Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Accountability Related Abstracts

24 Social Accountability: Persuasion and Debate to Contain Corruption

Authors: A. Lambert-Mogiliansky

Abstract:

In this paper, we investigate the properties of simple rules for reappointment aimed at holding a public official accountable and monitor his activity. The public official allocates budget resources to various activities which results in the delivery of public services to citizens. He has discretion over the use of resource so he can divert some of them for private ends. Because of a liability constraint, zero diversion can never be secured in all states. The optimal reappointment mechanism under complete information is shown to exhibit some leniency thus departing from the zero tolerance principle. Under asymmetric information (about the state), a rule with random verification in a pre-announced subset is shown to be optimal in a class of common rules. Surprisingly, those common rules make little use of hard information about service delivery when available. Similarly, PO's claim about his record is of no value to improve the performance of the examined rules. In contrast requesting that the PO defends his records publicly can be very useful if the service users are given the chance to refute false claims with cheap talk complaints: the first best complete information outcome can be approached in the absence of any observation by the manager of the accountability mechanism.

Keywords: Corruption, Accountability, Debate, Persuasion

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23 Criminal Liability for Criminal Tax

Authors: Theresia Simatupang dan Rahmayanti

Abstract:

Tax Law is a legal product and therefore should be subject to the legal norms, both about this actions, implementation, and about the material. Law has always aimed at providing justice, and besides that the law as a tool used to organize the order or rule of law. tax classification of a crime in this is very necessary, because the crime of taxation is very detrimental to the country and is still very high in society and socialization associated with punishment in sentencing that would have to provide a deterrent for the perpetrators, so refer to the this, these criminal offenses can endanger the stability of the nation's economy and the country that require special snacks. The application of legal sanctions against the perpetrators of the crime of taxation already has a strong legal basis, namely UU KUP. UU KUP have loaded threat (sanctions) severe punishment for tax payers who commit offenses and crimes in the field of taxation, which is contained in Article 38, and Article 39, Article 41, Article 41 A, and 41 B as well as Article 43 of Law and Law No. 12 KUP about 1985 Land Tax and Building. Criminal sanctions against violators of the tax provision are important because tax payers sanctions for violating tax laws.

Keywords: Taxation, Accountability, tax crime, criminal liability

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22 Responsibility of Corporate Manager: To Synthesize of the Different Theories by Economic, Political, Social, and Behavioral Perspectives

Authors: Bahram Soltani, Louai Ghazieh

Abstract:

Following the high profile financial scandals of 2007-2008, corporate management has been faced with strong pressures resulting from more regulatory requirements, as well as the increasing expectations of various groups of stakeholders. The responsibility acquired a big importance in front of this financial crisis. This responsibility requires more transparency and communication, inside the company with the collaborators and outside of the company with the society, while companies try to improve the degree of control and to authorize managers to realize the objectives of the company. The objective of this paper is to present the concept of the responsibility generally and the various types of manager’s responsibility in private individual within the company, as well as the explanatory theories of this responsibility through the various perspectives such as: economic, political, social and behavioral. This study should have academic and practical contributions particularly for regulators seeking to improve the companies’ practices and organizational functioning within capital market economy.

Keywords: Behavior, Accountability, Financial Crisis, Corporate Performance, manager

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21 Control and Control Systems of Administration in Nigeria

Authors: Inuwa Abdu Ibrahim

Abstract:

Public officials are required to posses certain values to adequately protect public interest, by being leaders that are servants of the people. The reality in Nigeria is that leaders rule as masters of the people rather than servants. The paper looked at control and control systems of administration in Nigeria, its resultant consequences and ways of achieving true control of administrators and administration. Secondary source of data was adopted for the research. It concludes that the keys to administrative efficiency and effectiveness through control are implementation of the already existing procedures and laws, as well as commitment on the part of public officials.

