Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

accelerometer Related Abstracts

18 Experimental Study on the Floor Vibration Evaluation of Concrete Slab for Existing Buildings

Authors: Seung-Hun Kim, Yong-Taeg Lee, Jun-Ho Na, Seong-Uk Hong

Abstract:

Damages from noise and vibration are increasing every year, most of which are noises between floors in deteriorated building caused by floor impact sound. In this study, the concrete slab measured vibration impact sound for evaluation floor vibration of deteriorated buildings that fails to satisfy with the minimum thickness. In this experimental study, the vibration scale by impact sound was calibrated and compared with ISO and AIJ standard for vibration. The results show that vibration in slab with thickness used in existing building reach human perception levels.

Keywords: Vibration, Frequency, accelerometer, concrete slab

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17 The Relationships between Physical Activity Levels, Enjoyment of Physical Activity, and Body Mass Index among Bruneian Secondary School Adolescents

Authors: David Xiaoqian Sun, Jr., Khairunnisa Binti Haji Sibah, Lejak Anak Ambol

Abstract:

The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships between objectively measured physical activity levels (PALs), enjoyment of physical activity (EPA), and body mass index (BMI) among adolescents. A total of 188 12-14-year-old Bruneian secondary school adolescents (88 boys and 100 girls) voluntarily took part in this study. Subjects wore the RT3 accelerometer for seven consecutive days in order to measure their PALs. Times of students’ engagement in total (TPA), light (LPA), moderate (MPV), and vigorous PA (VPA) were obtained from the accelerometer. Their BMIs were calculated from their body height and weight. Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) was administrated to obtain their EPA levels. Four key enjoyment factors including fun factors, positive perceptions, unexciting in doing activities, and negative perceptions were identified. Subjects’ social economic status (SES) was provided by school administration. Results show that all the adolescents did not meet the recommended PA guidelines even though boys were engaged in more MVPA than girls. No relationships were found between BMI and all PALs in both boys and girls. BMI was significantly related to the PACES scores (r = -.22, p = 0.01), fun factors (r = -.20, p = 0.05) and positive perceptions (r =-.21, p < 0.05). The PACES scores were significantly related to LPA (r = .18, p = 0.01) but not related to MVPA (r = .04, p > 0.05). After controlling for age and SES, BMI was only significantly related to the PACES scores in girls (r = -.27, p < .01) but boys (r = -.06, p > 0.05). Fun factors were significantly related to LPA and MVPA (p < .01) in girls while negative perceptions were significantly related to LPA and MVPA (p < .01) in boys. This study provides evidence that enjoyment may be a trigger of LPA but MVPA and may be influenced by their BMI status particularly in girls. Based on these findings, physical and health educators are suggested to not only make PA more enjoyable, but also consider gender differences in promoting adolescents' participation in MVPA.

Keywords: body mass index, accelerometer, enjoyment of physical activity, moderate to vigorous physical activity

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16 Using Probe Person Data for Travel Mode Detection

Authors: Muhammad Awais Shafique, Eiji Hato, Hideki Yaginuma

Abstract:

Recently GPS data is used in a lot of studies to automatically reconstruct travel patterns for trip survey. The aim is to minimize the use of questionnaire surveys and travel diaries so as to reduce their negative effects. In this paper data acquired from GPS and accelerometer embedded in smart phones is utilized to predict the mode of transportation used by the phone carrier. For prediction, Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Adaptive boosting (AdaBoost) are employed. Moreover a unique method to improve the prediction results from these algorithms is also proposed. Results suggest that the prediction accuracy of AdaBoost after improvement is relatively better than the rest.

