Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 41

Accessibility Related Abstracts

41 Biomass Availability Matrix: Methodology to Define High Level Biomass Availability for Bioenergy Purposes, a Quebec Case Study

Authors: Camilo Perez Lee, Mark Lefsrud, Edris Madadian, Yves Roy

Abstract:

Biomass availability is one of the most important aspects to consider when determining the proper location of potential bioenergy plants. Since this aspect has a direct impact on biomass transportation and storage, biomass availability greatly influences the operational cost. Biomass availability is more than the quantity available on a specific region; other elements such as biomass accessibility and potential play an important role. Accessibility establishes if the biomass could be extracted and conveyed easily considering factors such as biomass availability, infrastructure condition and other operational issues. On the other hand, biomass potential is defined as the capacity of a specific region to scale the usage of biomass as an energy source, move from another energy source or to switch the type of biomass to increase their biomass availability in the future. This paper defines methodologies and parameters in order to determine the biomass availability within the administrative regions of the province of Quebec; firstly by defining the forestry, agricultural, municipal solid waste and energy crop biomass availability per administrative region, next its infrastructure accessibility and lastly defining the region potential. Thus, these data are processed to create a biomass availability matrix allowing to define the overall biomass availability per region and to determine the most optional candidates for bioenergy plant location.

Keywords: biomass, Bioenergy, Accessibility, Availability, biomass potential

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40 Difficulties Posed by Disability on the Acquisition of Higher Education in Inclusive Setting by Physically Challenged Students

Authors: M. Saeed Akhtar, G. Fatima, R. Bashir, M. Malik, M. Safder, D. Nayab

Abstract:

The main purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate challenges and difficulties being encountered by physically challenged students in inclusive settings at higher education level. A self-developed and validated questionnaire (Cronbach alpha: 0.879) was employed for data collected from a sample of fifty six (56) graduate and continuing students with physical disabilities (males:46, females:10) selected through snow ball sampling technique from colleges and universities of Pakistan. The participants were required to respond on three point criteria (no, to some extent, yes). Data were analyzed by using SPSS. Independent sample t-test and One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was run to compare mean scores of responses of physically challenged students on the basis of their gender, education, types of physical disability, types of institutions, provinces, and status. Frequencies were run to have an overall picture of challenges faced by physically challenged students. Major findings reflected that physically challenged students were encountering problems in transportation, accessibility, and financial support, etc. Conclusions were drawn and recommendations were made.

Keywords: Higher Education, Accessibility, physically challenged students, inclusive setting

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
39 Dimensions of Public Spaces: Feelings through Human Senses

Authors: Piyush Hajela

Abstract:

The significance of public spaces is on a rise in Indian cities as a strong interaction space across cultures and community. It is a pertinent gathering space for people across age and gender, where the face keeps changing with time. A public space is directly related to the social dimension, people, comfort, safety, and security, that, it proposes to provide, as inherent qualities. The presence of these and other dimensions of space, together with related equitable environments, impart certain quality to a public space. The higher the optimum contents of these dimensions, the better the quality of public space. Public is represented by PEOPLE through society and community, and space is created by dimensions. Society contains children, women and the elderly, community is composed of social, and religious groups. These behave differently in a different setting and call for varied quality of spaces, created and generated. Public spaces are spread across a city and have more or less established their existence and prominence in a social set up. While few of them are created others are discovered by the people themselves in their constant search for desirable interactive public spaces. These are the most sought after gathering spaces that have the quality of promoting social interaction, providing free accessibility, provide desirable scale etc. The emergence of public space dates back to the times when people started forming communities, display cultures and traditions publicly, gathered for religious observations and celebrations, and address the society. Traditional cities and societies in India were feudal and orthodox in their nature and yet had public spaces. When the gathering of people at one point in a city became more frequent the point became more accessible and occupied. Baras (large courts, Chowks (public squares) and Maidans (large grounds) became well-known gathering spaces in the towns and cities. As the population grew such points grew in number, each becoming a public space in itself and with a different and definite social character. The author aims at studying the various dimensions of public spaces with which a public space has power to hold people for a significant period of time. The human senses here are note referred to as taste, sight, hearing, touch or smell, but how human senses collectively respond to when stationed in a given public space. The collectives may reflect in dimensions like comfort, safety, environment, freedom etc. Various levels of similar other responses would be studied through interviews, observations and other scientific methods for both qualitative and quantitative analysis.

Keywords: Society, Accessibility, Interaction, people, comfort, enclosure

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38 Expanded Access through Open and Distance Learning in Nigeria

Authors: Okoro Ngozi Priscilla

Abstract:

Education is the bedrock of development in every nation of the world, and it is very useful in ensuring quality of life for every individual and a better world for the people. Education, therefore, is the basic instrument of economic growth and technological advancement in any society. It is in recognition of this fact that the Nigerian government commits immense resources to ensuring that its citizens acquire education and also policies are being made to ensure the accessibility of education, qualitative higher education is highly recognized as a vital driving force for the socio-economic growth and technological development of nations yet the problem of access to University education in the country persists and therefore brought about the introduction of Open and Distance Learning (ODL) which has as its main objective, the attainment of mass literacy and providing opportunities for those who could not gain admission through designated entrance examination agencies as well as those who could not afford to leave their job to attend a full-time educational programme. Open and distance learning seeks to improve skilled manpower and also improve the skills for those already at work.