Keywords: Administration, Accountability, Fraud, Nigeria

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20 Mitigation of Risk Management Activities towards Accountability into Microfinance Environment: Malaysian Case Study

Authors: Nor Azlina A. Rahman, Jamaliah Said, Salwana Hassan

Abstract:

Prompt changes in global business environment, such as passionate competition, managerial/operational, changing governmental regulation and innovation in technology have significant impacts on the organizations. At present, global business environment demands for more proactive institutions on microfinance to provide an opportunity for the business success. Microfinance providers in Malaysia still accelerate its activities of funding by cash and cheque. These institutions are at high risk as the paper-based system is deemed to be slow and prone to human error, as well as requiring a major annual reconciliation process. The global transformation of financial services, growing involvement of technology, innovation and new business activities had progressively made risk management profile to be more subjective and diversified. The persistent, complex and dynamic nature of risk management activities in the institutions arise due to highly automated advancements of technology. This may thus manifest in a variety of ways throughout the financial services sector. This study seeks out to examine current operational risks management being experienced by microfinance providers in Malaysia; investigate the process of current practices on facilitator control factor mechanisms, and explore how the adoption of technology, innovation and use of management accounting practices would affect the risk management process of operation system in microfinance providers in Malaysia. A case study method was employed in this study. The case study also need to find that the vital past role of management accounting will be used for mitigation of risk management activities towards accountability as an information or guideline to microfinance provider. An empirical element obtainable with qualitative method is needed in this study, where multipart and in-depth information are essential to understand the issues of these institution phenomena. This study is expected to propose a theoretical model for implementation of technology, innovation and management accounting practices into the system of operation to improve internal control and subsequently lead to mitigation of risk management activities among microfinance providers to be more successful.

Keywords: Microfinance, Accountability, operational risks, management accounting practices

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19 Prospects and Challenges of Enforcing Accountability and Transperancy for Good Governance: An Analysis of Nigeria’s Situation

Authors: Mahmoud Datti Yola

Abstract:

There is wider agreement among the scholars of political science and public administration that transparency and accountability constituted one of the most crucial ingredients of good governance. In addition democratic government is expected to be accountable and responsive to the wishes and aspirations of the people. In Nigeria, after more than fifteen years to the handover of power to the civilian administration, the leaders has not been at their best, as people’ expectations for nation building, socio-economic progress and better opportunities has been dashed by high level corruption, rising insecurity, absence of the rule of law and lack of transparency and accountability. The objective of this paper is to examine the prospects and challenges of transparency and accountability in Nigeria’s democratic governance. The study utilizes secondary data for this purpose. The study is of the view that the enormous task of dealing with the issue of corruption, insecurity and promotion of ethics and accountability in Nigeria lies not only in effective oversight of the executive by the legislative bodies, respect for the rule of law and an independent judiciary, but also in the ability of the citizens, civil society organizations and other associations to hold elected and appointed officials accountable.

Keywords: Good Governance, Accountability, Nigeria, transperancy

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18 Shiva's Dance: Crisis, Local Institutions, and Private Firms

Authors: João Pereira Dos Santos

Abstract:

The uneven spatial distribution of start-ups and their respective survival may reflect comparative advantages resulting from the local institutional background. For the first time, we explore this idea using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to assess relative efficiency of Portuguese municipalities in this specific context. We depart from the related literature where expenditure is perceived as a desirable input by choosing a measure of fiscal responsibility and infrastructural variables in the first stage. Comparing results for 2006 and 2010, we find that mean performance decreased substantially with 1) the effects of the Global Financial Crisis; 2) as municipal population increases and 3) as financial independence decreases. A second stage is then computed employing a double-bootstrap procedure to evaluate how the regional context outside the control of local authorities (e.g. demographic characteristics and political preferences) impacts on efficiency.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Accountability, Political Economy, Efficiency, Public Finance, Crisis, Portuguese municipalities

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17 Good Corporate Governance and Accountability in Microfinance Institutions

Authors: A. R. Nor Azlina, H. Salwana, I. Zuraeda, A. R. Rashidah, O. Normah

Abstract:

Transitioning towards globalization in the business environment has necessitated more essential growing changes such as competition, business strategy, innovation in technology and effectiveness of societal trends on adopting corporate governance are seen to be drivers of the future. This transformations on business environment has a significant impact to organizations’ performances. Many organizations are demanding for more proactive entrepreneurs with dynamic team, who can run and steer their business to success. Changing on strategy, roles, tasks, entrepreneurial skills and implementing corporate governance in relationship development is important to enhance the organization’s performance towards being more cost-efficient and subsequently increase its efficiency. Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in most developing countries are contributors to the economic growth of a nation. However, the potential of Microfinance Institutions (MFIs) is always overlooked in contributing towards SMEs development. The adoption of corporate governance and accountability in MFIs as driving forces for these SMEs is not incorporated in measurements of organization performance. This paper attempts to address some of the governance issues associated with dimensions of accountability in improving performances of microfinance institutions. Qualitative approach was adopted in this study to analyze the data collected. The qualitative approach emerges as contributing factor in understanding and critiquing accountability processes, as well as addressing the concerns of practitioners and policymakers. A close researcher engagement with the field which concerns process, embracing of situational complexity, as well as critical and reflective understandings of organizational phenomena remain as hallmarks of the tradition. It is concluded that in describing and scrutinizing an understanding of managerial behavior, organizational factors and macro-economic relationship in SMEs firm need to be improved. This is also the case in MFIs. A framework is developed to explore the linkage of corporate governance and accountability issues related to entrepreneurship as factors affecting MFIs performances in facing ongoing transformation of organization performance within Malaysian SMEs industries.

Keywords: Microfinance, Corporate Governance, Accountability, Organization Performance

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16 Governance Structure of Islamic Philanthropic Institution: Analysis of Corporate WAQF in Malaysia

Authors: Nathasa Mazna Ramli, Nurul Husna Mohd Salleh, Nurul Aini Muhamed

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This study focuses on the governance of an Islamic philanthropic institution in Malaysia. Specifically, the internal governance structure of corporate Islamic endowment, or waqf, is being analysed. The purposes of waqf are to provide continuous charity that could generate perpetual income flow for the needy. This study is based on the principle of MCCG 2012, Shariah Governance Framework and charity governance. This study utilises publicly available data to examine the internal governance structure of a corporate waqf. This study finds that the Islamic philanthropic Institution practices, to some extent, have a sound governance structure to discharge their transparency and accountability. Furthermore, findings also showed that though governance structure is in place, most of the structures are not disclosed in the annual reports of the company. Findings from the study could extend the knowledge in these areas and stimulate further research on the governance of Islamic philanthropic institutions, particularly for corporate waqf.

Keywords: Governance, Accountability, Islamic philanthropic, corporate waqf

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15 Information in Public Domain: How Far It Measures Government's Accountability

Authors: Sandip Mitra

Abstract:

Studies on Governance and Accountability has often stressed the need to release Data in public domain to increase transparency ,which otherwise act as an evidence of performance. However, inefficient handling, lack of capacity and the dynamics of transfers (especially fund transfers) are important issues which need appropriate attention. E-Governance alone can not serve as a measure of transparency as long as a comprehensive planning is instituted. Studies on Governance and public exposure has often triggered public opinion in favour or against any government. The root of the problem (especially in local governments) lies in the management of the governance. The participation of the people in the local government functioning, the networks within and outside the locality, synergy with various layers of Government are crucial in understanding the activities of any government. Unfortunately, data on such issues are not released in the public domain .If they are at all released , the extraction of information is often hindered for complicated designs. A Study has been undertaken with a few local Governments in India. The data has been analysed to substantiate the views.

Keywords: Accountability, e-Governance, Transparency, Local Government

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14 Accountability Issues in Nigeria

Authors: Victoria Adikpe

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The ills of the Nigerian public sector have been identified at various fora to include lack of financial accountability and poor reporting of government performance. With the enthronement of democracy, citizens’ expectations from the government are drifting from the mere provision of public services to efficiency and accountability. One of the major challenges to achieving accountability in Nigeria is the capability of the cash basis of accounting to meet the reporting requirements of policies and programmes of the government. This paper discussed the growing trend in the debate about the adoption of private sector financial management processes in the public sector as part of the public sector reform programmes. The paper does not claim the ultimate superiority of accrual over cash accounting but shows how it will help to further strengthen the quality of government accounting and reporting.

