Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

accumulation Related Abstracts

5 Organochlorine and Organophosphorus Pesticide Residues in Fish Samples from Lake Chad, Baga, North Eastern Nigeria

Authors: J. C. Akan, F. I. Abdulrahman, Z. M. Chellube

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to determine the levels of some organochlorine (o, p-DDE, p,p’-DDD, o,p’-DDD, p,p’-DDT, p,p’-DDT, α-BHC, γ-BHC, lindane, Endosulfan sulphate, dieldrin and aldrin and organophosphorus (Dichlorvos, Diazinon, Chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion and Fenitrothion) pesticide residues in the gills, liver, stomach, kidney and flesh of four fish species (Tilapia zilli, Clarias anguillaris Hetrotis niloticus and Oreochronmis niloticus) between the periods of September 2010 to October, 2011. Samples were collected from Kwantan turare in Lake Chad, Baga, Borno State, Nigeria. Extraction of the fish samples and de-fattening of the fish sample extracts were performed using standard procedures. Analysis of the fish samples for pesticide residues were carried out using Shimadzu GC/MS (GC – 17A), equipped with fluorescence detector. Large differences in the levels of pesticide residues were observed between tissues within each fish. The concentrations of all the organophosphorus pesticides were higher in the organs of Oreochronmis niloticus, while Hetrotis niloticus shows the lowest. For organochlorine pesticides, the organs of Tilapia zilli showed the highest concentrations, while Hetrotis niloticus shows the lowest. The highest pesticide concentrations were observed in gills and liver tissues of all the species of fish study, while the lowest concentrations were observed in flesh. Based on the above results, it can therefore be concluded that the concentrations of pesticide in the four fish species study did exceed the permissible limits set by FAO and FEPA.

Keywords: Pesticides, Fish, Organophosphorus, organochlorine, accumulation, lake chad

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4 Accumulation of Phlorotannins in Abalone Haliotis discus Hannai after Feeding with Eisenia bicyclis

Authors: Bangoura Issa, Ji-Young Kang, M. T. H. Chowdhury, Ji-Eun Lee, Yong-Ki Hong

Abstract:

Investigation was carried out for the production of value-added abalone Haliotis discus hannai containing bioactive phlorotannin by feeding phlorotannin-rich seaweed Eisenia bicyclis 2 weeks prior to harvesting. Accumulation of phlorotannins was proceded by feeding with E. bicyclis after 4 days of starvation. HPLC purification afforded two major phlorotannins. Mass spectrometry and 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance analysis clarified their structures to be as 7-phloroeckol and eckol. Throughout the feeding period of 20 days, 7-phloroeckolol was accumulated in the muscle (foot muscle tissue) up to 0.18±0.12 mg g-1 dry weight of tissue after 12 days. Eckol reached 0.21±0.03 mg g-1 dry weight of tissue after 18 days. By feeding Laminaria japonica as reference, abalone showed no detection of phlorotannins in the muscle tissue. Seaweed consumption and growth rate of abalone revealed almost similar when feed with E. bicyclis or L. japonicain 20 days. Phlorotannins reduction to half-maximal accumulation values took 1.0 day and 2.7 days for 7-phloroeckol and eckol respectively, after replacing the feed to L. japonica.

Keywords: accumulation, abalone, eisenia bicyclis, phlorotannins

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3 Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.)

Authors: Elitsa N. Kolentsova, Violina R. Angelova, Mariana N. Perifanova-Nemska, Galina P. Uzunova

Abstract:

Comparative research has been conducted to allow us to determine the accumulation of heavy metals (Pb, Zn and Cd) in the vegetative and reproductive organs of safflower, and to identify the possibility of its growth on soils contaminated by heavy metals and efficacy for phytoremediation. The experiment was performed on an agricultural field contaminated by the Non-Ferrous-Metal Works (MFMW) near Plovdiv, Bulgaria. The experimental plots were situated at different distances (0.1, 0.5, 2.0, and 15 km) from the source of pollution. The contents of heavy metals in plant materials (roots, stems, leaves, seeds) were determined. The quality of safflower oils (heavy metals and fatty acid composition) was also determined. The quantitative measurements were carried out with inductively-coupled plasma (ICP). Safflower is a plant that is tolerant to heavy metals and can be referred to the hyperaccumulators of lead and cadmium and the accumulators of zinc. The plant can be successfully used in the phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils. The processing of safflower seeds into oil and the use of the obtained oil will greatly reduce the cost of phytoremediation.