Keywords: Accessibility, Distance Learning, open and distant learning programme, fulltime educational programme

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37 Water Accessibility at Household Levels in Zambia: A Case Study of Fitobaula Settlement

Authors: Emmanuel Sachikumba, Micheal Msoni, Westone Mafuleka

Abstract:

Zambia has a good climate with favourable rainfall pattern; this provides sufficient recharge for the surface and groundwater resources. In spite of the sufficient surface and ground water resources, accessibility to water at household levels is problematic both in quality and quantity. The study examined water accessibility as well as water quality at the household level. The research looked at the sources of water for the households and considered the complications of accessibility to water and the available opportunities therein. The investigation involved fifty households and the data was collected by the use of questionnaires (to assess accessibility) and laboratory tests (for ascertaining water quality). In addition to this, government departments such as the health, agriculture, forestry and education as well as the municipal council were interviewed on the topic under study. The study was descriptive in nature where clustered sampling procedures using simple random methods were utilised to select the households which were to participate in the study. The key findings were that; accessibility to water household levels is still a challenge in the settlement as most of the point sources (shallow wells, the stream and the river) were found to be contaminated. In addition to this, it was found that there was no direct relationship between the economic performance of a household and the accessibility to water. The study also observed that there were opportunities for the people in the settlement as they were increasingly getting into the education system, and adult literacy was being encouraged in the settlement. Furthermore, the settlement has groundwater resources which indicate that there can be sufficient water provision for the settlers.

Keywords: Water, Accessibility, Settlement, household

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36 Assessing the Usability and Accessibility of Turkey E-Government Websites

Authors: Yakup Akgül, Kemal Vatansever

Abstract:

E-Government services offer citizens an easy way to accomplish their work anytime and anywhere. Ensuring the accessibility and usability of such services is crucial to citizens to allow smooth online transaction. In this paper, an empirical study to investigate the accessibility and usability of a representative sample of Turkish e-government services presented. The study evaluated sixty one Turkish government websites according to four perspectives.The accessibility will be based on the compliance to WCAG 2.0 recommendations, and the usability will be based on a heuristics-based content, HTML and CSS validity and current use of HTML 5 and ARIA. The evaluation results show that the examined e-Government services have one or more accessibility issues. On the other hand, in terms of usability, most services were usable and well designed, thus little work is recommended to make them more user-friendly and attractive to citizen.

Keywords: e-Government, Turkey, Accessibility, Usability

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35 The Impact of Government Subsidies to Keep Residents Studying at Home

Authors: Melissa James Maceachern

Abstract:

This study examines a financial aid program that is designed to “keep residents at home” to attend higher education by providing financial aid as an incentive or discount in their first year of university following high school graduation. This study offers insight into financial matters for higher education students that can assist in providing policy direction for student financing. In particular, this study found that students appeared to value the bursary but none of the key metrics related to participation or conversion to the home institution indicated that the bursary impacted enrolment or participation. One key metric, student loans received by direct entry high school students did indicate a decline in the number of recipients. This study also identified accessibility issues to higher education that are of importance when considering the declining youth populations, future labour market needs and the need to sustain higher education institutions. This is undoubtedly a challenging period of time given the changing social and demographic forces within Canada. A comprehensive examination of the policy and programs to address these forces needs to be undertaken. This study highlights the importance of utilizing financial aid in combination with other policy to assist students in accessing higher education.

Keywords: Government, Accessibility, Participation, Financing

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
34 Assessment of the Impact of Road Transportation Improvement on Rural Development

Authors: Mohammad Mirwais Arghandiwal, Fujita Motohiro, Wisinee Wisetjindawat

Abstract:

Since 2001, the new government of Afghanistan addressed the improvement of transportation in rural areas as one of the key issues for the country development. This paper thus, aims to show the impotency of transportation in the rural area of Kabul province. A field survey in Kabul Province capital of Afghanistan has been conducted during March, 2015, and 201 questionnaires were collected from four districts named Shakar Dara, Paghman, Char Asyab, and Khak Jabar to investigate the impacts of road transportation on the people’s daily life. The districts had their road projects constructed during the last 3-5 years. The interviewees are chosen randomly from a different category of districts residences. As transportation is one of the most important factors for the development of the communities, during the survey it was very easily to observe a positive effect on the life of people. The improvement on the accessibility has had a positive impact on the land and land price. In this paper, a model is created to show the relationship between different factors and the land price improvement. In the end, a recommendation is presented on the establishment of the community council for a better use and maintenance of road projects. We emphasize on a public and private partnership at a community level in the districts during the construction period too. In addition, the communities should be encouraged on their positive role in the improvement of transportation through their participation and collaboration with the local government.

Keywords: Accessibility, Poverty, rural area, Afghanistan, transportation development

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
33 Food Security in Nigeria: An Examination of Food Availability and Accessibility in Nigeria

Authors: Okolo Chimaobi Valentine, Obidigbo Chizoba

Abstract:

As a basic physiology need, the threat to sufficient food production is the threat to human survival. Food security has been an issue that has gained global concern. This paper looks at the food security in Nigeria by assessing the availability of food and accessibility of the available food. The paper employed multiple linear regression technique and graphic trends of growth rates of relevant variables to show the situation of food security in Nigeria. Results of the tests revealed that population growth rate was higher than the growth rate of food availability in Nigeria for the earlier period of the study. Commercial bank credit to the agricultural sector, foreign exchange utilization for food and the Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund (ACGSF) contributed significantly to food availability in Nigeria. Food prices grew at a faster rate than the average income level, making it difficult to access sufficient food. It implies that prior to the year 2012; there was insufficient food to feed the Nigerian populace. However, continued credit to the food and agricultural sector will ensure sustained and sufficient production of food in Nigeria. Microfinance banks should make sufficient credit available to the smallholder farmer. The government should further control and subsidize the rising price of food to make it more accessible by the people.

