Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 27

Accounting Related Abstracts

27 Deposit Guarantee Fund: One Perspective

Authors: Rute Abreu, Fátima David, Liliane Cristina Segura

Abstract:

The Deposit Guarantee Fund (DGF) and its communication with the Society, in general, and with the deposit client of Financial Institutions, in particular, is discussed through the challenges of the accounting and financial report. The Bank of Portugal promotes the Portuguese Deposit Guarantee Fund (PDGF) as a financial institution that enhanced the market confidence and stability on the deposit-insurance system. Due to the nature of their functions, it must be subject to regulation and supervision that provides a first line of defense against adversely affect confidence on the Portuguese financial market. First, this research provides evidence of the effectiveness of the protection mechanisms on the deposit insurance system, which provides high and equal protection to all stakeholders. Second, it emphasizes the need of requirements of rigorous accounting process and effective financial report to reduce the moral hazard implications. Third, this research focuses on the need of total disclosure of the financial information which gives higher transparency and protection to deposit client of financial institutions.

Keywords: Accounting, deposit guarantee fund, Portugal, financial report

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26 State Budget Accounting: Factors Affected and Basic Orientation to Vietnamese Public Sector Entities

Authors: Pham Quang Huy

Abstract:

State budget is considered as an effective tool for controlling, adjusting and regulating the market economy of any countries. To ensure that the activities of the state in the fields of politics, economy and society has been efficiency, it requires major sources of certain budget. These financial funds are formed from tax revenues and tax revenues beyond. Therefore, the Governments need to have an accounting regime to manage the receipt, expenditure which are suitable for recording a full range of items. From that, it can help to increase the transparency and accountability in budget system. One of the main requirements in Vietnamese policies is to improve that accounting system of revenues and expenditures which can provide many reports to meet the information required of government and users, as well as directions to the trends of international standards requirements. By using quantitative research methods and analytical models to exploring factors, the main purpose of this article is to identify the factors affecting budget accounting and providing some direction for Vietnamese public sector in the future. The results indicated that Vietnam budget accounting has been impacted by seven factors and aims to implement three main orientations in the public sector units.

Keywords: Accounting, Government, Public Sector, budget management, state budget, IPSAS

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25 Introducing the Accounting Reform of Public Finance in the Czech Republic

Authors: M. Otrusinova, E. Pastuszkova

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The article is addressing the currently ongoing reform processes of transforming the public finance accounting based on cash flow principle to accrual principle. The presented analysis concerns the issues associated with the introduction of the state accounting from the perspective of municipal employees in compiling the opinions of financial experts in conditions of the Czech Republic. The aim of this paper is to present outcomes of analysis focused on currently discussed topics which are related to introducing the accrual principle into accounting of selected entities, especially municipalities and municipality-funded institutions. The output of the paper consists of comparing the application of the accrual principle in the financial reporting of municipalities in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. In conclusion and based on the survey, respondents from Slovak municipalities that have already adopted the accrual accounting principle show better opinion than Czech municipalities.

Keywords: Accounting, Public Finance, Municipalities, Czech Republic, accrual principle, accounting reform

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24 Zeros Elimination from the National Currency

Authors: Zahra Karimi

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role and importance of accounting for the implementation of the VAT system in the country. For this purpose, after the evaluation of specifications and important advantages of the VAT and the experience of other countries, important role of accounting in the precise determination of taxes, strategies to prevent escape of tax and realization of tax revenues of government, necessary control to increase the efficiency and accuracy of the calculations discussed. High-dependence of government to borrowing from the banking system and inflation tax and a low general ratio of tax revenues to GDP, indicating the inadequacy of the country's tax system. It can be said that being of a proper accounting system consider as a prerequisite for successful implementation of VAT in the country. So it's crucial for accountants with responsibility announce its full fitness to meet the requirements. For successful implementation of VAT as such a multi-stage sales tax and the tax on the price.

Keywords: Accounting, Economic, tax reform in Iran, Value Added Tax (VAT)

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23 Need, Relevancy and Impact of Ethics Education in Accounting Profession

Authors: Mrigakshi Das

Abstract:

The ethics of a business is currently a high profile issue owing to sensational corporate scandals that had taken place in many countries causing extensive damages to the economy and society. These corporate scandals question the morality of businessmen in general and accountants in particular. It is argued that the accountants have been the main contributors to the decline in ethical standards of a business. This researcher has reviewed the need and impact of ethics education in accounting profession. Despite of ethical interventions, the rate of accounting scandals are increasing and have left the public questioning that has the profession become really less ethical?