Keywords: GPS, support vector machine, adaboost, accelerometer, mode prediction

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15 Retrofitted Semi-Active Suspension System for a Eelectric Model Vehicle

Authors: Shiuh-Jer Huang, Yun-Han Yeh

Abstract:

A 40 steps manual adjusting shock absorber was refitted with DC motor driving mechanism to construct as a semi-active suspension system for a four-wheel drive electric vehicle. Accelerometer and potentiometer sensors are installed to measure the sprung mass acceleration and suspension system compression or rebound states for control purpose. A fuzzy logic controller was designed to derive appropriate damping target based on vehicle running condition for semi-active suspension system to follow. The damping ratio control of each wheel axis suspension system is executed with a robust fuzzy sliding mode controller (FSMC). Different road surface conditions are chosen to evaluate the control performance of this semi-active suspension system based on wheel axis acceleration signal.

Keywords: Electric Vehicle, accelerometer, semi-active suspension, fuzzy sliding mode control

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14 Design of Self-Balancing Bicycle Using Object State Detection in Co-Ordinate System

Authors: Mamta M. Barapatre, V. N. Sahare

Abstract:

Since from long time two wheeled vehicle self-balancing has always been a back-breaking task for both human and robots. Leaning a bicycle driving is long time process and goes through building knowledge base for parameter decision making while balancing robots. In order to create this machine learning phase with embedded system the proposed system is designed. The system proposed aims to construct a bicycle automaton, power-driven by an electric motor, which could balance by itself and move along a specific path. This path could be wavy with bumps and varying widths. The key aim was to construct a cycle which self-balances itself by controlling its handle. In order to take a turn, the mass was transferred to the center. In order to maintain the stability, the bicycle bot automatically turned the handle and a turn. Some problems were faced by the team which were Speed, Steering mechanism through mass- distribution (leaning), Center of mass location and gyroscopic effect of its wheel. The idea proposed have potential applications in automation of transportation system and is most efficient.

Keywords: accelerometer, gyroscope-flywheel, servomotor-controller, self stability concept

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13 A Smartphone-Based Real-Time Activity Recognition and Fall Detection System

Authors: Manutchanok Jongprasithporn, Rawiphorn Srivilai, Paweena Pongsopha

Abstract:

Fall is the most serious accident leading to increased unintentional injuries and mortality. Falls are not only the cause of suffering and functional impairments to the individuals, but also the cause of increasing medical cost and days away from work. The early detection of falls could be an advantage to reduce fall-related injuries and consequences of falls. Smartphones, embedded accelerometer, have become a common device in everyday life due to decreasing technology cost. This paper explores a physical activity monitoring and fall detection application in smartphones which is a non-invasive biomedical device to determine physical activities and fall event. The combination of application and sensors could perform as a biomedical sensor to monitor physical activities and recognize a fall. We have chosen Android-based smartphone in this study since android operating system is an open-source and no cost. Moreover, android phone users become a majority of Thai’s smartphone users. We developed Thai 3 Axis (TH3AX) as a physical activities and fall detection application which included command, manual, results in Thai language. The smartphone was attached to right hip of 10 young, healthy adult subjects (5 males, 5 females; aged< 35y) to collect accelerometer and gyroscope data during performing physical activities (e.g., walking, running, sitting, and lying down) and falling to determine threshold for each activity. Dependent variables are including accelerometer data (acceleration, peak acceleration, average resultant acceleration, and time between peak acceleration). A repeated measures ANOVA was performed to test whether there are any differences between DVs’ means. Statistical analyses were considered significant at p<0.05. After finding threshold, the results were used as training data for a predictive model of activity recognition. In the future, accuracies of activity recognition will be performed to assess the overall performance of the classifier. Moreover, to help improve the quality of life, our system will be implemented with patients and elderly people who need intensive care in hospitals and nursing homes in Thailand.