Keywords: Food, Security, Accessibility, Availability

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32 Dimension of Water Accessibility in the Southern Part of Niger State, Nigeria

Authors: Kudu Dangana, Garba Inuwa Kuta, Pai H. Halilu, Osesienemo R. Asiribo-Sallau

Abstract:

The study examined the determinants of household water accessibility in Southern part of Niger State, Nigeria. Data for the study was obtained from primary and secondary sources using questionnaire, interview, personal observation and documents. 1,192 questionnaires were administered; sampling techniques adopted are combination of purposive, stratified and simple random. Purposive sampling technique was used to determine sample frame; sample unit was determined using stratified sampling method and simple random technique was used in administering questionnaires. The result was analyzed within the scope of “WHO” water accessibility indicators using descriptive statistics. Major sources of water in the area are well; hand and electric pump borehole and streams. These sources account for over 90% of household’s water. Average per capita water consumption in the area is 22 liters per day, while location efficiency of facilities revealed an average of 80 people per borehole. Household water accessibility is affected mainly by the factors of distances, time spent to obtain water, low income status of the majority of respondents to access modern water infrastructure, and to a lesser extent household size. Recommendations includes, all tiers of government to intensify efforts in providing water infrastructures and existing ones through budgetary provisions, and communities should organize fund raising bazaar, so as to raise fund to improve water infrastructures in the area.

Keywords: Accessibility, determined, stratified, scope

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31 A Short Study on the Effects of Public Service Advertisement on Gender Bias in Accessible and Non-Accessible Format

Authors: Amrin Moger, Martin Mathew, Sagar Bhalerao

Abstract:

Advertisements play a vital role in dissemination of information regarding products and services. Advertisements as Mass Media tool is not only a source of entertainment, but also a source of information, education and entertainment. It provides information about the outside world and exposes us to other ways of life and culture. Public service advertisements (PSA) are generally aimed at public well-being. Aim of PSA is not to make profit, but rather to change public opinion and raise awareness in the Society about a social issue.’ Start with the boys’ is one such PSA aims to create awareness about issue of ‘gender bias’ that is taught prevalent in the society. Persons with disabilities (PWDs) are also consumers of PSA in the society. The population of persons with disability in the society also faces gender bias and discrimination. It is a double discrimination. The advertisement selected for the study gives out a strong message on gender bias and therefore must be accessible to everyone including PWDs in the society. Accessibility of PSA in the digital format can be done with the help of Universal Design (UD) in digital media application. Features of UD inclusive in nature, and it focus on eliminating established barriers through initial designs. It considers the needs of diverse people, whether they are persons with or without disability. In this research two aspects of UD in digital media: captioning and Indian sign language (ISL) is used. Hence a short survey study was under taken to know the effects of a multimedia on gender bias, in accessible format on persons with and without disability. The result demonstrated a significant difference in the opinion, on the usage accessible and non-accessible format for persons with and without disability and their understanding of message in the PSA selected for the study.

Keywords: Gender, Disability, Accessibility, public service advertisements

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30 Using a GIS-Based Method for Green Infrastructure Accessibility of Different Socio-Economic Groups in Auckland, New Zealand

Authors: Xindong An, Jing Ma

Abstract:

Green infrastructure, the most important aspect of improving the quality of life, has been a crucial element of the liveability measurement. With demanding of more liveable urban environment from increasing population in city area, access to green infrastructure in walking distance should be taken into consideration. This article exemplifies the study on accessibility measurement of green infrastructure in central Auckland (New Zealand), using network analysis tool on the basis of GIS, to verify the accessibility levels of green infrastructure. It analyses the overall situation of green infrastructure and draws some conclusions on the city’s different levels of accessibility according to the categories and facilities distribution, which provides valuable references and guidance for the future facility improvement in planning strategies.

Keywords: Accessibility, Quality of Life, GIS, Green Infrastructure

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29 Energy Usage in Isolated Areas of Honduras

Authors: Bryan Jefry Sabillon, Arlex Molina Cedillo

Abstract:

Currently, the raise in the demand of electrical energy as a consequence of the development of technology and population growth, as well as some projections made by ‘La Agencia Internacional de la Energía’ (AIE) and research institutes, reveal alarming data about the expected raise of it in the next few decades. Because of this, something should be made to raise the awareness of the rational and efficient usage of this resource. Because of the global concern of providing electrical energy to isolated areas, projects consisting of energy generation using renewable resources are commonly carried out. On a socioeconomically and cultural point of view, it can be foreseen a positive impact that would result for the society to have this resource. This article is focused on the great potential that Honduras shows, as a country that is looking forward to produce renewable energy due to the crisis that it’s living nowadays. Because of this, we present a detailed research that exhibits the main necessities that the rural communities are facing today, to allay the negative aspects due to the scarcity of electrical energy. We also discuss which should be the type of electrical generation method to be used, according to the disposition, geography, climate, and of course the accessibility of each area. Honduras is actually in the process of developing new methods for the generation of energy; therefore, it is of our concern to talk about renewable energy, the exploitation of which is a global trend. Right now the countries’ main energetic generation methods are: hydrological, thermic, wind, biomass and photovoltaic (this is one of the main sources of clean electrical generation). The use of these resources was possible partially due to the studies made by the organizations that focus on electrical energy and its demand, such as ‘La Cooperación Alemana’ (GIZ), ‘La Secretaria de Energía y Recursos Naturales’ (SERNA), and ‘El Banco Centroamericano de Integración Económica’ (BCIE), which eased the complete guide that is to be used in the protocol to be followed to carry out the three stages of this type of projects: 1) Licences and Permitions, 2) Fincancial Aspects and 3) The inscription for the Protocol in Kyoto. This article pretends to take the reader through the necessary information (according to the difficult accessibility that each zone might present), about the best option of electrical generation in zones that are totally isolated from the net, pretending to use renewable resources to generate electrical energy. We finally conclude that the usage of hybrid systems of generation of energy for small remote communities brings about a positive impact, not only because of the fact of providing electrical energy but also because of the improvements in education, health, sustainable agriculture and livestock, and of course the advances in the generation of energy which is the main concern of this whole article.

Keywords: Energy, renewable, Accessibility, isolated

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28 Importance of Road Infrastructure on the People Live in Afghanistan

Authors: Mursal Ibrahim Zada

Abstract:

Since 2001, the new Government of Afghanistan has put the improvement of transportation in rural area as one of the key issues for the development of the country. Since then, about 17,000 km of rural roads were planned to be constructed in the entire country. This thesis will assess the impact of rural road improvement on the development of rural communities and housing facilities. Specifically, this study aims to show that the improved road has leads to an improvement in the community, which in turn has a positive effect on the lives of rural people. To obtain this goal, a questionnaire survey was conducted in March 2015 to the residents of four different districts of Kabul province, Afghanistan, where the road projects were constructed in recent years. The collected data was analyzed using on a regression analysis considering different factors such as land price, waiting time at the station, travel time to the city, number of employed family members and so on. Three models are developed to demonstrate the relationship between different factors before and after the improvement of rural transportation. The results showed a significant change positively in the value of land price and housing facilities, travel time to the city, waiting time at the station, number of employed family members, fare per trip to the city, and number of trips to the city per month after the pavement of the road. The results indicated that the improvement of transportation has a significant impact on the improvement of the community in different parts, especially on the price of land and housing facility and travel time to the city.

Keywords: Accessibility, rural area, Afghanistan, housing facility, land price

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27 A Protocol Study of Accessibility: Physician’s Perspective Regarding Disability and Continuum of Care

Authors: Sidra Jawed

Abstract:

The accessibility constructs and the body privilege discourse has been a major problem while dealing with health inequities and inaccessibility. The inherent problem in this arbitrary view of disability is that disability would never be the productive way of living. For past thirty years, disability activists have been working to differentiate ‘impairment’ from ‘disability’ and probing for more understanding of limitation imposed by society, this notion is ultimately known as the Social Model of Disability. The vulnerable population as disability community remains marginalized and seen relentlessly fighting to highlight the importance of social factors. It does not only constitute physical architectural barriers and famous blue symbol of access to the healthcare but also invisible, intangible barriers as attitudes and behaviours. Conventionally the idea of ‘disability’ has been laden with prejudiced perception amalgamating with biased attitude. Equity in contemporary setup necessitates the restructuring of organizational structure. Apparently simple, the complex interplay of disability and contemporary healthcare set up often ends up at negotiating vital components of basic healthcare needs. The role of society is indispensable when it comes to people with disability (PWD), everything from the access to healthcare to timely interventions are strongly related to the set up in place and the attitude of healthcare providers. It is vital to understand the association between assumptions and the quality of healthcare PWD receives in our global healthcare setup. Most of time the crucial physician-patient relationship with PWD is governed by the negative assumptions of the physicians. The multifaceted, troubled patient-physicians’ relationship has been neglected in past. To compound it, insufficient work has been done to explore physicians’ perspective about the disability and access to healthcare PWD have currently. This research project is directed towards physicians’ perspective on the intersection of health and access of healthcare for PWD. The principal aim of the study is to explore the perception of disability in family medicine physicians, highlighting the underpinning of medical perspective in healthcare institution. In the quest of removing barriers, the first step must be to identify the barriers and formulate a plan for future policies, involving all the stakeholders. There would be semi-structured interviews to explore themes as accessibility, medical training, construct of social model and medical model of disability, time limitations, financial constraints. The main research interest is to identify the obstacles to inclusion and marginalization continuing from the basic living necessities to wide health inequity in present society. Physicians point of view is largely missing from the research landscape and the current forum of knowledge with regards to physicians’ standpoint. This research will provide policy makers with a starting point and comprehensive background knowledge that can be a stepping stone for future researches and furthering the knowledge translation process to strengthen healthcare. Additionally, it would facilitate the process of knowledge translation between the much needed medical and disability community.