Keywords: Accountability, Reporting, cash accounting, accrual accounting

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13 The Relevance of Corporate Governance Disclosure in Spanish Public Universities

Authors: Yolanda Ramirez, Ángel Tejada, Agustín Baidez

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There is currently a growing interest in the improvement of university governance and the disclosure of information on corporate governance processes as an essential part of the transparency and accountability of universities. This paper aims to know the importance given by Spanish university stakeholders to the disclosure of information about structure and mechanism of corporate governance. So as to meet this objective we propose a model for disclosing information on the main aspects of university governance in Spanish universities. This model will be validated using a questionnaire sent to members of the Social Councils of public universities in Spain. Our results show that Spanish university stakeholders attach great importance to the disclosure of specific information on aspects of corporate governance, which would result in improved transparency and accountability. According to the results of this study it may be concluded that the university stakeholders feel that it is relevant to publish information on corporate governance in the university accounting information model.

Keywords: Corporate Governance, Universities, Accountability, Transparency, Spain

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12 The Governance of UK Museums and Art Galleries: Implications for Accountability

Authors: Aminah Abdullah, Iqbal Khadaroo

Abstract:

This paper investigates to what ends, how and by whom museums and art galleries in the UK are governed, and to whom they provide accounts to justify their behavior and activities. A theoretical framework is developed by drawing from the governance and accountability literature and is fleshed out by using empirical data from secondary sources. The findings show that the governance model used, informed by the new public management (NPM) philosophy, and has created tensions between the managerial and social forms of accountability. Museums and art galleries have adopted a managerial culture of getting done what gets measured.

Keywords: Governance, Accountability, Public Sector, UK museums and art galleries

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11 The Judge Citizens Have in Mind, Comparative Lessons about the Rule of Law Matrix

Authors: Daniela Piana

Abstract:

This work casts light on what lies underneath the rule of law. In order to do so it unfolds the arguments in three main steps. The first one is a pars destruens: the mainstreaming scholarship on judicial independence and judicial accountability is questioned under the large amount of data we have at our disposal (this step is accomplished in the first two paragraphs). The second step is the reframe of the concept of the rule of law and the consequent rise of a hidden dimension, which has been so far largely underexplored: responsiveness. The third step consists into offering the readers empirical support and drawing thereby consequences in terms of policy design and citizens engagement into the rule of law implementation (these two steps are accomplished in the third paragraph).

Keywords: Trust, Accountability, Rule of Law, citizens

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10 A Study on Good Governance: Its Elements, Models, and Goals

Authors: Ehsan Daryadel, Hamid Shakeri

Abstract:

Good governance is considered as one of the necessary prerequisites for promotion of sustainable development programs in countries. Theoretical model of good governance is going to form the best methods for administration and management of subject country. The importance of maintaining the balance between the needs of present and future generation through sustainable development caused a change in method of management and providing service for citizens that is addressed as the most efficient and effective way of administration of countries. This method is based on democratic and equal-seeking sustainable development which is trying to affect all actors in this area and also be accountable to all citizens’ needs. Meanwhile, it should be noted that good governance is a prerequisite for sustainable development. In fact, good governance means impact of all actors on administration and management of the country for fulfilling public services, general needs of citizens and establishing a balance and harmony between needs of present and future generation. In the present study, efforts have been made to present concepts, definitions, purposes and indices of good governance with a descriptive-analytical method.

Keywords: Good Governance, Accountability, Transparency, Rule of Law, efficiency and effectiveness

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9 Towards A Framework for Using Open Data for Accountability: A Case Study of A Program to Reduce Corruption

Authors: Darusalam, Jorish Hulstijn, Marijn Janssen

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Media has revealed a variety of corruption cases in the regional and local governments all over the world. Many governments pursued many anti-corruption reforms and have created a system of checks and balances. Three types of corruption are faced by citizens; administrative corruption, collusion and extortion. Accountability is one of the benchmarks for building transparent government. The public sector is required to report the results of the programs that have been implemented so that the citizen can judge whether the institution has been working such as economical, efficient and effective. Open Data is offering solutions for the implementation of good governance in organizations who want to be more transparent. In addition, Open Data can create transparency and accountability to the community. The objective of this paper is to build a framework of open data for accountability to combating corruption. This paper will investigate the relationship between open data, and accountability as part of anti-corruption initiatives. This research will investigate the impact of open data implementation on public organization.

