Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

accident Related Abstracts

16 Prediction of Road Accidents in Qatar by 2022

Authors: M. Abou-Amouna, A. Radwan, L. Al-kuwari, A. Hammuda, K. Al-Khalifa

Abstract:

There is growing concern over increasing incidences of road accidents and consequent loss of human life in Qatar. In light to the future planned event in Qatar, World Cup 2022; Qatar should put into consideration the future deaths caused by road accidents, and past trends should be considered to give a reasonable picture of what may happen in the future. Qatar roads should be arranged and paved in a way that accommodate high capacity of the population in that time, since then there will be a huge number of visitors from the world. Qatar should also consider the risk issues of road accidents raised in that period, and plan to maintain high level to safety strategies. According to the increase in the number of road accidents in Qatar from 1995 until 2012, an analysis of elements affecting and causing road accidents will be effectively studied. This paper aims to identify and criticize the factors that have high effect on causing road accidents in the state of Qatar, and predict the total number of road accidents in Qatar 2022. Alternative methods are discussed and the most applicable ones according to the previous researches are selected for further studies. The methods that satisfy the existing case in Qatar were the multiple linear regression model (MLR) and artificial neutral network (ANN). Those methods are analyzed and their findings are compared. We conclude that by using MLR the number of accidents in 2022 will become 355,226 accidents, and by using ANN 216,264 accidents. We conclude that MLR gave better results than ANN because the artificial neutral network doesn’t fit data with large range varieties.

Keywords: model, prediction, Road Safety, accident, Qatar

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15 Management of Al-Khaldiyah Road (Al Khobar) in Order to Optimize Safety and Improve Sight View

Authors: Tahar Ayadat, Amer Alsari, Hassan Alhalal, Andi Asiz, Omar KM Ouda

Abstract:

Al Khaldiyah is a regional road situated in west-south of Al Khobar, precisely in the area of Half Moon Bay. It is characterized by four lines, which become six lines in some places, in both directions extending over about 10 km length. The road extends between the bridge near the Air Force Base and Half Moon Bay Road. Many accidents have been observed in this road notably over the last two years. Many injuries and deaths were recorded, some of the victims were PMU students. Consequently, management of the road to eliminate or reduce accidents to a large extend becomes imperative. The main goal of this project are to propose sustainable solutions for the purpose optimizing safety and improving its sight view by designing some appropriate junctions including bridge and tunnel in the critical locations.

Keywords: Management, Safety, Sustainable, Traffic, solutions, Road, accident

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14 Study of Mini Steel Re-Rolling and Pickling Mills for the Reduction of Accidents and Health Hazards

Authors: S. P. Rana

Abstract:

Objectives: For the manufacture of a very thin strip or a strip with a high-quality finish, the stainless steel sheet that is called billet is re-rolled in re-rolling mill to make stainless steel sheet of 18 gauges. The rolls of re-rolling mill exert tremendous pressure over the sheet and there is likely chance of breaking of stainless steel strip from the sheet. The objective of the study was to minimise the number of accidents in steel re-rolling mills due to ejection of stainless steel strip and to minimize the pollution caused by the pickling process used in these units. Methods: Looking into the high rate of frequency and severity of accidents as well as pollution hazard in re-rolling and pickling mills, it becomes essential to make necessary arrangements for prevention of accidents in such type of industry. The author carried out survey/inspections of a large number of re-rolling and pickling mills and allied units. During the course of inspection, the working of these steel re-rolling and pickling mills was closely studied and monitored. A number of accidents involving re-rolling mills were investigated and subsequently remedial measures to prevent the occurrence of such accidents were suggested. Assessment of occupational safety and health system of these units was carried out and compliance level of the statutory requirements was checked. The workers were medically examined and monitored to ascertain their health conditions. Results: Proper use of safety gadgets by workers, machine guarding and regular training brought down the risk to an acceptable level and discharged effluent pollution was brought down to permissible limits. The fatal accidents have been reduced by 83%. Conclusions: Effective enforcement and implementation of the directions/suggestions given to the managements of such units brought down the no. of accidents to a rational level. The number of fatal accidents has reduced by 83% during the study period. The effective implementation of pollution control device curtailed the pollution level to an acceptable level.