Keywords: Disability, Accessibility, physicians, social model

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26 Homelessness and Disaster Mitigation: An Exploratory Study into How Casualties Can Be Reduced with the Homeless

Authors: Blythe Maltby

Abstract:

Homeless populations are one of the sections of society most vulnerable to the effects of natural disasters. Channels of communication to these populations are limited as they lack access to mainstream modes of emergency notification, often being the last to know about state emergencies. This study aims to answer if there is a way that cities and policies be designed to help reduce casualty rates to the homeless during state emergencies, such as earthquake and tsunami preparations. The study used a qualitative research approach, namely by speaking to levels of government, homelessness charities and workers and others about preparations and their experiences with the response of state emergencies. The proposed paper may help countries identify the gaps in their preparations to help facilitate better resources to look after these vulnerable populations.

Keywords: Accessibility, disaster mitigation, Homeless, Vancouver

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25 Understanding Walkability in the Libyan Urban Space: Policies, Perceptions and Smart Design for Sustainable Tripoli

Authors: A. Abdulla Khairi Mohamed, Mohamed Gamal Abdelmonem, Gehan Selim

Abstract:

Walkability in civic and public spaces in Libyan cities is challenging due to the lack of accessibility design, informal merging into car traffic, and the general absence of adequate urban and space planning. The lack of accessible and pedestrian-friendly public spaces in Libyan cities has emerged as a major concern for the government if it is to develop smart and sustainable spaces for the 21st century. A walkable urban space has become a driver for urban development and redistribution of land use to ensure pedestrian and walkable routes between sites of living and workplaces. The characteristics of urban open space in the city centre play a main role in attracting people to walk when attending their daily needs, recreation and daily sports. There is significant gap in the understanding of perceptions, feasibility and capabilities of Libyan urban space to accommodate enhance or support the smart design of a walkable pedestrian-friendly environment that is safe and accessible to everyone. The paper aims to undertake observations of walkability and walkable space in the city of Tripoli as a benchmark for Libyan cities; assess the validity and consistency of the seven principal aspects of smart design, safety, accessibility and 51 factors that affect the walkability in open urban space in Tripoli, through the analysis of 10 local urban spaces experts (town planner, architect, transport engineer and urban designer); and explore user groups’ perceptions of accessibility in walkable spaces in Libyan cities through questionnaires. The study sampled 200 respondents in 2015-16. The results of this study are useful for urban planning, to classify the walkable urban space elements which affect to improve the level of walkability in the Libyan cities and create sustainable and liveable urban spaces.

Keywords: Sustainability, Accessibility, Walkability, liveability

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24 Traditionalism and Modernity in Seoul’s Urban Planning for the Disabled

Authors: Helena Park

Abstract:

For the last three decades, Seoul has experienced an exponential increase in population and concomitant rapid urbanization. With such development, Korea adopted a predominantly Western style of architecture but still based the structures on Korea’s traditionalism and Confucian precepts of pung su (feng shui). While Korean urban planning is focusing on balancing out the modernism and traditionalism in its city architecture, particularly in and landmark sites like The Seoul N Tower and Gyeongbok Palace, the accessibility and convenience concerns of minorities in social groups like the disabled are habitually disregarded. With the implementations of ramps and elevators, the welfare of all citizens seemed to improve. According to the dictates of traditional Korean culture, it was crucial for those construed as “disabled” or “underprivileged” to feel natural in the city of Seoul, which is planned and built with the background aesthetic theory of being harmonized with nature. It was interesting and also alarming to see the extent to which Korean landmarks were lacking facilities for the disabled throughout the city. Standards set by the Ministry of Health and Welfare and the Seoul Metropolitan City insist that buildings accommodate the needs of the disabled as well as the non-disabled equally, but it was hard to find buildings in Seoul - old or new - that fulfilled all the requirements. If fulfilled, some of the facilities were hard to find or not well maintained. There is thus a serious concern for planning reform in connection with Seoul’s 2030 Urban Plan. This paper argues that alternative planning could better integrate Korea’s traditionalist architecture and concepts of pung su rather than insist on the necessity of Western-style modernism as the sole modality for achieving accessibility for the disabled in Korea.

Keywords: Accessibility, architecture of Seoul, Pung Su (Feng Shui), traditionalism, modernism in Seoul

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23 Assessing the Accessibility to Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

Authors: Tsung-Hsueh Lu, Tzu-Jung Tseng, Pei-Hsuen Han

Abstract:

Background: Ensuring patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) access to hospitals that could perform percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in time is an important concern of healthcare managers. One commonly used the method to assess the coverage of population access to PCI hospital is the use GIS-estimated linear distance (crow's fly distance) between the district centroid and the nearest PCI hospital. If the distance is within a given distance (such as 20 km), the entire population of that district is considered to have appropriate access to PCI. The premise of using district centroid to estimate the coverage of population resident in that district is that the people live in the district are evenly distributed. In reality, the population density is not evenly distributed within the administrative district, especially in rural districts. Fortunately, the Taiwan government released basic statistical area (on average 450 population within the area) recently, which provide us an opportunity to estimate the coverage of population access to PCI services more accurate. Objectives: We aimed in this study to compare the population covered by a give PCI hospital according to traditional administrative district versus basic statistical area. We further examined if the differences between two geographic units used would be larger in a rural area than in urban area. Method: We selected two hospitals in Tainan City for this analysis. Hospital A is in urban area, hospital B is in rural area. The population in each traditional administrative district and basic statistical area are obtained from Taiwan National Geographic Information System, Ministry of Internal Affairs. Results: Estimated population live within 20 km of hospital A and B was 1,515,846 and 323,472 according to traditional administrative district and was 1,506,325 and 428,556 according to basic statistical area. Conclusion: In urban area, the estimated access population to PCI services was similar between two geographic units. However, in rural areas, the access population would be overestimated.