Keywords: Activity Recognition, gyroscope, accelerometer, smartphone, fall

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12 Low Cost Inertial Sensors Modeling Using Allan Variance

Authors: A. A. Hussen, I. N. Jleta

Abstract:

Micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) accelerometers and gyroscopes are suitable for the inertial navigation system (INS) of many applications due to the low price, small dimensions and light weight. The main disadvantage in a comparison with classic sensors is a worse long term stability. The estimation accuracy is mostly affected by the time-dependent growth of inertial sensor errors, especially the stochastic errors. In order to eliminate negative effect of these random errors, they must be accurately modeled. Where the key is the successful implementation that depends on how well the noise statistics of the inertial sensors is selected. In this paper, the Allan variance technique will be used in modeling the stochastic errors of the inertial sensors. By performing a simple operation on the entire length of data, a characteristic curve is obtained whose inspection provides a systematic characterization of various random errors contained in the inertial-sensor output data.

Keywords: gyroscope, accelerometer, Allan variance, stochastic errors

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11 A Systematic Review of Pedometer-or Accelerometer-Based Interventions for Increasing Physical Activity in Low Socioeconomic Groups

Authors: Shaun G. Abbott, Rebecca C. Reynolds, James B. Etter, John B. F. de Wit

Abstract:

The benefits of physical activity (PA) on health are well documented. Low socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with poor health, with PA a suggested mediator. Pedometers and accelerometers offer an effective behavior change tool to increase PA levels. While the role of pedometer and accelerometer use in increasing PA is recognized in many populations, little is known in low-SES groups. We are aiming to assess the effectiveness of pedometer- and accelerometer-based interventions for increasing PA step count and improving subsequent health outcomes among low-SES groups of high-income countries. Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, CENTRAL and SportDiscus databases were searched to identify articles published before 10th July, 2015; using search terms developed from previous systematic reviews. Inclusion criteria are: low-SES participants classified by income, geography, education, occupation or ethnicity; study duration minimum 4 weeks; an intervention and control group; wearing of an unsealed pedometer or accelerometer to objectively measure PA as step counts per day for the duration of the study. We retrieved 2,142 articles from our database searches, after removal of duplicates. Two investigators independently reviewed titles and abstracts of these articles (50% each) and a combined 20% sample were reviewed to account for inter-assessor variation. We are currently verifying the full texts of 430 articles. Included studies will be critically appraised for risk of bias using guidelines suggested by the Cochrane Public Health Group. Two investigators will extract data concerning the intervention; study design; comparators; steps per day; participants; context and presence or absence of obesity and/or chronic disease. Heterogeneity amongst studies is anticipated, thus a narrative synthesis of data will be conducted with the simplification of selected results into percentage increases from baseline to allow for between-study comparison. Results will be presented at the conference in December if selected.

Keywords: Physical Activity, accelerometer, socioeconomic, pedometer, step count

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10 Investigating Activity Recognition Using 9-Axis Sensors and Filters in Wearable Devices

Authors: Jong Tae Kim, Jun Gil Ahn, Jong Kang Park

Abstract:

In this paper, we analyze major components of activity recognition (AR) in wearable device with 9-axis sensors and sensor fusion filters. 9-axis sensors commonly include 3-axis accelerometer, 3-axis gyroscope and 3-axis magnetometer. We chose sensor fusion filters as Kalman filter and Direction Cosine Matrix (DCM) filter. We also construct sensor fusion data from each activity sensor data and perform classification by accuracy of AR using Naïve Bayes and SVM. According to the classification results, we observed that the DCM filter and the specific combination of the sensing axes are more effective for AR in wearable devices while classifying walking, running, ascending and descending.

Keywords: Activity Recognition, Kalman Filter, gyroscope, accelerometer, directiona cosine matrix filter, magnetometer

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9 Compact Optical Sensors for Harsh Environments

Authors: Branislav Timotijevic, Yves Petremand, Markus Luetzelschwab, Dara Bayat, Laurent Aebi

Abstract:

Optical miniaturized sensors with remote readout are required devices for the monitoring in harsh electromagnetic environments. As an example, in turbo and hydro generators, excessively high vibrations of the end-windings can lead to dramatic damages, imposing very high, additional service costs. A significant change of the generator temperature can also be an indicator of the system failure. Continuous monitoring of vibrations, temperature, humidity, and gases is therefore mandatory. The high electromagnetic fields in the generators impose the use of non-conductive devices in order to prevent electromagnetic interferences and to electrically isolate the sensing element to the electronic readout. Metal-free sensors are good candidates for such systems since they are immune to very strong electromagnetic fields and given the fact that they are non-conductive. We have realized miniature optical accelerometer and temperature sensors for a remote sensing of the harsh environments using the common, inexpensive silicon Micro Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) platform. Both devices show highly linear response. The accelerometer has a deviation within 1% from the linear fit when tested in a range 0 – 40 g. The temperature sensor can provide the measurement accuracy better than 1 °C in a range 20 – 150 °C. The design of other type of sensors for the environments with high electromagnetic interferences has also been discussed.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, Optical MEMS, Temperature Sensor, accelerometer, harsh environment

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8 Description of the Process Which Determine the Criterion Validity of Semi-Structured Interview PARA-SCI.CZ

Authors: Jarmila Štěpánová, Martin Kudláček, Lukáš Jakubec

Abstract:

The people with spinal cord injury are one of the least sport active members of our society. Their hypoactivity is determined by primary injury, i.e., the loss of motor function, the injured part of the body is connected with health complications and social handicap. Study performs one part of the standardization process of semi-structured interview PARA-SCI.CZ (Czech version of the Physical Activity Recall Assessment for People with Spinal Cord Injury), which measures the type, frequency, duration, and intensity of physical activity of people with spinal cord injury. The study focused on persons with paraplegia who use a wheelchair as their primary mode of mobility. The aim of this study was to perform a process to determine the criterion validity of PARA-SCI.CZ. The actual physical activity of wheelchair users was monitored during three days by using accelerometers Actigraph GT3X fixed on the non-dominant wrist, and semi-structured interview PARA-SCI.CZ. During the PARA-SCI.CZ interview, participants were asked to recall activities they had done over the past 3 days, starting with the previous day. PARA-SCI.CZ captured frequency, duration, and intensity (low, moderate, and heavy) of two categories of physical activity (leisure time physical activity and activities of a usual day). Accelerometer Actigraph GT3X captured duration and intensity (low and moderate + heavy) of physical activity during three days and nights. The study presented three potential recalculations of measured data. Standardization process of PARA-SCI.CZ is essential to critically approach issues of health and active lifestyle of persons with spinal cord injury in the Czech Republic. Standardized PARA-SCI.CZ can be used in practice by physiotherapists and sports pedagogues from the field of adapted physical activities.

Keywords: Physical Activity, Lifestyle, accelerometer, paraplegia, semi-structure interview

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7 Data Calibration of the Actual versus the Theoretical Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) Based Accelerometer Reading through Remote Monitoring of Padre Jacinto Zamora Flyover

Authors: John Mark Payawal, Francis Aldrine Uy, John Paul Carreon

Abstract:

This paper shows the application of Structural Health Monitoring, SHM into bridges. Bridges are structures built to provide passage over a physical obstruction such as rivers, chasms or roads. The Philippines has a total of 8,166 national bridges as published on the 2015 atlas of the Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH) and only 2,924 or 35.81% of these bridges are in good condition. As a result, PHP 30.464 billion of the 2016 budget of DPWH is allocated on roads and/or bridges maintenance alone. Intensive spending is owed to the present practice of outdated manual inspection and assessment, and poor structural health monitoring of Philippine infrastructures. As the School of Civil, Environmental, & Geological Engineering of Mapua Institute of Technology (MIT) continuous its well driven passion in research based projects, a partnership with the Department of Science and Technology (DOST) and the DPWH launched the application of Structural Health Monitoring, (SHM) in Padre Jacinto Zamora Flyover. The flyover is located along Nagtahan Boulevard in Sta. Mesa, Manila that connects Brgy. 411 and Brgy. 635. It gives service to vehicles going from Lacson Avenue to Mabini Bridge passing over Legarda Flyover. The flyover is chosen among the many located bridges in Metro Manila as the focus of the pilot testing due to its site accessibility, and complete structural built plans and specifications necessary for SHM as provided by the Bureau of Design, BOD department of DPWH. This paper focuses on providing a method to calibrate theoretical readings from STAAD Vi8 Pro and sync the data to actual MEMS accelerometer readings. It is observed that while the design standards used in constructing the flyover was reflected on the model, actual readings of MEMS accelerometer display a large difference compared to the theoretical data ran and taken from STAAD Vi8 Pro. In achieving a true seismic response of the modeled bridge or hence syncing the theoretical data to the actual sensor reading also called as the independent variable of this paper, analysis using single degree of freedom (SDOF) of the flyover under free vibration without damping using STAAD Vi8 Pro is done. The earthquake excitation and bridge responses are subjected to earthquake ground motion in the form of ground acceleration or Peak Ground Acceleration, PGA. Translational acceleration load is used to simulate the ground motion of the time history analysis acceleration record in STAAD Vi8 Pro.