Keywords: open data, Accountability, Anti-Corruption, framework

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8 An Inquiry about Perception of Autonomous Academe and Accountable Leadership on University Governance: A Case of Bangladesh

Authors: Monjur E-Khoda Tarafdar

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Institutional autonomy and academic freedom corresponding to accountability are seen as a core concept of university governance. Universities are crucial factors in search of truth for knowledge production and dissemination. Academic leaders are the pivots to progressively influence the university governance. Therefore, in a continuum of debate about autonomy and accountability in the aspect of perception, academic leadership has been studied. Having longstanding acquaintance in the field the researcher has been instrumental to gain lived experiences of the informants in this qualitative study. Case studies are useful to gain an understanding of the complexities of a particular site to preserve a sense of wholeness of the site being investigated. Thus, multiple case study approach has been employed with a sample size of seventy-one. Such large size of informants was interviewed in order to capture a wider range of views that exist in Bangladesh. This qualitative multiple case study has engaged in-depth interviewing method of academic leaders and policy makers of three case universities. Open-ended semi-structured questionnaires are used to have a comprehensive understanding of how the perception of autonomy and accountability of academic leaders has impacted university governance in the context of Bangladesh. The paper has interpreted the voices of the informants and distinguished both the transformational and transactional style of academic leaderships in local university settings against the globally changed higher education demography. The study finds contextual dissimilarity in the perspectives of autonomy and accountability of academic leadership towards university governance. Unaccountability results in losing autonomous power and collapsing academic excellence. Since accountability grows competitiveness and competence, the paper also focuses on how academic leaders abuse the premise of academic loyalty to universities.

Keywords: Leadership, Perception, Accountability, Autonomy, academic loyalty, university governance

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7 Measuring Corruption from Public Justifications: Insights from the Brazilian Anti-Corruption Agency

Authors: Ana Luiza Aranha

Abstract:

This paper contributes to the discussions that consider corruption as a challenge to the establishment of more democratically inclusive societies in Latin America. The paper advocates an intrinsic connection between democratic principles and corruption control – it is only possible to achieve just forms of democratic life if accountability institutions are able to control corruption, and therefore control the political exclusions that it brings. Departing from a non-trivial approach to corruption, and recognizing a gap in democratic theory when thinking about this phenomenon, corruption is understood as the breakdown of the democratic inclusive rule, whereby political decisions are made (and actions were taken) in spite of those potentially affected by them. Based on this idea, this paper proposes a new way of measuring corruption, moving away from usual aggregate measures – such as the Corruption Perception Index – and case studies of corruption scandals. The main argument sustains that corruption is intrinsically connected with the ability to be accountable and to provide public justification for the political conduct. The point advocated is that corruption involves a dimension of political exclusion. It generates a private benefit which is, from a democratic point of view, illegitimate, since it benefits some at the expense of the decisions made by the political community. Corruption is then a form of exclusion based on deception and opacity - for corruption, there is no plausible justification. Empirically, the paper uses the audit reports produced by the Brazilian anti-corruption agency (the CGU - Office of the Comptroller General) in its Inspections From Public Lotteries Program to exemplify how we can use this definition to separate corruption cases from mismanagement irregularities. On one side, there is poor management and inefficiencies, and, on the other, corruption, defined by the implausibility of public justifications – because the public officials would have to publicize illegitimate privileges and undue advantages. CGU reports provide the justifications given by the public officials for the irregularities found and also the acceptance or not by the control agency of these justifications. The analysis of this dialogue – between public officials and control agents – makes it possible to divide the irregularities on those that can be publicly justified versus those that cannot. In order to hold public officials accountable for their actions, making them responsible for the exclusions that they may cause (such as corruption), the accountability institutions fulfil an important role in reinforcing and empowering democracy and its basic inclusive condition.