Keywords: Accessibility, basic statistical area, modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)

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22 Assistive Technologies and the 'Myth' of Independent Living: A Sociological Understanding of Assistive Technologies for Locomotor Disabled in India

Authors: Pavani K. Sree, Ragahava Reddy Chandri

Abstract:

Independent living and living with dignity have been the hallmarks of the movement of the persons with disabilities across the globe against the oppression perpetuated by society in the form of social and physical structural barriers. Advancements in assistive technologies have been providing a new lease of life to persons with disabilities. However, access to these technologies is marred by the issues of affordability and availability. Poor from the developing countries find it difficult to make independent living or live with dignity because of lack of access and inability to afford the advance technologies. Class and gender appear to be key factors influencing the access to modern assistive technologies. The present paper attempts to understand the dynamics of class and gender in accessing advanced technologies in the Indian context. Based on an empirical study in which data were collected from persons with locomotor disabilities and service providers, the paper finds that the advance technologies are expensive and inaccessible to all persons with disabilities. The paper also finds that men with disabilities are prioritized by the members of the family for the use of advance technologies while women with disabilities are forced to live with not so advanced technologies. The paper finds that the state institutions working in the field of prosthetics and assistive technologies fail to deliver to the requirements of the poor. It was found that because of lack of facilities at the state institutions the cost of prosthetics, in the case of orthopedically challenged, is expensive and unaffordable for the poor. It was found that while rich male access the private services the poor women depend on the state institutions. It may be said that the social, cultural stereotypes extend not only to the state organizations but also to the use of prosthetics. Thus the notions of independent living and living with dignity in third world countries context are still elusive.

Keywords: Gender, Accessibility, Class, assistive technology, State

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21 Breaking through Barricades to Enhance the University Library Infrastructure to Aid the Visually Challenged - Contemplated Based within the Sri Lankan Context

Authors: Wilfred Jeyatheese Jeyaraj

Abstract:

The Sri Lankan legislative acts dictate several recommendations to improve accessibility of services for the visually challenged. But the main consideration here is the feasibility and extent to which these endorsements have been implemented in actuality within Sri Lankan academic libraries. This paper tends to assess the existent issues that impediment the implementation of accessibility features for the visually challenged in Sri Lankan academic libraries. Visually challenged students continually walk through immense challenges to step forth into their university life. Reaching their undergrad stage of their academic phase, they should be entitled to access information resources with ease and with equality in comparison to the sighted users of a university library. The current university libraries in Sri Lanka, have well improved services that they render to their users. But, what lacks in this scenario is the consideration as to whether these features offered by libraries are user-friendly and easily accessible by the visually challenged users as well. Hence, this paper tends to analyze the inhibitions in delivering services oriented towards the visually challenged and the sighted, and propose feasible alternatives to create a neutral high-end university library environment.

Keywords: Accessibility, Sri Lanka, university library, visually-challenged

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20 Streamline Marketing Strategies for Survival of Librarianship in Developing Countries in the 21st Century: A Study Related to Sri Lanka

Authors: Wilfred Jeyatheese Jeyaraj

Abstract:

Considering the current digital age, Library Marketing, in its entirety, has evolved to elucidate the importance of falling back to the roots of searching for tangible and intangible resources, traversing through pages and references to acquire the required knowledge needs with proper guidance. With the turn of the century, the present generation has deeply entrenched their virtual presence, browsing via search engines for all their information needs. Not fully realizing the adverse effects of the materials available digitally, the authenticity of such resources cannot be verified. So a user might be led to believe false misdirected data. This paper tends to elucidate the prominent strategies to market Sri Lankan libraries in a proper manner so as to captivate a large user base making them aware that all resources and materials that they access without guidance outside the libraries are also available within the libraries with added guidance towards accessing the right data. The main contemplation here is to focus on getting more users to visit libraries in person to copiously apprehend the importance of browsing for materials with the proper direction. The current library marketing strategies in Sri Lankan libraries need to be streamlined to align with the best interest of acquiring the present generations to visit libraries in person to reap its benefits.

Keywords: Marketing, Accessibility, Librarianship, Sri Lanka

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19 A Method for Evaluating Gender Equity of Cycling from Rawls Justice Perspective

Authors: Zahra Hamidi

Abstract:

Promoting cycling, as an affordable environmentally friendly mode of transport to replace private car use has been central to sustainable transport policies. Cycling is faster than walking and combined with public transport has the potential to extend the opportunities that people can access. In other words, cycling, besides direct positive health impacts, can improve people mobility and ultimately their quality of life. Transport literature well supports the close relationship between mobility, quality of life, and, well being. At the same time inequity in the distribution of access and mobility has been associated with the key aspects of injustice and social exclusion. The pattern of social exclusion and inequality in access are also often related to population characteristics such as age, gender, income, health, and ethnic background. Therefore, while investing in transport infrastructure it is important to consider the equity of provided access for different population groups. This paper proposes a method to evaluate the equity of cycling in a city from Rawls egalitarian perspective. Since this perspective is concerned with the difference between individuals and social groups, this method combines accessibility measures and Theil index of inequality that allows capturing the inequalities ‘within’ and ‘between’ groups. The paper specifically focuses on two population characteristics as gender and ethnic background. Following Rawls equity principles, this paper measures accessibility by bikes to a selection of urban activities that can be linked to the concept of the social primary goods. Moreover, as growing number of cities around the world have launched bike-sharing systems (BSS) this paper incorporates both private and public bikes networks in the estimation of accessibility levels. Additionally, the typology of bike lanes (separated from or shared with roads), the presence of a bike sharing system in the network, as well as bike facilities (e.g. parking racks) have been included in the developed accessibility measures. Application of this proposed method to a real case study, the city of Malmö, Sweden, shows its effectiveness and efficiency. Although the accessibility levels were estimated only based on gender and ethnic background characteristics of the population, the author suggests that the analysis can be applied to other contexts and further developed using other properties, such as age, income, or health.