Keywords: Health Hazards, Hazard, accident, re-rolling mill

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13 Investigation of the Role of Friction in Reducing Pedestrian Injuries in Accidents at Intersections

Authors: Seyed Abbas Tabatabaei, Afshin Ghanbarzadeh, Mehdi Abidizadeh

Abstract:

Nowadays the subject of road traffic accidents and the high social and economic costs due to them is the most fundamental problem that experts and providers of transport and traffic brought to a challenge. One of the most effective measures is to enhance the skid resistance of road surface. This research aims to study the intersection of one case in Ahwaz and the effect of increasing the skid resistance in reducing pedestrian injuries in accidents at intersections. In this research the device was developed to measure the coefficient of friction and tried the rules and practices of it have a high similarity with the Locked Wheel Trailer. This device includes a steel frame, wheels, hydration systems, and force gauge. The output of the device is that the force gauge registers. By investigate this data and applying the relationships relative surface coefficient of friction is obtained. Friction coefficient data for the current state and the state of the new pavement are obtained and plotted on the graphs based on the graphs we can compare the two situations and speed at the moment of collision between the two modes are compared. The results show that increasing the coefficient of friction to what extent can be effective on the severity and number of accidents.

Keywords: accident, coefficient of friction, intersection, skid resistance, locked wheels, pedestrian

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12 Health Seeking Manners of Road Traffic Accident Victims: A Qualitative Study

Authors: Mohammad Mahbub Alam Talukder, Shahnewaz, Hasanat-E-Rabbi, Mohammed Nazrul Islam

Abstract:

Road traffic accident is a global problem which is severe in the developing countries like Bangladesh. In consequence, in developing countries road trauma has now been recognized as an increasing public health hazards and economic burning issue. And after road traffic accidents the lack of management and economic costs related with health seeking behavior have a disproportionate impact on lower income groups, thus contributing to the persistence of poverty in conjunction with disability. This cross sectional study, carried out during July 2012 to June 2013, aimed to explore health seeking decision and culture of handling the road traffic accident related victims, as taken from experiences of the poor disabled people of slum dwellers of Dhaka city. The present study has been designed based on qualitative techniques such as in-depth interview and case studies. Additionally, a survey questionnaire was used to collect the demographic characteristics of the study population (n=150) and to select participants purposely for in-depth interview (n=50) and case study (n=30). Content analysis of qualitative data was done through theme coding and matrix analysis of case study was done to use relevant verbatim. Most of the time the health seeking decision totally depended on the surrounded people of the accidental place, their knowledge, awareness and remaining facility and capacity regarding proper management of the victims. However, most of the cases the victims did not get any early treatment and it took 2-12 hours to get even the first aid because of distance, shortage of money, lack of availability of getting the aid, lack of mass awareness etc. Under the reality of discriminated and unaffordable health service provision better treatment could not turn out due to economic inability of the poor victims. To avoid the severe trauma, treatment delay must be reduced by providing first aid within very short time and to do so, mass awareness campaign is necessary for handing the victims. Moreover, necessary measures should be taken to ensure cost free health service provision to treat the chronic disabled condition of the road traffic accident related poor victims.

Keywords: Qualitative, Injury, slum, accident, disabled

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11 Accidents and Close Call Situations Connected to the Use of Mobile Phones in Working-Age People ≥ 50 Years Old

Authors: Leena Korpinen, Rauno Pääkkönen, Fabriziomaria Gobba

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to investigate accidents and close call situations connected to the use of mobile phones in working-age people ≥ 50 years old. The paper is part of a cross-sectional study that was carried out in 2002 in 15,000 working-age Finns. The study showed that mobile-phone-related accidents and close call situations, both at work and at leisure, are more common in people under 50 years that in people ≥ 50 years old. However, people under 50 use mobile phones more than those aged ≥ 50.

Keywords: age, accident, mobile phone, close call situation

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10 The Role of Speed Reduction Model in Urban Highways Tunnels Accidents

Authors: Khashayar Kazemzadeh, Mohammad Hanif Dasoomi

Abstract:

According to the increasing travel demand in cities, bridges and tunnels are viewed as one of the fundamental components of cities transportation systems. Normally, due to geometric constraints forms in the tunnels, the considered speed in the tunnels is lower than the speed in connected highways. Therefore, drivers tend to reduce the speed near the entrance of the tunnels. In this paper, the effect of speed reduction on accident happened in the entrance of the tunnels has been discussed. The relation between accidents frequency and the parameters of speed, traffic volume and time of the accident in the mentioned tunnel has been analyzed and the mathematical model has been proposed.