Keywords: Accounting, Accounting Education, ethics education and intervention in accounting, accounting profession, moral reasoning and development, ethics education

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22 Financial Audit Planning: Its Importance in Kosovo Entrepreneurship

Authors: Shpetim Rezniqi

Abstract:

Over the years has increased, and increasingly has become necessary to make audit of financial statements. An auditor to perform an audit, should plan its audit in order to provide a high-quality audit and to be performed in an economic, efficient, effective and timely. This phase of the audit is also important stages of reach to the final goal of an audit to be professional and based in Kosovo and International Standards on Auditing. Always considering Kosovo as a new state and once out of war, where everything in its entrepreneurship started from the lowest stage of economic development and aim at development and regional and European integration, planning and performing audit becomes even more important.

Keywords: Accounting, Analysis, Planning, Control

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21 Impact of Human Resources Accounting on Employees' Performance in Organization

Authors: HAMID SAREMI, Shida Hanafi

Abstract:

In an age of technology and economics, human capital has important and axial role in the organization and human resource accounting has a wide perception to key resources of organization i.e. human resources. Human resources accounting is new branch of accounting that has Short-lived and generally deals to a range of policies and measures that are related to various aspects of human resources and It gives importance to an organization's most important asset is its human resources and human resource management is the key to success in an organization and to achieve this important matter must review and evaluation of human resources data be with knowledge of accounting based on empirical studies and methods of measurement and reporting of human resources accounting information. Undoubtedly human resource management without information cannot be done and take decision and human resources accounting is practical way to inform the decision makers who are committed to harnessing human resources,, human resources accounting with applying accounting principles in the organization and is with conducting basic research on the extent of the of human resources accounting information" effect of employees' personal performance. In human resource accounting analysis and criteria and valuation of cost and manpower valuating is as the main resource in each Institute. Protection of human resources is a process that according to human resources accounting is for organization profitability. In fact, this type of accounting can be called as a major source in measurement and trends of costs and human resources valuation in each institution. What is the economic value of such assets? What is the amount of expenditures for education and training of professional individuals to value in asset account? What amount of funds spent should be considered as lost opportunity cost? In this paper, according to the literature of human resource accounting we have studied the human resources matter and its objectives and topic of the importance of human resource valuation on employee performance review and method of reporting of human resources according to different models.

Keywords: Accounting, Human Resources, Human resource management, Organization, Performance, Human Capital, employees, valuation and cost of human resources

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20 The Role of Accounting and Auditing in Anti-Corruption Strategies: The Case of ECOWAS

Authors: Edna Gnomblerou

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Given the current scale of corruption epidemic in West African economies, governments are seeking for immediate and effective measures to reduce the likelihood of the plague within the region. Generally, accountants and auditors are expected to help organizations in detecting illegal practices. However, their role in the fight against corruption is sometimes limited due to the collusive nature of corruption. The Denmark anti-corruption model shows that the implementation of additional controls over public accounts and independent efficient audits improve transparency and increase the probability of detection. This study is aimed at reviewing the existing anti-corruption policies of the Economic Commission of West African States (ECOWAS) as to observe the role attributed to accounting, auditing and other managerial practices in their anti-corruption drive. It further discusses the usefulness of accounting and auditing in helping anti-corruption commissions in controlling misconduct and increasing the perception to detect irregularities within public administration. The purpose of this initiative is to identify and assess the relevance of accounting and auditing in curbing corruption. To meet this purpose, the study was designed to answer the questions of whether accounting and auditing processes were included in the reviewed anti-corruption strategies, and if yes, whether they were effective in the detection process. A descriptive research method was adopted in examining the role of accounting and auditing in West African anti-corruption strategies. The analysis reveals that proper recognition of accounting standards and implementation of financial audits are viewed as strategic mechanisms in tackling corruption. Additionally, codes of conduct, whistle-blowing and information disclosure to the public are among the most common managerial practices used throughout anti-corruption policies to effectively and efficiently address the problem. These observations imply that sound anti-corruption strategies cannot ignore the values of including accounting and auditing processes. On one hand, this suggests that governments should employ all resources possible to improve accounting and auditing practices in the management of public sector organizations. On the other hand, governments must ensure that accounting and auditing practices are not limited to the private sector, but when properly implemented constitute crucial mechanisms to control and reduce corrupt incentives in public sector.

