widely used as an active anti-inflammatory ingredient, which can inhibit the isoproterenol induced inflammation in myocardial infarcted rats. In this paper, a series of 12 carvacrol substituted carbamate derivatives (2a-l) was synthesized and their inhibitory activities on AChE and BuChE were evaluated. Among them, 2d exhibited the strongest inhibition against AChE with an IC50 value of 2.22 µM, which was 130-fold more than that of carvacrol (IC50 = 288.26 µM).

Keywords: acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, carvacrol, Carbamate

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4 Comparison of Acetylcholinesterase Reactivators Cytotoxicity with Their Structure

Authors: Lubica Muckova, Petr Jost, Jaroslav Pejchal, Daniel Jun

Abstract:

The development of acetylcholinesterase reactivators, i.e. antidotes against organophosphorus poisoning, is an important goal of defence research. The aim of this study was to compare cytotoxicity and chemical structure of 5 currently available (pralidoxime, trimedoxime, obidoxime, methoxime, and asoxime) and 4 newly developed compounds (K027, K074, K075, and K203). In oximes, there could be at least four important structural factors affecting their toxicity, including the number of oxime groups in the molecule, the position of oxime group(s) on pyridinium ring, the length of carbon linker, and the substitution by oxygen or insertion of the double bond into the connection chain. The cytotoxicity of tested substances was measured using colorimetric 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay (MTT assay) in SH-SY5Y cell line. Toxicity was expressed as toxicological index IC₅₀. The tested compounds showed different cytotoxicity ranging from 1.5 to 27 mM. K027 was the least, and methoxime was the most toxic reactivator. The lowest toxicity was found in a monopyridinium reactivator and bispyridinium reactivators with simple 3C carbon linker. Shortening of connection chain length to 1C, incorporation of oxygen moiety into 3C compounds, elongation of carbon linker to 4C and insertion of a double bond into 4C substances increase AChE reactivators' cytotoxicity. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by a long-term organization development plan Medical Aspects of Weapons of Mass Destruction of the Faculty of Military Health Sciences, University of Defence.

Keywords: Cytotoxicity, acetylcholinesterase, organophosphorus poisoning, reactivators of acetylcholinesterase

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3 The Inhibitory Effect of Riceberry Rice Extract on Acetylcholinesterase Activity

Authors: Yaiprae Chatree, Tawan Chaiwon, Rodjana Chunhabundit, Kritsana Piriyawatcharakon, Waralai Ratwiset, Sasiwimol Chaiya

Abstract:

The world is facing a serious situation of aging society. Elderly may have many physical health problems due to degenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease. Riceberry rice relatively contain high levels of carbohydrate, vitamin E, -oryzanol, and also abundant of bioactive compound of anthocyanin. This study aimed to determine the inhibitory effect of Riceberry rice crude extract on acetylcholinesterase activity. The active compound was extracted by using 70% ethanol (v/v). The inhibitory effect of Riceberry rice on acetylcholinesterase was evaluated by using slightly modified method of Ellman’s method. The 120 seconds time interval of kinetics measurement showed that Riceberry rice extract at concentrations of 2.5-12.5 mg/ml presented the acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity at the statistically significant difference at p  0.05 compared to control group over 60 -120 seconds. At the concentrations of 10 and 12.5 mg/ml of Riceberry rice extract expressed the high percentage of inhibitory activity of 50.86 and 71.22%, respectively. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of Riceberry rice extract; considered to the end point, was found at concentration of 9.34 mg/ml. The physostigmine (positive control); however, showed a higher inhibitory capacity than that of Riceberry rice extract. The inhibitory activity of the positive control group was around at 80.40 – 90.41%. In conclusion, the results of this study indicated that Riceberry rice extract possessed the inhibitory capacity of acetylcholinesterase activity. Moreover, at the concentrations of 12.5 mg/ml it showed the identical inhibitory effect with physostigmine group. The Riceberry rice extract might be able to alleviate the clinical manifestations of Alzheimer’s disease.