Keywords: Democracy, Corruption, Accountability, Brazil

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6 Shari'ah Supervisory Board's Performance: The Influence to Quality of Disclosure in Islamic Banks

Authors: Dian Andari

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In several decades, Islamic Banks (IBs) has proliferated internationally. To ensure IBs’ accountability to all stakeholders, a governance system is established. Similar to conventional banks (CBs), IBs create corporate governance system. In addition, IBs have Shari’ah Supervisory Board (SSB) as part of Shari’ah governance formed purposively to ensure IBs innovative operations comply to the Shari’ah. Thus, all boards in IBs must actively participate in good corporate as well as Shari’ah governance. The research will analyze SSB’s performance and quality of disclosure by observing 10 IBs annual report from 2011 to 2015 in Gulf countries. The content analysis will be done to see the relationship between SSB’s performance and quality of disclosure in the annual report. The analysis found that event all aspects of disclosure have been meet, financial disclosure still dominates the annual report. This can indicate that the SSB’s focus is on the interest of capital providers.

Keywords: Accountability, Islamic banks, Shari'ah supervisory board, quality of disclosure

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5 Value Creation of Public Financial Management Reforms through Their Long-Term Impacts

Authors: Christoph Schuler, Oriana Ponta

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Public Financial Management (PFM) reforms are promoted by various international organizations such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF) or the World Bank, local development banks and the donor country community to strengthen governance and accountability in developing countries across the world. Reform efforts undertaken are often systematically measured against international best practice by the application of standardized analytical instruments such as the Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability Framework (PEFA) or the Poverty Reduction Action Plan (PARP). While those instruments analyze direct achievements of PFM reforms, the long-term benefits of such reforms for society remain untapped. This gives rise to the question why the concept of impact evaluation with its experimental or quasi-experimental settings in the form of randomized control trials has rarely been applied in the context of PFM reforms. To close this gap, this study provides examples where the concept of impact evaluation can be applied to PFM reforms and thereby shifting the focus from outcome towards a long-term impact. As it is a new approach, this study does not attempt to conduct a fully flagged impact evaluation of a certain PFM reform. However, it will outline, as a form of pre-test the applicability of the impact evaluation methodology in this context, for example, by more closely analyzing the commonly used indicators (for example within PEFA or PARP). This would mean to scrutinize these indicators as to how they were designed and how they are related to the long-term impact, they should be producing. The analysis of PFM reform indicators and their relation to long-term impacts should provide practitioners and scholars alike with new insights on how to strengthen the accountability of public service delivery through successful and sustainable PFM reforms.

Keywords: Accountability, public financial management, impact evaluation, PFM reforms

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4 Barriers to Entry: The Pitfall of Charter School Accountability

Authors: Ian Kingsbury

Abstract:

The rapid expansion of charter schools (public schools that receive government but do not face the same regulations as traditional public schools) over the preceding two decades has raised concerns over the potential for graft and fraud. These concerns are largely justified: Incidents of financial crime and mismanagement are not unheard of, and the charter sector has become a darling of hedge fund managers. In response, several states have strengthened their charter school regulatory regimes. Imposing regulations and attempting to increase accountability seem like sensible measures, and perhaps they are necessary. However, increased regulation may come at the cost of imposing barriers to entry. Specifically, increased regulation often entails evidence for a high likelihood of fiscal solvency. That should theoretically entail access to capital in the short-term, which may systematically preclude Black or Hispanic applicants from opening charter schools. Moreover, increased regulation necessarily entails more red tape. The institutional wherewithal and the number of hours required to complete an application to open a charter school might favor those who have partnered with an education service provider, specifically a charter management organization (CMO) or education management organization (EMO). These potential barriers to entry pose a significant policy concern. Just as policymakers hope to increase the share of minority teachers and principals, they should sensibly care whether individuals who open charter schools look like the students in that school. Moreover, they might be concerned if successful applications in states with stringent regulations are overwhelmingly affiliated with education service providers. One of the original missions of charter schools was to serve as a laboratory of innovation. Approving only those applications affiliated with education service providers (and in effect establishing a parallel network of schools rather than a diverse marketplace of schools) undermines that mission. Data and methods: The analysis examines more than 2,000 charter school applications from 15 states. It compares the outcomes of applications from states with a strong regulatory environment (those with high scores) from NACSA-the National Association of Charter School Authorizers- to applications from states with a weak regulatory environment (those with a low NACSA score). If the hypothesis is correct, applicants not affiliated with an ESP are more likely to be rejected in high-regulation states compared to those affiliated with an ESP, and minority candidates not affiliated with an education service provider (ESP) are particularly likely to be rejected. Initial returns indicate that the hypothesis holds. More applications in low NASCA-scoring Arizona come from individuals not associated with an ESP, and those individuals are as likely to be accepted as those affiliated with an ESP. On the other hand, applicants in high-NACSA scoring Indiana and Ohio are more than 20 percentage points more likely to be accepted if they are affiliated with an ESP, and the effect is particularly pronounced for minority candidates. These findings should spur policymakers to consider the drawbacks of charter school accountability and consider accountability regimes that do not impose barriers to entry.