Keywords: Accounting, Auditing, ecowas, anti-corruption strategy

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19 Carbon Credits in Voluntary Carbon Markets: A Proposal for Iran

Authors: Saeed Mohammadirad

Abstract:

During the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol, many developed countries were forced to restrict carbon emissions. Although Iran was one of the countries of Kyoto protocol, due to some special conditions, it was not required to restrict its carbon emissions. Flexible mechanisms were developed to assist countries responsible for reducing their carbon emissions, and regulated carbon markets were introduced. Carbon credits which are provided by organizations in countries with no responsibility to restrict their carbon emissions are traded in voluntary markets. This study focuses on how to measure and report the carbon allowances and carbon credits from accounting view point under both regulated and voluntary markets.

Keywords: Accounting, Flexible Mechanisms, carbon credits, carbon markets

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18 Qualitative Case Study Research in Accounting: Challenges and Prospects the Libyan Case Study

Authors: Bubaker F. Shareia

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Much of the literature on research design has focussed on research conducted in developed, uni-cultural or primarily English speaking countries. Studies of qualitative case study research, the challenges and prospects have been embedded in Western/Euro-centric society and social theories. Although there have been some theoretical studies, few empirical studies have been conducted to explore the nature of the challenges of qualitative case study in developing countries. These challenges include accessibility to organizations, conducting interviews in developing countries, accessing documents and observing official meetings, language and cultural challenges, the use of consent forms, issues affecting access to companies, respondent issues and data analysis. The author, while conducting qualitative case study research in Libya, faced all these issues. The discussion in this paper examines these issues in order to make a contribution toward the literature in this area.

Keywords: Accounting, Challenges, developing countries, Libya, prospects, qualitative case study

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17 Accounting as Economic and Religious Reality: Reveal Religious Values Through the Photographs in Annual Report of Islamic Bank

Authors: Rahasanica Nariswari Pratiwi, Maulana Syaiful Haq

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The role of accounting in Islamic Banking is not only as economic reality but also as religious reality. Religious reality constructed by religious value in annual report of Islamic Bank. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to understand and analyze the existence of religious values by form of photographs in annual report, and to analyze the reason of religious values disclosure in annual report. Ontologically, this study is build on a belief that annual report is a communication media to show the ways Islamic Banks express adherence to sharia principle. The research has done by analyzing the photographs in annual report of Bank Syariah Mandiri (BSM), Bank Muamalat Indonesia (BMI), Bank Nasional Indonesia (BNI) Syariah, Bank Rakyat Indonesia (BRI) Syariah, and Bank Central Asia (BCA) Syariah in Indonesia. This study is qualitative research, was carried out within interpretive paradigm using semiotic approach. By employing semiotic analysis, this research showed that annual report of Islamic Bank in Indonesia contained religious value by the form of its photographs. The results of this study also show that photographs in annual report of Islamic Banks in this research contained religious values. Furthermore, this study concludes that Islamic banks actually expressed religious reality and make them different from the other bank’s annual report which focuses only on economic reality. This indicates Islamic Banks obidience existence about responsibility, not only to the stakeholders but also to the society and Allah.

Keywords: Accounting, Islamic Banking, Semiotics, annual report

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16 Factors influencing Career Choice in Accounting: Perceptions of Undergraduate Accounting Students in Selected Nigerian Universities

Authors: Nwobu Obiamaka, Samuel O. Faboyede

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This study examines the factors influencing career choice of undergraduate accounting students in selected Nigerian universities. The manner in which students of accounting perceive the factors that drive them into pursuing a career in accounting is important to the profession. The study made use of primary data collected from undergraduate accounting students in their final year in selected Nigerian universities. The data was collected using a survey instrument (questionnaire), copies of which were made and administered to the respondents (undergraduate accounting students in selected Nigerian universities). The finding suggests that the major factors influencing undergraduate accounting students to opt for a career in accounting include pressure from peers and monetary reward. The findings from the study have crucial policy implications for admission officers in tertiary institutions as well as the accounting profession in Nigeria.