Keywords: alzheimer's disease, Acetylcholine, acetylcholinesterase, riceberry rice

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2 Biochemical Efficacy, Molecular Docking and Inhibitory Effect of 2,3-Dimethylmaleic Anhydride on Acetylcholinesterases

Authors: Yallappa Rajashekar, Kabrambam D. Singh, Dinabandhu Sahoo

Abstract:

Evolution has caused many insects to develop resistance to several synthetic insecticides. This problem along with the persisting concern regarding the health and environmental safety issues of the existing synthetic insecticides has urged the scientific fraternity to look for a new plant-based natural insecticide with inherent eco-friendly nature. Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta (L.) Schott (Araceae family) is widely grown throughout the South- East Asian Countries for its edible corms and leaves. Various physico-chemical and spectroscopic techniques (IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and Mass) were used for the isolation and characterization of isolated bioactive molecule named 2, 3-dimethylmaleic anhydride (3, 4-dimethyl-2, 5-furandione). This compound was found to be highly toxic, even at low concentration, against several storage grain pests when used as biofumigant. Experimental studies on the mode of action of 2, 3-dimethylmaleic anhydride revealed that the biofumigant act as inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase enzyme in cockroach and stored grain insects. The knockdown activity of bioactive compound is concurrent with in vivo inhibition of AChE; at KD99 dosage of bioactive molecule showed more than 90% inhibition of AChE activity in test insects. The molecule proved to affect the antioxidant enzyme system; superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) and also found to decrease reduced glutathione (GSH) level in the treated insects. The above results indicate involvement of inhibition of AChE activity and oxidative imbalance as the potential mode of action of 2, 3-dimethylmaleic anhydride. In addition, the study reveals computational docking programs elaborate the possible interaction of 2, 3-dimethylmaleic anhydride with enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) of Periplaneta americana. Finally, the results represent that toxicity of 2, 3-dimethylmaleic anhydride might be associated with inhibition of AChE activity and oxidative imbalance.

Keywords: Molecular Docking, antioxidant enzyme, acetylcholinesterase, Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta (L.) Schott, Biofumigant

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1 A Preliminary in vitro Investigation of the Acetylcholinesterase and α-Amylase Inhibition Potential of Pomegranate Peel Extracts

Authors: Zoi Konsoula

Abstract:

The increasing prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and diabetes mellitus (DM) constitutes them major global health problems. Recently, the inhibition of key enzyme activity is considered a potential treatment of both diseases. Specifically, inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the key enzyme involved in the breakdown of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, is a promising approach for the treatment of AD, while inhibition of α-amylase retards the hydrolysis of carbohydrates and, thus, reduces hyperglycemia. Unfortunately, commercially available AChE and α-amylase inhibitors are reported to possess side effects. Consequently, there is a need to develop safe and effective treatments for both diseases. In the present study, pomegranate peel (PP) was extracted using various solvents of increasing polarity, while two extraction methods were employed, the conventional maceration and the ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE). The concentration of bioactive phytoconstituents, such as total phenolics (TPC) and total flavonoids (TFC) in the prepared extracts was evaluated by the Folin-Ciocalteu and the aluminum-flavonoid complex method, respectively. Furthermore, the anti-neurodegenerative and anti-hyperglycemic activity of all extracts was determined using AChE and α-amylase inhibitory activity assays, respectively. The inhibitory activity of the extracts against AChE and α-amylase was characterized by estimating their IC₅₀ value using a dose-response curve, while galanthamine and acarbose were used as positive controls, respectively. Finally, the kinetics of AChE and α-amylase in the presence of the most inhibitory potent extracts was determined by the Lineweaver-Burk plot. The methanolic extract prepared using the UAE contained the highest amount of phytoconstituents, followed by the respective ethanolic extract. All extracts inhibited acetylcholinesterase in a dose-dependent manner, while the increased anticholinesterase activity of the methanolic (IC₅₀ = 32 μg/mL) and ethanolic (IC₅₀ = 42 μg/mL) extract was positively correlated with their TPC content. Furthermore, the activity of the aforementioned extracts was comparable to galanthamine. Similar results were obtained in the case of α-amylase, however, all extracts showed lower inhibitory effect on the carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme than on AChE, since the IC₅₀ value ranged from 84 to 100 μg/mL. Also, the α-amylase inhibitory effect of the extracts was lower than acarbose. Finally, the methanolic and ethanolic extracts prepared by UAE inhibited both enzymes in a mixed (competitive/noncompetitive) manner since the Kₘ value of both enzymes increased in the presence of extracts, while the Vmax value decreased. The results of the present study indicate that PP may be a useful source of active compounds for the management of AD and DM. Moreover, taking into consideration that PP is an agro-industrial waste product, its valorization could not only result in economic efficiency but also reduce the environmental pollution.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, alzheimer’s disease, α-amylase, acetylcholinesterase, pomegranate

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