Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

acclimation Related Abstracts

3 Thermoregulatory Responses of Holstein Cows Exposed to Intense Heat Stress

Authors: Rodrigo De A. Ferrazza, Henry D. M. Garcia, Viviana H. V. Aristizabal, Camilla De S. Nogueira, Cecilia J. Verissimo, Jose Roberto Sartori, Roberto Sartori, Joao Carlos P. Ferreira

Abstract:

Environmental factors adversely influence sustainability in livestock production system. Dairy herds are the most affected by heat stress among livestock industries. This clearly implies in development of new strategies for mitigating heat, which should be based on physiological and metabolic adaptations of the animal. In this study, we incorporated the effect of climate variables and heat exposure time on the thermoregulatory responses in order to clarify the adaptive mechanisms for bovine heat dissipation under intense thermal stress induced experimentally in climate chamber. Non-lactating Holstein cows were contemporaneously and randomly assigned to thermoneutral (TN; n=12) or heat stress (HS; n=12) treatments during 16 days. Vaginal temperature (VT) was measured every 15 min with a microprocessor-controlled data logger (HOBO®, Onset Computer Corporation, Bourne, MA, USA) attached to a modified vaginal controlled internal drug release insert (Sincrogest®, Ourofino, Brazil). Rectal temperature (RT), respiratory rate (RR) and heart rate (HR) were measured twice a day (0700 and 1500h) and dry matter intake (DMI) was estimated daily. The ambient temperature and air relative humidity were 25.9±0.2°C and 73.0±0.8%, respectively for TN, and 36.3± 0.3°C and 60.9±0.9%, respectively for HS. Respiratory rate of HS cows increased immediately after exposure to heat and was higher (76.02±1.70bpm; P<0.001) than TN (39.70±0.71bpm), followed by rising of RT (39.87°C±0.07 for HS versus 38.56±0.03°C for TN; P<0.001) and VT (39.82±0.10°C for HS versus 38.26±0.03°C for TN; P<0.001). A diurnal pattern was detected, with higher (P<0.01) afternoon temperatures than morning and this effect was aggravated for HS cows. There was decrease (P<0.05) of HR for HS cows (62.13±0.99bpm) compared to TN (66.23±0.79bpm), but the magnitude of the differences was not the same over time. From the third day, there was a decrease of DMI for HS in attempt to maintain homeothermy, while TN cows increased DMI (8.27kg±0.33kg d-1 for HS versus 14.03±0.29kg d-1 for TN; P<0.001). By regression analysis, RT and RR better reflected the response of cows to changes in the Temperature Humidity Index and the effect of climate variables from the previous day to influence the physiological parameters and DMI was more important than the current day, with ambient temperature the most important factor. Comparison between acute (0 to 3 days) and chronic (13 to 16 days) exposure to heat stress showed decreasing of the slope of the regression equations for RR and DMI, suggesting an adaptive adjustment, however with no change for RT. In conclusion, intense heat stress exerted strong influence on the thermoregulatory mechanisms, but the acclimation process was only partial.

Keywords: Bovine, thermoregulation, hyperthermia, acclimation, climate chamber

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2 Adjustments of Mechanical and Hydraulic Properties of Wood Formed under Environmental Stresses

Authors: B. Niez, B. Moulia, J. Dlouha, E. Badel

Abstract:

Trees adjust their development to the environmental conditions they experience. Storms events of last decades showed that acclimation of trees to mechanical stresses due to wind is a very important process that allows the trees to sustain for long years. In the future, trees will experience new wind patterns, namely, more often strong winds and fewer daily moderate winds. Moreover, these patterns will go along with drought periods that may interact with the capacity of trees to adjust their growth to mechanical stresses due to wind. It is necessary to understand the mechanisms of wood functional acclimations to environmental conditions in order to predict their behaviour and in order to give foresters and breeders the relevant tools to adapt their forest management. This work aims to study how trees adjust the mechanical and hydraulic functions of their wood to environmental stresses and how this acclimation may be beneficial for the tree to resist to future stresses. In this work, young poplars were grown under controlled climatic conditions that include permanent environmental stress (daily mechanical stress of the stem by bending and/or hydric stress). Then, the properties of wood formed under these stressed conditions were characterized. First, hydraulic conductivity and sensibility to cavitation were measured at the tissue level in order to evaluate the changes in water transport capacity. Secondly, bending tests and Charpy impact tests were carried out at the millimetric scale to locally measure mechanical parameters such as elastic modulus, elastic limit or rupture energy. These experimental data allow evaluating the impacts of mechanical and water stress on the wood material. At the stem level, they will be merged in an integrative model in order to evaluate the beneficial aspect of wood acclimation for trees.

Keywords: Mechanics, Hydraulics, Wood, environmental stresses, acclimation

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1 Acclimation of in vitro-Propagated Apple Plantlets as Affected by Light Intensity

Authors: Guem-Jae Chung, Jin-Hui Lee, Myung-Min Oh

Abstract:

Environmental control of in vitro-propagated apple plantlets is required for successful acclimation to ex vitro due to its low survival rate. This study aimed to determine the proper lighting condition for ex vitro acclimation of the apple plantlets in plant factories. In vitro-propagated M9 apple plantlets treated with pre-acclimatization for 1 week were exposed to following light treatments for additional 6 weeks; 60 μmol·m⁻²·s⁻¹ (A), 100 μmol·m⁻²·s⁻¹ (B), 140 μmol·m⁻²·s⁻¹ (C), 180 μmol·m⁻²·s⁻¹ (D), 60 μmol·m⁻²·s⁻¹ → 100 μmol·m⁻²·s⁻¹ at 2 weeks (E) or 4 weeks (F), 60 μmol·m⁻²·s⁻¹ → 100 μmol·m⁻²·s⁻¹ at 2 weeks → 140 μmol·m⁻²·s⁻¹ at 4 weeks (G) and 60 μmol·m⁻²·s⁻¹ → 140 μmol·m⁻²·s⁻¹ at 4 weeks (H). Shoot height, total leaf area, soil-plant analysis development (SPAD) value, root length, fresh and dry weights of shoots and roots were measured every 2 weeks after transplanting. In addition, the photosynthetic rate was measured at 5 weeks after transplanting. At 6 weeks after transplanting, shoot height of B was significantly higher than the other treatments. SPAD value, total leaf area and root length of B and F were relatively higher than the other treatments. Root fresh weights of B, D, F, and G were relatively higher than those in the other treatments. D induced the highest value in shoot fresh weight probably due to stem hardening, but it also resulted in shoot damage in the early stage of acclimation. Photosynthetic rate at 5 weeks after the transplanting was significantly increased as the light intensity increased. These results suggest that 100 μmol·m⁻²·s⁻¹ for 6 weeks (B) or gradually increased treatment from 60 μmol·m⁻²·s⁻¹ to 140 μmol·m⁻²·s⁻¹ at 2 weeks interval (F) were the proper lighting conditions for successful acclimation of in vitro-propagated apple plantlets. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by Korea Institute of Planning and Evaluation for Technology in Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (IPET) through Agri-Bio industry Technology Development Program, funded by Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (MAFRA) (315003051SB020).

Keywords: Plant Factory, Light intensity, acclimation, in vitro-propagated apple plantlets

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