Keywords: Accounting, Choice, Career, undergraduate

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15 Information Technology and Professional Behavior: An Empirical Examination of Auditing and Accounting Tasks

Authors: Michael C. Nwaohia

Abstract:

Whereas anecdotal evidence supports the notion that increase in information technology (IT) know-how may enhance output of professionals in the accounting sector, this has not been systematically explored in the Nigerian context. Against this background, this paper examines the correlation between knowledgeability of IT and level of performance at everyday auditing and accounting tasks. It utilizes primary and secondary data from selected business organizations in Lagos, Nigeria. Accounting staff were administered structured questionnaires which, amongst other things, sought to examine knowledge and exposure to information technology prior to joining the firms and current level of performance based on self-reporting and supervisor comments. In addition, exposure to on-the-job IT training and current level of performance was examined. The statistical analysis of the data was done using the SPSS package. The results strongly suggest that prior exposure to IT skills enabled accounting professionals to better flexibly fit into the dynamic environment in which contemporary business takes place. Ultimately, the paper attempts to explicate some of the implications of these findings for individuals and business firms.

Keywords: Information Technology, Accounting, Firms, professional behavior

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14 The Effect of Information Technology on the Quality of Accounting Information

Authors: Mohammad Hadi Khorashadi Zadeh, Amin Karkon, Hamid Golnari

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This study aimed to investigate the impact of information technology on the quality of accounting information was made in 2014. A survey of 425 executives of listed companies in Tehran Stock Exchange, using the Cochran formula simple random sampling method, 84 managers of these companies as the sample size was considered. Methods of data collection based on questionnaire information technology some of the questions of the impact of information technology was standardized questionnaires and the questions were designed according to existing components. After the distribution and collection of questionnaires, data analysis and hypothesis testing using structural equation modeling Smart PLS2 and software measurement model and the structure was conducted in two parts. In the first part of the questionnaire technical characteristics including reliability, validity, convergent and divergent validity for PLS has been checked and in the second part, application no significant coefficients were used to examine the research hypotheses. The results showed that IT and its dimensions (timeliness, relevance, accuracy, adequacy, and the actual transfer rate) affect the quality of accounting information of listed companies in Tehran Stock Exchange influence.

Keywords: Information Technology, Accounting, Information Quality, transfer speed

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13 Qualitative and Quantitative Case Study Research Method on Social Science: Accounting Perspective

Authors: Bubaker F. Shareia

Abstract:

The main aim of this paper is to set the parameters within which the study is to be conducted, specifically justifying the use of qualitative research, informed by theory. This paper argues that the social world is subjective in nature and may be accessed through the interpretive approach provided by the people involved in the context of the study. The paper defines and distinguishes between qualitative and quantitative research methodologies, explores Burrell and Morgan's framework for social research, and presents the study's adopted methodology and methods, with the rationale for these choices.

Keywords: Accounting, Qualitative, Quantitative Research, methodologies

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12 Managing Risks of Civil War: Accounting Practices in Egyptian Households

Authors: Neveen Abdelrehim, Sumohon Matilal

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to examine the way households manage the risks of civil war, using the calculative practices of accounting as a lens. As is the case with other social phenomena, accounting serves as a conduit for attributing values and rationales to crisis and in the process makes it visible and calculable. Our focus, in particular, is on the dialogue facilitated by the numerical logic of accounting between the householder and a crisis scenario, such as civil war. In other words, we seek to study how the risk of war is rationalized through household budgets, income and expenditure statements etc. and how such accounting constructs in turn shape attitudes toward earnings and spending in a wartime economy. The existing literature on war and accounting demonstrates how an accounting logic can have potentially destabilising consequences and how it is used to legitimise war. However, very few scholars have looked at the way accounting constructs are used to internalise the effects of war in an average household and the behavioural consequences that arise from such accounting. Relatedly, scholars studying household accounting have mostly focussed on the links between gender and hierarchy in relation to managing the financial affairs. Few have focused on the role of household accounts in a crisis scenario. This study intends to fill this gap. We draw upon Egypt, a country in the middle of civil war since 2011 for our purpose. We intend to carry out 15-20 semi-structured interviews with middle income households in Cairo that maintain some form of accounts to study the following issues: 1. How do people internalise the risks of civil war? What kind of accounting constructs do they use (this may take the form of simple budgets, income-expenditure notes/statements on a periodic basis, spreadsheets etc.) 2. How has civil war affected household expenditure? Are people spending more/less than before? 3. How has civil war affected household income? Are people finding it difficult/easy to survive on the pre-war income? 4. How is such accounting affecting household behaviour towards earnings and expenditure? Are families prioritising expenditure on necessities alone? Are they refraining from indulging in luxuries? Are family members doing two or three jobs to cope with difficult times? Are families increasingly turning toward borrowing? Is credit available? From whom?