Keywords: Tunnel, mathematical model, accident, urban highway

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9 Analysis of Access Pattern to School and Travel Risks among School Children in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria

Authors: Barry Aifesehi Aiworo, Henry Oriakhi

Abstract:

This paper, examines the analysis of access pattern to school and travel risks among school children in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. The risk includes accident, molestation (sexually) and kidnapping. The objective of this paper are to examine the various means (modes) of transport to school; determine the type and incidences of risk experienced by school children in the study area; examine the risk incidences and ages of school children in the study area. Hypothesis which states that the types of risks encountered by school children are independent of means of transport was tested using the chi-square test (X2). A sampling ratio of twelve percent (12%) was taken from 396 schools in Benin City. By implication, 49 schools were randomly selected in Benin City for this research. A total of 42,053 students in the 49 schools constitute the sample frame for the research. Two percent (2%), 841 students were taken as the sample size. The use of stratified sampling method was applied by stratifying the study area (Benin City) into local governments- Egor, Ikpoba-Okha and Oredo. Thereafter, the lists of schools in the various local governments were obtained from the Ministry of Education before the schools for research were randomly chosen from each local government area. The analysis revealed that 6.7% of the total students interviewed have been involved in road accidents. 1.04% of the total respondents said at one time or the other that they have been kidnapped. Finally, the research found that travel is comparatively safe and believes this may be partly attributable to safer route to schools and school children being more familiar with the school journey. The research indicates that children aged between eleven and fifteen are most at risk of hit or knocked down on Benin City’s roads. These findings may help in planning and targeting road safety initiative (education, campaigns) in Benin City.

Keywords: accident, pedestrian, molestation (sexually), kidnapping, pedophile

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8 Comparison of Injuries and Accidents Globally and in Finland

Authors: L. Korpinen, R. Pääkkönen

Abstract:

We tried statistically to determine the biggest risks for accidents and injuries in Finland compared to other countries. We have a very high incidence of domestic falls and accidental poisoning compared to other European countries. On the other side, we have a relatively low number of accidents in traffic or at work globally, and in European scale, because we have worked hard to diminish these forms of accidents. In Finland, there is work to be done to improve attitudes and actions against domestic accidents.

Keywords: injuries, accident, comparison, Finland

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7 Blue-Collar Workers’ Accidents and Close Call Situations Connected to the Use of Cell Phones among Finns Aged 18–65

Authors: L. Korpinen, R. Pääkkönen, F. Gobba

Abstract:

There has been discussion if the use of mobile phones causes accidents. We studied workers’ accidents and near accidents related to the use of phones. This study is part of a large cross-sectional study that was carried out on 15,000 working-age Finns. We noticed that there were 4–5 times more close call situations than accidents connected to mobile phones and also work related accidents were fewer than leisure related. There are confusing parameters like the use of mobile phones at work, differences in work content between women and men.

Keywords: accident, cell phone, close call situation, blue-collar workers

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6 Assessment of Human Factors Analysis and Classification System in Construction Accident Prevention

Authors: Zakari Mustapha, Clinton Aigbavboa, Wellington Didi Thwala

Abstract:

Majority of the incidents and accidents in complex high-risk systems that exist in the construction industry and other sectors have been attributed to unsafe acts of workers. The purpose of this paper was to asses Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) in construction accident prevention. The study was conducted through the use of secondary data from journals, books and internet to achieve the objective of the study. The review of literature looked into details of different views from different scholars about HFACS framework in accidents investigations. It further highlighted on various sections or disciplines of accident occurrences in human performance within the construction. The findings from literature review showed that unsafe acts of a worker and unsafe working conditions are the two major causes of accident in the construction industry.Most significant factor in the cause of site accident in the construction industry is unsafe acts of a worker. The findings also show how the application of HFACS framework in the investigation of accident will lead to the identification of common trends. Further findings show that provision for the prevention of accident will be made based on past accident records to identify and prioritize where intervention is needed within the construction industry.

Keywords: Construction, accident, HFACS, unsafe acts

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5 Accidents and Close Call Situations Due to Cell Phone Use While Moving, Driving, and Working

Authors: L. Korpinen, R. Pääkkönen, F. Gobba

Abstract:

Accidents and close call situations involving cell phones are nowadays possible. The objective of this study was to investigate the accidents and close call situations due to cell phone use while moving, driving, and working among Finns aged between 18 and 65. This work is part of a large cross-sectional study that was carried out on 15,000 working-age Finns. About 26% of people who had an accident, and about half of the people including close call situation with the mobile phone, answered that use of the phone influenced. In the future, it is important to take into account that the use of a mobile phone can be distracting while driving.

Keywords: accident, cell phone, close call situation, blue-collar workers

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4 Utilization of Safety Measures in Prevention of Site Accidents in Nigerian Construction Industry

Authors: Samuel Opeyemi Williams, Taki Eddine Seghier, Razali Adul Hamid, Mohd Saidin Misman, Dominic Ileyemi Ajayi

Abstract:

Construction industry is famous with hazardous and high-risk environment with operatives facing a greater risk of work-related fatality or injury than operatives in other industries. It is characterised with different types of accident, ranging from electrocution, trip and slip, fall from height, struck-by, explosion, trench collapse, to scaffolding accidents, with each type being caused by different factors. However, accidents are unplanned, unforeseeable and unexpected events, but regardless of the high-risk nature of the industry, accidents are preventable. The aim of the paper is to determine the extent of the utilization of the safety measures, as well as identifying the factors underlining the non-usage. A research methodology consisting of a literature review was used to identify the types and causes of site accidents, while a well-structured questionnaire was used to determine the level of the usage of safety measures on site. The data were analysed with the results revealing the use of protective clothing, safety helmet, first aid, protective shoe, safety belt, and face shield to aid safety of workers, as well as ascribing non-usage of safety measures to cost, ignorance, lack of experts and non-inclusion in contract document. Recommendations are included in the paper suggesting the enforcement of the utilization of safety measures in reducing the spate of accident occurrence on construction sites.