Keywords: Structural health monitoring, accelerometer, peak ground acceleration, analysis using single degree of freedom, micro electro mechanical system

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6 Mathematical Modeling of the Working Principle of Gravity Gradient Instrument

Authors: Danni Cong, Meiping Wu, Hua Mu, Xiaofeng He, Junxiang Lian, Juliang Cao, Shaokun Cai, Hao Qin

Abstract:

Gravity field is of great significance in geoscience, national economy and national security, and gravitational gradient measurement has been extensively studied due to its higher accuracy than gravity measurement. Gravity gradient sensor, being one of core devices of the gravity gradient instrument, plays a key role in measuring accuracy. Therefore, this paper starts from analyzing the working principle of the gravity gradient sensor by Newton’s law, and then considers the relative motion between inertial and non-inertial systems to build a relatively adequate mathematical model, laying a foundation for the measurement error calibration, measurement accuracy improvement.

Keywords: accelerometer, gravity gradient, gravity gradient sensor, single-axis rotation modulation

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5 Calibration of the Radical Installation Limit Error of the Accelerometer in the Gravity Gradient Instrument

Authors: Danni Cong, Meiping Wu, Xiaofeng He, Junxiang Lian, Juliang Cao, Hao Qin, Shaokuncai

Abstract:

Gravity gradient instrument (GGI) is the core of the gravity gradiometer, so the structural error of the sensor has a great impact on the measurement results. In order not to affect the aimed measurement accuracy, limit error is required in the installation of the accelerometer. In this paper, based on the established measuring principle model, the radial installation limit error is calibrated, which is taken as an example to provide a method to calculate the other limit error of the installation under the premise of ensuring the accuracy of the measurement result. This method provides the idea for deriving the limit error of the geometry structure of the sensor, laying the foundation for the mechanical precision design and physical design.

Keywords: accelerometer, gravity gradient sensor, radial installation limit error, uniaxial rotational modulation

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4 Development of a BriMAIN System for Health Monitoring of Railway Bridges

Authors: Prakher Mishra, Dikshant Bodana, Saloni Desai, Sudhanshu Dixit, Sopan Agarwal, Shriraj Patel

Abstract:

Railways are sometimes lifeline of nations as they consist of huge network of rail lines and bridges. Reportedly many of the bridges are aging, weak, distressed and accident prone. It becomes a really challenging task for Engineers and workers to keep up a regular maintenance schedule for proper functioning which itself is quite a hard hitting job. In this paper we have come up with an innvovative wireless system of maintenance called BriMAIN. In this system we have installed two types of sensors, first one is called a force sensor which will continously analyse the readings of pressure at joints of the bridges and secondly an MPU-6050 triaxial gyroscope+accelerometer which will analyse the deflection of the deck of the bridge. Apart from this a separate database is also being made at the server room so that the data can be visualized by the engineers and a warning can be issued in case reading of the sensors goes above threshold.