Keywords: Accounting, War, Risk, Crisis

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11 Effect of Political and Social Context in Libya on Accounting Information System to Meet Development Needs

Authors: Bubaker F. Shareia, Almuetaz R. Boubakr

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to show how Libya’s legal, economic, political, social, and cultural systems have shaped Libyan development. This will provide a background to develop an understanding of the current role of the accounting information system in Libya and the challenges facing the design of the aeronautical information system to meet the development needs of Libya. Our knowledge of the unified economic operating systems of the world paves the way for the economic development of every developing country. In order to achieve this understanding, every developing country should be provided with a high-efficiency communications system in order to be able to interact globally. From the point of view of the theory of globalization, Libya's understanding of its socio-economic and political systems is vital in order to be able to adopt and apply accounting techniques that will assist in the economic development of Libya.

Keywords: Accounting, Economic Development, Information System, globalisation theory

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10 UK GAAP and IFRS Standards: Similarities and Differences

Authors: Feddaoui Amina

Abstract:

This paper aimed to help researchers and international companies to the differences and similarities between IFRS (International financial reporting standards) and UK GAAP or UK accounting principles, and to the accounting changes between standard setting of the International Accounting Standards Board and the Accounting Standards Board in United Kingdom. We will use in this study statistical methods to calculate similarities and difference frequencies between the UK standards and IFRS standards, according to the PricewaterhouseCoopers report in 2005. We will use the one simple test to confirm or refuse our hypothesis. In conclusion, we found that the gap between UK GAAP and IFRS is small.

Keywords: Accounting, IFRS, UK GAAP, similarities, differences

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9 Co-Creating Value between Public Financial Management Institutions: An Integrated Approach towards Financial Sustainability

Authors: Pascal Horni, Sandro Fuchs

Abstract:

In presence of increasing deficits and public debt among OECD countries, the debate on fiscal disciple and mechanisms to constrain public spending policy heated up and gave rise to the institutionalization of fiscal rules. Considering the notions from political economy literature and the therein advocated axiom of maximization of votes, introduction of institutional mechanisms and rules to govern public spending is likely to be coined by electoral motives. While there exists a series of research concerned with the rise of creative accounting in the presence fiscal rules, implementation of accrual government accounting and its impact on the biting of fiscal rules has to authors’ best knowledge never been explored. This paper serves the illumination of the connection between debt break mechanisms and the adoption of accrual public sector accounting standards such as the IPSAS in the interface of political economy in the Swiss context. By explicitly considering the technical accounting dimension, this paper develops an integrated conceptual view on well-established Public Financial Management (PFM) institutions and elaborates how their interdependencies can co-create value with regard to the contemporary challenge of fiscal sustainability. Derivation of this integrated view follows an explorative approach, taking into account expert interviews with director level staff from cantonal finance administrations and policy documents, as well as literature from both research areas – public sector accounting and political economy.

Keywords: Accounting, fiscal rules, International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS), public financial management

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8 Conventional and Islamic Perspective in Accounting: Potential for Alternative Reporting Framework

Authors: Shibly Abdullah

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This paper provides an overview of fundamental philosophical and functional differences in conventional and Islamic accounting. The aim of this research is to undertake a detailed analysis focus on specific illustrations drawn from both these systems and highlight how these differences implicate in recording financial transactions and preparation of financial reports for a range of stakeholders. Accounting as being universally considered as a platform for providing a ‘true and fair’ view of corporate entities can be challenged in the current world view, as the business environment has evolved and transformed significantly. Growth of the non-traditional corporate entity such as Islamic financial institutions, fundamentally questions the applicability of conventional accounting standards in preparation of Shariah-compliant financial reporting. Coupled with this, there are significant concerns about the wider applicability of Islamic accounting standards and framework in order to achieve reporting practices satisfying the information needs generally. Against the backdrop of such a context, this paper raises fundamental question as to how potential convergence could be achieved between these two systems in order to provide users’ a transparent and comparable state of financial information resulting in an alternative framework of financial reporting.