Keywords: Heavy Metals, Phytoremediation, safflower, accumulation, polluted soils

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2 Energy-Saving Methods and Principles of Energy-Efficient Concept Design in the Northern Hemisphere

Authors: Yulia A. Kononova, Znang X. Ning

Abstract:

Nowadays, architectural development is getting faster and faster. Nevertheless, modern architecture often does not meet all the points, which could help our planet to get better. As we know, people are spending an enormous amount of energy every day of their lives. Because of the uncontrolled energy usage, people have to increase energy production. As energy production process demands a lot of fuel sources, it courses a lot of problems such as climate changes, environment pollution, animals’ distinction, and lack of energy sources also. Nevertheless, nowadays humanity has all the opportunities to change this situation. Architecture is one of the most popular fields where it is possible to apply new methods of saving energy or even creating it. Nowadays we have kinds of buildings, which can meet new willing. One of them is energy effective buildings, which can save or even produce energy, combining several energy-saving principles. The main aim of this research is to provide information that helps to apply energy-saving methods while designing an environment-friendly building. The research methodology requires gathering relevant information from literature, building guidelines documents and previous research works in order to analyze it and sum up into a material that can be applied to energy-efficient building design. To mark results it should be noted that the usage of all the energy-saving methods applied to a design project of building results in ultra-low energy buildings that require little energy for space heating or cooling. As a conclusion it can be stated that developing methods of passive house design can decrease the need of energy production, which is an important issue that has to be solved in order to save planet sources and decrease environment pollution.

Keywords: Storage, Passive House, Energy-Efficient Building, accumulation, superinsulation

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1 Teaching English as a Foreign Language: Insights from the Philippine Context

Authors: Arlene Villarama, Micol Grace Guanzon, Zenaida Ramos

Abstract:

This paper provides insights into teaching English as a Foreign Language in the Philippines. The authors reviewed relevant theories and literature, and provide an analysis of the issues in teaching English in the Philippine setting in the light of these theories. The authors made an investigation in Bagong Barrio National High School (BBNHS) - a public school in Caloocan City. The institution has a population of nearly 3,000 students. The performances of randomly chosen 365 respondents were scrutinised. The study regarding the success of teaching English as a foreign language to Filipino children were highlighted. This includes the respondents’ family background, surroundings, way of living, and their behavior and understanding regarding education. The results show that there is a significant relationship between demonstrative, communal, and logical areas that touch the efficacy of introducing English as a foreign Dialectal. Filipino children, by nature, are adventurous and naturally joyful even for little things. They are born with natural skills and capabilities to discover new things. They highly consider activities and work that ignite their curiosity. They love to be recognised and are inspired the most when given the assurance of acceptance and belongingness. Fun is the appealing influence to ignite and motivate learning. The magic word is excitement. The study reveals the many facets of the accumulation and transmission of erudition, in introduction and administration of English as a foreign phonological; it runs and passes through different channels of diffusion. Along the way, there are particles that act as obstructions in protocols where knowledge are to be gathered. Data gained from the respondents conceals a reality that is beyond one’s imagination. One significant factor that touches the inefficacy of understanding and using English as a foreign language is an erroneous outset gained from an old belief handed down from generation to generation. This accepted perception about the power and influence of the use of language, gives the novices either a negative or a positive notion. The investigation shows that a higher number of dislikes in the use of English can be tracked down from the belief of the story on how the English language came into existence. The belief that only the great and the influential have the right to use English as a means of communication kills the joy of acceptance. A significant notation has to be examined so as to provide a solution or if not eradicate the misconceptions that lie behind the substance of the matter. The result of the authors’ research depicts a substantial correlation between the emotional (demonstrative), social (communal), and intellectual (logical). The focus of this paper is to bring out the right notation and disclose the misconceptions with regards to teaching English as a foreign language. This will concentrate on the emotional, social, and intellectual areas of the Filipino learners and how these areas affect the transmittance and accumulation of learning. The authors’ aim is to formulate logical ways and techniques that would open up new beginnings in understanding and acceptance of the subject matter.

Keywords: Behaviour, accumulation, misconceptions, transmittance, facets

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