Keywords: Gender, Accessibility, Cycling, Equity

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18 Evaluating Accessibility to Bangkok Mass Transit System: Case Study of Saphan Taksin Bangkok Mass Transit System Station

Authors: Rungpansa Noichan, Bart Julian Dewancker

Abstract:

Thailand facing the transportation issue because of the rapid economic development. The big issue is the traffic jam, especially in Bangkok. However, recently years Bangkok has operated urban mass transit system for solved transportation problem. The Bangkok Mass Transit System (BTS) skytrain is being operated by the BTS Company Limited under the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration. The passenger satisfaction is a major cause for concern due to the commercial nature. The focus of this paper is to evaluate the passenger satisfaction at the mass transit node by questionnaires survey. The survey was to find out the passenger attitudes. The result shows several important factors that influence the passenger choice of using the BTS as a public transportation mode and the passenger’s opinion.

Keywords: Urban Transportation, Accessibility, user satisfaction, Bangkok mass transit

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17 Disaster Education and Children with Visual Impairment

Authors: Vassilis Argyropoulos, Magda Nikolaraizi, Maria Papazafiri

Abstract:

This study describes a series of learning workshops, which took place within CUIDAR project. The workshops aimed to empower children to share their experiences and views in relation to natural hazards and disasters. The participants in the workshops were ten primary school students who had severe visual impairments or multiple disabilities and visual impairments (MDVI). The main objectives of the workshops were: a) to promote access of the children through the use of appropriate educational material such as texts in braille, enlarged text, tactile maps and the implementation of differentiated instruction, b) to make children aware regarding their rights to have access to information and to participate in planning and decision-making especially in relation to disaster education programs, and c) to encourage children to have an active role during the workshops through child-led and experiential learning activities. The children expressed their views regarding the meaning of hazards and disasters. Following, they discussed their experiences and emotions regarding natural hazards and disasters, and they chose to place the emphasis on a hazard, which was more pertinent to them, their community and their region, namely fires. Therefore, they recalled fires that have caused major disasters, and they discussed about the impact that these fires had on their community or on their country. Furthermore, they were encouraged to become aware regarding their own role and responsibility to prevent a fire or get prepared and know how to behave if a fire occurs. They realized that prevention and preparation are a matter of personal responsibility. They also felt the responsibility to inform their own families. Finally, they met important people involved in fire protection such as rescuers and firefighters and had the opportunity to carry dialogues. In conclusion, through child led workshops, experiential and accessible activities, the students had the opportunity to share their own experiences, to express their views and their questions, to broaden their knowledge and to realize their personal responsibility in disaster risk reduction, specifically in relation to fires.

Keywords: Accessibility, Children, disasters, Visual Impairment

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16 Availability, Accessibility and Utilization of Information and Communication Technology in Teaching and Learning Islamic Studies in Colleges of Education, North-Eastern, Nigeria

Authors: Bello Ali

Abstract:

The use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in tertiary institutions by lecturers and students has become a necessity for the enhancement of quality teaching and learning. This study examined availability, accessibility and utilization of ICT in Teaching-Learning Islamic Studies in Colleges of Education, North-East, Nigeria. The study adopted multi-stage sampling technique, in which, five out of the eleven Colleges of Education (both Federal and State owned) were purposively selected for the study. Primary data was drawn from the respondents by the use of questionnaire, interviews and observations. The results of the study, generally, indicate that the availability and accessibility to ICT facilities in Colleges of Education in North-East, Nigeria, especially in teaching/learning delivery of Islamic studies were relatively inadequate and rare to lecturers and students. The study further reveals that the respondents’ level of utilization of ICT is low and only few computer packages and internet services were involved in the ICT utilization, which is yet to reach the real expected situation of the globalization and advancement in the application of ICT if compared to other parts of the world, as far as the teaching and learning of Islamic studies is concerned. Observations and conclusion were drawn from the findings and finally, recommendations on how to improve on ICT availability, accessibility and utilization in teaching/ learning were suggested.

Keywords: Learning, Teaching, Islamic Studies, Accessibility, Availability, Utilization, ICT, North-East, college of education

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15 Universal Design Building Standard for India: A Critical Inquiry

Authors: Sushil Kumar Solanki, Rachna Khare

Abstract:

Universal Design is a concept of built environment creation, where all people are facilitated to the maximum extent possible without using any type of specialized design. However, accessible design is a design process in which the needs of people with disabilities are specifically considered. Building standards on accessibility contains scoping and technical requirements for accessibility to sites, facilities, building and elements by individual with disability. India is also following its prescriptive types of various building standards for the creation of physical environment for people with disabilities. These building standards are based on western models instead of research based standards to serve Indian needs. These standards lack contextual connect when reflects in its application in the urban and rural environment. This study focuses on critical and comparative study of various international building standards and codes, with existing Indian accessibility standards to understand problems and prospects of concept of Universal Design building standards for India. The result of this study is an analysis of existing state of Indian building standard pertaining to accessibility and future need of performance based Universal Design concept.