Keywords: Accounting, Islamic Accounting, conventional accounting, corporate reporting

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7 The Impact of Corporate Governance Attributes on Dividends Payouts Policy: Evidence from the Emerging Capital Market of Jordan

Authors: Yasean Tahat, Amneh Alkurdi, Hamzeh Almuali

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Purpose: The primary objective of the present paper is to examine the impact of CG attributes, including the board size, independency, separation and managerial ownership) on firm dividend payouts policy; using a sample of 72 Jordanian listed companies for the period of 2007-2013. Methodology: The study does manually review the sample firm’s annual reports for data collection and use OLS regression to carry out this investigation. Findings: The findings indicate that CG attributes have a strong impact on dividend payouts policy. In particular, board size, independency and separation have had significant associations with dividends payouts indicating that such variables matter when determining on dividends which may mitigate the conflicts between stakeholders’ and managers’ interests. The results also indicate that managerial ownership has had no significant impact on the dividends policy suggesting that managers do not use the strength of their position to influence the dividends policy. Finally, the results show that firm size and profitability have had statistically positive associations with dividend payouts, while this was not the case for firm leverage and growth where significant and positive relationships were documented. Originality/implication: The current paper extends the extant literature in this field by investigating the impact of the board composition on dividends and provides some insights for policy makers in emerging markets.

Keywords: Accounting, Corporate Governance, jordan, dividends payouts policy

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6 Legal Responsibility of the External Auditor Qualitative Case Study of Libyan Environment

Authors: Bubaker F. Shareia

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to determine a general frame of the auditor's legal responsibilities in Libya which were implied in professional codes and rules, these codes and rules were concerned with the auditor's rights and duties in conducting his professional duties. This will provide a background for the Libyan accounting profession, and the challenges in tailoring Auditors to meet third party's needs. Being informed of the kinds of legal responsibilities which the external auditors could face during conducting their duties. The study is based on a literature review and archival research, reinforced by a qualitative case study comprised of interviews, questionnaire and a study of internal documents. To reach such an understanding, the researcher designed two questionnaires for collecting the data. One questionnaire was distributed among the certified public accountant firms in Libya and the second was distributed among a group of randomly selected lawyers and judges in the same country. Most auditors agreed upon the determination of their responsibilities toward the state and they emphasized that their responsibilities toward their clients were limited to the accepted standards of auditing. Moreover, all auditors who were surveyed emphasized that there has never been any juridical claims against them, and as a consequence they have never paid any legal fines. This study focuses on one country, which does limit its generalisability. However, it also suggests fruitful research areas in considering the impact and challenge of the historic factors in the accounting profession in emerging economies.

Keywords: Accounting, external auditor, legal responsibilities, libyan accounting profession

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5 Jordan Water District Interactive Billing and Accounting Information System

Authors: Adrian J. Forca, Simeon J. Cainday III

Abstract:

The Jordan Water District Interactive Billing and Accounting Information Systems is designed for Jordan Water District to uplift the efficiency and effectiveness of its services to its customers. It is designed to process computations of water bills in accurate and fast way through automating the manual process and ensures that correct rates and fees are applied. In addition to billing process, a mobile app will be integrated into it to support rapid and accurate water bill generation. An interactive feature will be incorporated to support electronic billing to customers who wish to receive water bills through the use of electronic mail. The system will also improve, organize and avoid data inaccuracy in accounting processes because data will be stored in a database which is designed logically correct through normalization. Furthermore, strict programming constraints will be plunged to validate account access privilege based on job function and data being stored and retrieved to ensure data security, reliability, and accuracy. The system will be able to cater the billing and accounting services of Jordan Water District resulting in setting forth the manual process and adapt to the modern technological innovations.

Keywords: Accounting, Interactive, Information System, Bill

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4 Accounting as Addressed in the Qur’aan

Authors: Shahriar M. Saadullah, Abdul-Quddoos Abdul-Basith, Zaki K. Abushawish

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As a part of academic research in Islamic Accounting it is important to know how the word Accounting is discussed in the Qur’aan. This paper identifies and analyzes the word Accounting in the Qur’aan, which is significant to know and understand. The paper uses a methodology of identifying the root word of Accounting Hasaba (حسب) in the Qur’aan with the help of Islam 360 software and analyzes the use of the relevant words derived from the root word. Then the paper attempts to connect the findings to the contemporary Accounting issues. The paper finds that the root word of Accounting Hasaba (حسب) appears in the Qur’aan 109 times but it is only used in the sense Account, Accountable, or Accounting 45 times. These words appear in 44 different verses in the Qur’aan, appearing twice in one of the verses. The paper divides these verses into 8 different themes namely, Day of Accounting, without any Accounting, Accounting of Time, Self-Accounting, Swift in Accounting, Accounting is only with God, Awareness and the Good Accounting, and Heedlessness and the Bad Accounting. The way the words Account, Accounting, and Accountable is discussed in the Qur’aan links to the contemporary accounting issues including Ethics, Agency Theory, and Internal Control. The links discovered in the paper clearly shows the timeless nature of the message of the Qur’aan.