Keywords: gyroscope, accelerometer, B-MAIN, MPU-6050

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3 Seismic Response of Structure Using a Three Degree of Freedom Shake Table

Authors: Ketan N. Bajad, Manisha V. Waghmare

Abstract:

Earthquakes are the biggest threat to the civil engineering structures as every year it cost billions of dollars and thousands of deaths, around the world. There are various experimental techniques such as pseudo-dynamic tests – nonlinear structural dynamic technique, real time pseudo dynamic test and shaking table test method that can be employed to verify the seismic performance of structures. Shake table is a device that is used for shaking structural models or building components which are mounted on it. It is a device that simulates a seismic event using existing seismic data and nearly truly reproducing earthquake inputs. This paper deals with the use of shaking table test method to check the response of structure subjected to earthquake. The various types of shake table are vertical shake table, horizontal shake table, servo hydraulic shake table and servo electric shake table. The goal of this experiment is to perform seismic analysis of a civil engineering structure with the help of 3 degree of freedom (i.e. in X Y Z direction) shake table. Three (3) DOF shaking table is a useful experimental apparatus as it imitates a real time desired acceleration vibration signal for evaluating and assessing the seismic performance of structure. This study proceeds with the proper designing and erection of 3 DOF shake table by trial and error method. The table is designed to have a capacity up to 981 Newton. Further, to study the seismic response of a steel industrial building, a proportionately scaled down model is fabricated and tested on the shake table. The accelerometer is mounted on the model, which is used for recording the data. The experimental results obtained are further validated with the results obtained from software. It is found that model can be used to determine how the structure behaves in response to an applied earthquake motion, but the model cannot be used for direct numerical conclusions (such as of stiffness, deflection, etc.) as many uncertainties involved while scaling a small-scale model. The model shows modal forms and gives the rough deflection values. The experimental results demonstrate shake table as the most effective and the best of all methods available for seismic assessment of structure.

Keywords: Seismic Analysis, accelerometer, three degree of freedom shake table, steel industrial shed

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2 Early Detection of Major Earthquakes Using Broadband Accelerometers

Authors: Umberto Cerasani, Luca Cerasani

Abstract:

Methods for earthquakes forecasting have been intensively investigated in the last decades, but there is still no universal solution agreed by seismologists. Rock failure is most often preceded by a tiny elastic movement in the failure area and by the appearance of micro-cracks. These micro-cracks could be detected at the soil surface and represent useful earth-quakes precursors. The aim of this study was to verify whether tiny raw acceleration signals (in the 10⁻¹ to 10⁻⁴ cm/s² range) prior to the arrival of main primary-waves could be exploitable and related to earthquakes magnitude. Mathematical tools such as Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), moving average and wavelets have been applied on raw acceleration data available on the ITACA web site, and the study focused on one of the most unpredictable earth-quakes, i.e., the August 24th, 2016 at 01H36 one that occurred in the central Italy area. It appeared that these tiny acceleration signals preceding main P-waves have different patterns both on frequency and time domains for high magnitude earthquakes compared to lower ones.

Keywords: Earthquake, accelerometer, seism, earthquake forecasting

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1 Autonomous Position Control of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Based on Accelerometer Response for Indoor Navigation Using Kalman Filtering

Authors: Syed Misbahuddin, Sagufta Kapadia

Abstract:

Autonomous indoor drone navigation has been posed with various challenges, including the inability to use a Global Positioning System (GPS). As of now, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) either rely on 3D mapping systems or utilize external camera arrays to track the UAV in an enclosed environment. The objective of this paper is to develop an algorithm that utilizes Kalman Filtering to reduce noise, allowing the UAV to be navigated indoors using only the flight controller and an onboard companion computer. In this paper, open-source libraries are used to control the UAV, which will only use the onboard accelerometer on the flight controller to estimate the position through double integration. One of the advantages of such a system is that it allows for low-cost and lightweight UAVs to autonomously navigate indoors without advanced mapping of the environment or the use of expensive high-precision-localization sensors.

Keywords: accelerometer, indoor-navigation, Kalman-filtering, position-control

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