Keywords: Accessibility, Building Standard, built-environment, universal design

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14 Financial Planning Framework: A Perspective of Wealth Accumulation and Retirement Planning

Authors: Mahadevan Supramaniam, Stanley Yap, Chong Wei Ying, Fatemeh Kimiyaghalam

Abstract:

Purpose: The paper shows the framework of financial planning in a different paradigm. It highlights the results from a focus group on retirement planning in the aspect of financial literacy and wealth accumulation in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach: A focus group consisted of thirty individuals and divided into six different clusters amongst 25 to 55 years old. The selection of focus group members is pertaining to retirement planning behavior and saving profile from the different level of educations. Findings: Our results show, firstly, the focus group reflects individual capacity on saving attitude, financial literacy and awareness towards financial products. Secondly, availability, accessibility and affordability which are the significant factors that influence saving attitude, financial literacy and awareness on personal retirement planning behavior. Practical implications: The participants express the concerns of retirement planning during their golden years and the current financial products in the Malaysian financial market. Originality/value: This study is a different approach that recognizes the needs of the consumers in the context of retirement planning and wealth accumulation. Therefore, customers should obtain financial services and products from financial providers to achieve financial independence.

Keywords: Accessibility, Availability, Financial Literacy, Retirement Planning, focus group, affordability, wealth accumulation, saving attitude

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13 Spatial Accessibility Analysis of Kabul City Public Transport

Authors: Mohammad Idrees Yusofzai, Hirobata Yasuhiro, Matsuo Kojiro

Abstract:

Kabul is the capital of Afghanistan. It is the focal point of educational, industrial, etc. of Afghanistan. Additionally, the population of Kabul has grown recently and will increase because of return of refugees and shifting of people from other province to Kabul city. However, this increase in population, the issues of urban congestion and other related problems of urban transportation in Kabul city arises. One of the problems is public transport (large buses) service and needs to be modified and enhanced especially large bus routes that are operating in each zone of the 22 zone of Kabul City. To achieve the above mentioned goal of improving public transport, Spatial Accessibility Analysis is one of the important attributes to assess the effectiveness of transportation system and urban transport policy of a city, because accessibility indicator as an alternative tool to support public policy that aims the reinforcement of sustainable urban space. The case study of this research compares the present model (present bus route) and the modified model of public transport. Furthermore, present model, the bus routes in most of the zones are active, however, with having low frequency and unpublished schedule, and accessibility result is analyzed in four cases, based on the variables of accessibility. Whereas in modified model all zones in Kabul is taken into consideration with having specified origin and high frequency. Indeed the number of frequencies is kept high; however, this number is based on the number of buses Millie Bus Enterprise Authority (MBEA) owns. The same approach of cases is applied in modified model to figure out the best accessibility for the modified model. Indeed, the modified model is having a positive impact in congestion level in Kabul city. Besides, analyses of person trip and trip distribution have been also analyzed because how people move in the study area by each mode of transportation. So, the general aims of this research are to assess the present movement of people, identify zones in need of public transport and assess equity level of accessibility in Kabul city. The framework of methodology used in this research is based on gravity analysis model of accessibility; besides, generalized cost (time) of travel and travel mode is calculated. The main data come from person trip survey, socio-economic characteristics, demographic data by Japan International Cooperation Agency, 2008, study of Kabul city and also from the previous researches on travel pattern and the remaining data regarding present bus line and routes have been from MBEA. In conclusion, this research explores zones where public transport accessibility level is high and where it is low. It was found that both models the downtown area or central zones of Kabul city is having high level accessibility. Besides, the present model is the most unfavorable compared with the modified model based on the accessibility analysis.

Keywords: Accessibility, gravity model, bus generalized cost, public transportation network

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12 Accessibility Assessment of School Facilities Using Geospatial Technologies: A Case Study of District Sheikhupura

Authors: Hira Jabbar

Abstract:

Education is vital for inclusive growth of an economy and a critical contributor for investment in human capital. Like other developing countries, Pakistan is facing enormous challenges regarding the provision of public facilities, improper infrastructure planning, accelerating rate of population and poor accessibility. The influence of the rapid advancement and innovations in GIS and RS techniques have proved to be a useful tool for better planning and decision making to encounter these challenges. Therefore present study incorporates GIS and RS techniques to investigate the spatial distribution of school facilities, identifies settlements with served and unserved population, finds potential areas for new schools based on population and develops an accessibility index to evaluate the higher accessibility for schools. For this purpose high-resolution worldview imagery was used to develop road network, settlements and school facilities and to generate school accessibility for each level. Landsat 8 imagery was utilized to extract built-up area by applying pre and post-processing models and Landscan 2015 was used to analyze population statistics. Service area analysis was performed using network analyst extension in ArcGIS 10.3v and results were evaluated for served and underserved areas and population. An accessibility tool was used to evaluate a set of potential destinations to determine which is the most accessible with the given population distribution. Findings of the study may contribute to facilitating the town planners and education authorities for understanding the existing patterns of school facilities. It is concluded that GIS and remote sensing can be effectively used in urban transport and facility planning.

Keywords: Accessibility, Geographic Information System, landscan, worldview

Procedia PDF Downloads 205