Keywords: Accounting, contemporary accounting issues, Qur'aan, root word of accounting hasaba

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3 Managing Cognitive Load in Accounting: An Analysis of Three Instructional Designs in Financial Accounting

Authors: Seedwell Sithole

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One of the persistent problems in accounting education is how to effectively support students’ learning. A promising technique to this issue is to investigate the extent that learning is determined by the design of instructional material. This study examines the academic performance of students using three instructional designs in financial accounting. Student’s performance scores and reported mental effort ratings were used to determine the instructional effectiveness. The findings of this study show that accounting students prefer graph and text designs that are integrated. The results suggest that spatially separated graph and text presentations in accounting should be reorganized to align with the requirements of human cognitive architecture.

Keywords: Education, Accounting, students, Cognitive Load, instructional preferences

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2 Empirical Analysis of the Relationship between Voluntary Accounting Disclosures and Mongolian Stock Exchange Listed Companies’ Characteristics

Authors: Ernest Nweke

Abstract:

Mongolia has made giant strides in the development of its auditing and accounting system from Soviet-style to a market-oriented system. High levels of domestic and foreign investment desired by the Mongolian government require that better and improved quality of corporate information and disclosure consistent with international standards be made available to investors. However, the Mongolian Certified Public Accountants (CPA) profession is still developing, and the quality of services provided by accounting firms in most cases do not comply with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) framework approved by the government for use in financial reporting. Against this backdrop, Accounting and audit reforms, liberalization and deregulation, establishment of an efficient and effective professional monitoring and supervision regime are policy necessities. These will further enhance the Mongolian business environment, eliminate incompetence in the system, make the economy more attractive to investors and ultimately lift reporting standards and bring about improved accounting, auditing and disclosure practices among Mongolian firms. This paper examines the fundamental issues in the accounting and auditing environment in Mongolia and investigates the relationship between selected characteristics of Mongolian Stock Exchange (MSE) listed firms (profitability, leverage, firm size, firm auditor size, firm listing age, board size and proportion of independent directors) and voluntary accounting disclosures in their annual reports and accounts. The selected sample of firms for the research purpose consists of the top 20 indexes of the MSE, representing over 95% of the market capitalization. An empirical analysis of the hypothesized relationship was carried out using multiple regression in EViews analytical software. Research results lend credence to the fact that only a few of the company attributes positively impact voluntary accounting disclosures in Mongolian Stock Exchange-listed firms. The research is motivated by the absence of empirical evidence on the correlation between the quality of voluntary accounting disclosures made by listed companies in Mongolia and company characteristics and the findings thereof significantly useful to both firms and regulatory authorities. The concluding part of the paper precisely consists of useful research-based recommendations for listed firms and regulatory agencies on measures to put in place in order to enhance the quality of corporate financial reporting and disclosures in Mongolia.

Keywords: Accounting, Auditing, corporate disclosure, listed firms

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1 Does Operating Cash Flow Really Matter in Value Relevance? A Recent Empirical Analysis on the Largest European Companies

Authors: Francesco Paolone

Abstract:

This paper investigates the role of Operating Cash Flow (OCF) and accruals in firm valuation analyzing financial statement information from the largest European companies and evaluating their relation to firm market value. Using a dataset of 500 largest European companies in 2018, the study investigates the relative value-relevance of equity, net income and operating cash flow (OCF). Findings show that the cash flow measure has the same explanatory power and intensity as equity and earnings to explain the market value. This study contributes to the debate on the value relevance of OCF incremental to book value and earnings. It also extends the literature, showing that OCF has information content (value relevance) superior to earnings and book value in the main European markets (Bepari et al., 2013). Finally, the study provides a support that accounting method choice may confuse investors, who have reduced confidence in accounting earnings and book value; in other words, nowadays European investors rely more on cash flows instead of accruals numbers.

Keywords: Accounting, Financial Statement Analysis, Cash Flow Statement, value relevance

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