Keywords: Accountability, Choice, barriers to entry, charter schools

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3 Effective Citizen Participation in Local Government Decision-Making and Democracy

Authors: Ali Zaimi

Abstract:

Citizen participation in local government is an opportunity given to citizens and government to increase communication between them, create public support for local government plans and most important grow public trust in government. Also, the citizens’ involvement in the political process is an important part of democracy. This study aims to define the strategies for increasing citizen participation in local governance and concentrated in two important mechanisms such as participatory budget and public policy councils. Three strategies that promote more effective citizen involvement in local governance are understanding and using formal institutions of power, collaboration of citizens’ groups and governments officials to jointly formulate programs plans, electing and appointing local officials. A unique aspect of citizen participation to operate effectively is the transparency of government and the inclusion of actors into decision-making. The citizen engagement in local governance enhances accountability and problem solving, promote more inclusive and cohesive communities and enlarge the quality and quantity of initiatives made by communities.

Keywords: Democracy, Government, Accountability, citizen participation

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2 The Victim as a Public Actor: Understanding the Victim’s Role as an Agent of Accountability

Authors: Marie Manikis

Abstract:

This paper argues that the scholarship to date on victims in the criminal process has mainly adopted a private conception of victims –as bearers of individual interests, rights, and remedies– rather than a conception of the victim as an actor with public functions and interests, who has historically and continuously taken on an active role in the common law tradition. This conception enables a greater understanding of the various developments around victim participation in common law criminal justice systems and provides a useful analytical tool to understand the different roles of victims in England and Wales and the United States. Indeed, the main focus on individual rights and the conception of the victim as a private entity undermines the distinctive and increasing role victims play in the wider criminal justice process as agents of accountability through administrative-based processes within and outside courts, including private prosecutions, internal review processes within prosecutorial agencies, judicial review, and ombudsmen processes.

Keywords: Criminal Justice, Accountability, Participation, victims

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1 Perceptions of Corporate Governance and Business Ethics Practices in Kuwaiti Islamic and Conventional Banks

Authors: Khaled Alotaibi, Salah Alhamadi, Ibraheem Almubarak

Abstract:

The study attempts to explore both corporate governance (GC) and business ethics (BE) practices in Kuwaiti banks and the relationship between CG and BE, using an accountability framework. By examining the perceptions of key stakeholder groups, this study investigates the practices of BE and CG in Islamic banks (IBs) compared to conventional banks (CBs). We contribute to the scarce studies concerned with relations between CG and BE. We have employed a questionnaire survey method for a random sample of crucial relevant stakeholder groups. The empirical analysis of the participants’ perceptions highlights the importance of applying CG regulations and BE for Kuwaiti banks and the clear link between the two concepts. We find that the main concern is not the absence of CG and BE codes, but the lack of consistent enforcement of the regulations. Such a system needs to be strictly and effectively implemented in Kuwaiti banks to protect all stakeholders’ wealth, not only that of stockholders. There are significant patterns in the CG and BE expectations among different stakeholder groups. Most interestingly, banks’ client groups illustrate high expectations concerning CG and BE practices.

Keywords: Corporate Governance, Business Ethics, Accountability, Islamic banks, conventional banks, IBs, CBs

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