Keywords: Prevention, construction industry, Safety measures, accident

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3 Casual Effects of Informal Care and Health on Falls and Other Accidents among the Elderly Population in China

Authors: Hong Wu, Naiji Lu, Chenguang Wang, Xinming Tu

Abstract:

This article analyzes the causal effects of informal care, mental health, and physical health on falls and other accidents (e.g. traffic accidents) among elderly people. To purge potential reversal causal effects, e.g., past accidents induce more future informal care, we use two-stage least squares to identify the impacts. By using longitudinal data from a representative national China Health and retirement longitudinal study of people aged 45 and older in China, our findings indicate that informal care decreases while poor health conditions increase the occurrence of accidents. We also find heterogeneous impacts on the occurrence of accidents, varying by gender, urban status, and past accident history. Our findings suggest the following three policy implications. First, policy makers who aim to decrease accidents should take informal care to elders into account. Second, ease of birth policy and postponed retirement policy are urgent to meet the demand of informal care. Third, medical policies should attach great importance to not only physical health but also mental health of elderly parents especially for older people with accident history.

Keywords: Physical Health, Mental Health, China, accident, fall, informal care

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2 Effectiveness and Efficiency of Unified Philippines Accident Reporting and Database System in Optimizing Road Crash Data Usage with Various Stakeholders

Authors: Farhad Arian Far, Anjanette Q. Eleazar, Francis Aldrine A. Uy, Mary Joyce Anne V. Uy

Abstract:

The Unified Philippine Accident Reporting and Database System (UPARDS), is a newly developed system by Dr. Francis Aldrine Uy of the Mapua Institute of Technology. The main purpose is to provide an advanced road accident investigation tool, record keeping and analysis system for stakeholders such as Philippine National Police (PNP), Metro Manila Development Authority (MMDA), Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH), Department of Health (DOH), and insurance companies. The system is composed of 2 components, the mobile application for road accident investigators that takes advantage of available technology to advance data gathering and the web application that integrates all accident data for the use of all stakeholders. The researchers with the cooperation of PNP’s Vehicle Traffic Investigation Sector of the City of Manila, conducted the field-testing of the application in fifteen (15) accident cases. Simultaneously, the researchers also distributed surveys to PNP, Manila Doctors Hospital, and Charter Ping An Insurance Company to gather their insights regarding the web application. The survey was designed on information systems theory called Technology Acceptance Model. The results of the surveys revealed that the respondents were greatly satisfied with the visualization and functions of the applications as it proved to be effective and far more efficient in comparison with the conventional pen-and-paper method. In conclusion, the pilot study was able to address the need for improvement of the current system.

Keywords: Mobile Application, Database, Investigation, accident, pilot testing

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1 Modelling Phase Transformations in Zircaloy-4 Fuel Cladding under Transient Heating Rates

Authors: Jefri Draup, Antoine Ambard, Chi-Toan Nguyen

Abstract:

Zirconium alloys exhibit solid-state phase transformations under thermal loading. These can lead to a significant evolution of the microstructure and associated mechanical properties of materials used in nuclear fuel cladding structures. Therefore, the ability to capture effects of phase transformation on the material constitutive behavior is of interest during conditions of severe transient thermal loading. Whilst typical Avrami, or Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK), type models for phase transformations have been shown to have a good correlation with the behavior of Zircaloy-4 under constant heating rates, the effects of variable and fast heating rates are not fully explored. The present study utilises the results of in-situ high energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction (SXRD) measurements in order to validate the phase transformation models for Zircaloy-4 under fast variable heating rates. These models are used to assess the performance of fuel cladding structures under loss of coolant accident (LOCA) scenarios. The results indicate that simple Avrami type models can provide a reasonable indication of the phase distribution in experimental test specimens under variable fast thermal loading. However, the accuracy of these models deteriorates under the faster heating regimes, i.e., 100Cs⁻¹. The studies highlight areas for improvement of simple Avrami type models, such as the inclusion of temperature rate dependence of the JMAK n-exponent.

Keywords: Modelling, Fuel, accident, zirconium

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