Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 40

Academic Achievement Related Abstracts

40 The Relationship between School Belonging, Self-Efficacy and Academic Achievement in Tabriz High School Students

Authors: F. Pari, E. Fathiazar, T. Hashemi, M. Pari

Abstract:

The present study aimed to examine the role of self-efficacy and school belonging in the academic achievement of Tabriz high school students in grade 11. Therefore, using a random cluster method, 377 subjects were selected from the whole students of Tabriz high schools. They filled in the School Belonging Questionnaire (SBQ) and General Self-Efficacy Scale. Data were analyzed using correlational as well as multiple regression methods. Findings demonstrate self-efficacy and school belonging have significant roles in the prediction of academic achievement. On the other hand, the results suggest that considering the gender variable there is no significant difference between self-efficacy and school belonging. On the whole, cognitive approaches could be effective in the explanation of academic achievement.

Keywords: Academic Achievement, Self-efficacy, school belonging, high school

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
39 Impacts of Teachers’ Cluster Model Meeting Intervention on Pupils’ Learning, Academic Achievement and Attitudinal Development in Oyo State, Nigeria

Authors: Olusola Joseph Adesina, Abiodun Ezekiel Adesina

Abstract:

Efforts at improving the falling standard of education in the country call for the need-based assessment of the primary tier of education in Nigeria. Teachers’ cluster meeting intervention is a step towards enhancing the teachers’ professional competency, efficient and effective pupils’ academic achievement and attitudinal development. The study thus determined the impact of the intervention on pupils’ achievement in Oyo State, Nigeria. Three research questions and four hypotheses guided the study. Pre-test, post-test control group, quasi-experimental design was adopted for the study. Eight intact classes from eight different schools were randomly selected into treatment and control groups. Two response instruments, pupils academic achievement test (PAAT; r = 0.87) and pupils attitude to lesson scale (PALS; r = 0.80) were used for data collection. Mean, standard deviation and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were used to analyse the collected data. The results showed that the teachers’ cluster meeting have significant impact on pupils academic achievement (F (1,327) =41.79; p<0.05) and attitudinal development (F (1,327) =26.01; p<0.05) in the core subjects of primary schools in Oyo State, Nigeria. The study therefore recommended among others that teachers’ cluster meeting should be sustained for teachers’ professional development and pupils’ upgradement in the State.

Keywords: Academic Achievement, teachers’ cluster meeting, pupils’ academic achievement, pupils’ attitudinal development

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
38 Class-Size and Instructional Materials as Correlates of Pupils Learning and Academic Achievement in Primary School

Authors: Aanuoluwapo Olusola Adesanya, Adesina Joseph

Abstract:

This paper examined the class-size and instructional materials as correlates of pupils learning and academic achievement in primary school. The population of the study comprised 198 primary school pupils in three selected schools in Ogun State, Nigeria. Data were collected through questionnaire and were analysed with the use of multiple regression and ANOVA to analysed the correlation between class-size, instructional materials (independent variables) and learning achievement (dependent variable). The findings revealed that schools having an average class-size of 30 and below with use of instructional materials obtained better results than schools having more than 30 and above. The main score were higher in the school in schools having 30 and below than schools with 30 and above. It was therefore recommended that government, stakeholders and NGOs should provide more classrooms and supply of adequate instructional materials in all primary schools in the state to cater for small class-size.

Keywords: Learning, Academic Achievement, instructional materials, class-size

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
37 The Academic Achievement of Writing via Project-Based Learning

Authors: Duangkamol Thitivesa

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the use of project work as a pretext for applying the conventions of writing, or the correctness of mechanics, usage, and sentence formation, in a content-based class in a Rajabhat University. Its aim was to explore to what extent the student teachers’ academic achievement of the basic writing features against the 70% attainment target after the use of project is. The organization of work around an agreed theme in which the students reproduce language provided by texts and instructors is expected to enhance students’ correct writing conventions. The sample of the study comprised of 38 fourth-year English major students. The data was collected by means of achievement test and student writing works. The scores in the summative achievement test were analyzed by mean score, standard deviation, and percentage. It was found that the student teachers do more achieve of practicing mechanics and usage, and less in sentence formation. The students benefited from the exposure to texts during conducting the project; however, their automaticity of how and when to form phrases and clauses into simple/complex sentences had room for improvement.

Keywords: Academic Achievement, Project-Based Learning, project Work, writing conventions

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
36 The Effect of Using Augmented Reality Technique in a Computer Course Unit on the Academic Achievement and Attitudes of High School Female Students

Authors: Maha A. Al-Hsayni

Abstract:

Title of the Study: The Effect of Using Augmented Reality Technique in a Computer Course Unit on the Academic Achievement and Attitudes of High School Female Students. This study aimed at identifying the effect of using the Augmented Reality technique on the academic achievement of computer course at the cognitive domains (Knowledge, comprehension and analysis) with third high school female students in Holy Makkah. The researcher used: The quasi-experimental approach. The sample of the study was comprised of (55) female students in the third high school level in Holy Makkah in the second semester of the academic year 1434/1435 H. These students were assigned to two groups: The experimental group of (28) students who were taught by using the Augmented Reality technology, and the control group of (27) students, who were taught by using the traditional method. The researcher prepared a set of tools and materials, which are represented in achievement test consisted of (30) clauses, direction instrument consisted of (25) clauses and the design of augmented reality for computer study unit. The study used the following statistical methods for data analysis: Cronbach's alpha coefficient, Pearson correlation coefficient, means, standard deviations, t-test and analysis of covariance test ANCOVA. The study reached the following results: 1- There are statistically significance difference at ( 0.05) among the adjusted means of the experimental and control groups in the posttest at the domains of (Knowledge, comprehension and analysis) of third high school graders after adjusting the pretest 2- There are statistically significance difference at ( 0.05) among the means of pre and post-test for female students of the experimental group in the scale of attitude towards using Augmented Reality Technique. In the light of the study results, the researcher recommends the followings: The necessity of using Augmented Reality Technique in teaching computer courses for high school students. Furthermore, emphasizing the need to provide schools with educational halls equipped with instruments and screens that enable teachers to use the Augmented Reality in teaching the other courses. Also, the researcher suggested conducting more studies in order to improve the process of teaching and learning.

Keywords: Academic Achievement, attitudes, augmented reality technique, computer course unit, high school female students

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
35 Psychological Variables Predicting Academic Achievement in Argentinian Students: Scales Development and Recent Findings

Authors: Fernandez liporace, Mercedes Uriel Fabiana

Abstract:

Academic achievement in high school and college students is currently a matter of concern. National and international assessments show high schoolers as low achievers, and local statistics indicate alarming dropout percentages in this educational level. Even so, 80% of those students intend attending higher education. On the other hand, applications to Public National Universities are free and non-selective by examination procedures. Though initial registrations are massive (307.894 students), only 50% of freshmen pass their first year classes, and 23% achieves a degree. Low performances use to be a common problem. Hence, freshmen adaptation, their adjustment, dropout and low academic achievement arise as topics of agenda. Besides, the hinge between high school and college must be examined in depth, in order to get an integrated and successful path from one educational stratum to the other. Psychology aims at developing two main research lines to analyse the situation. One regarding psychometric scales, designing and/or adapting tests, examining their technical properties and their theoretical validity (e.g., academic motivation, learning strategies, learning styles, coping, perceived social support, parenting styles and parental consistency, paradoxical personality as correlated to creative skills, psychopathological symptomatology). The second research line emphasizes relationships within the variables measured by the former scales, facing the formulation and testing of predictive models of academic achievement, establishing differences by sex, age, educational level (high school vs college), and career. Pursuing these goals, several studies were carried out in recent years, reporting findings and producing assessment technology useful to detect students academically at risk as well as good achievers. Multiple samples were analysed totalizing more than 3500 participants (2500 from college and 1000 from high school), including descriptive, correlational, group differences and explicative designs. A brief on the most relevant results is presented. Providing information to design specific interventions according to every learner’s features and his/her educational environment comes up as a mid-term accomplishment. Furthermore, that information might be helpful to adapt curricula by career, as well as for implementing special didactic strategies differentiated by sex and personal characteristics.

Keywords: Higher Education, Academic Achievement, Psychological Assessment, high school

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
34 ILearn, a Pathway to Progress

Authors: Reni Francis

Abstract:

Learning has transcended the classroom boundaries to create a learner centric, interactive, and integrative teaching learning environment. This study analysed the impact of iLearn on the teaching, learning, and evaluation among 100 teacher trainees. The objectives were to cater to the different learning styles of the teacher trainees, to incorporate innovative teaching learning activities, to assist in peer tutoring, to implement different evaluation processes. i: Identifying the learning styles among the teacher trainees through VARK Learning style checklist was followed by planning the teaching-learning process to meet the learning styles of the teacher trainees. L: Leveraging innovations in teaching- learning by planning and creating modules incorporating innovative teaching learning and hence the concept based year plan was prepared. E: Engage learning through constructivism using different teaching methodology to engage the teacher trainees in the learning process through Workshop, Round Robin, Gallery walk, Co-Operative learning, Think-Pair-Share, EDMODO, Course Networking, Concept Map, Brainstorming Sessions, Video Clippings. A: Assessing the learning through an Open Book assignment, Closed book assignment, and Multiple Choice Questions and Seminar presentation. R: Remediation through peer tutoring through Mentor-mentee approach in the tutorial groups, Group work, Library Hours. N: Norming new standards. This was done in the form of extended remediation and tutorials to understand the need of the teacher trainee and support them for further achievements in learning through Face to face interaction, Supervised Study Circle, Mobile (Device) learning. The findings of the study revealed the positive impact of iLearn towards student achievement and enhanced social skills.

Keywords: Academic Achievement, Learning styles, Social Skills, innovative strategy

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
33 The Effect of Paper Based Concept Mapping on Students' Academic Achievement and Attitude in Science Education

Authors: Orhan Akınoğlu, Arif Çömek, Ersin Elmacı, Tuğba Gündoğdu

Abstract:

The concept map is known to be a powerful tool to organize the ideas and concepts of an individuals’ mind. This tool is a kind of visual map that illustrates the relationships between the concepts of a certain subject. The effect of concept mapping on cognitive and affective qualities is one of the research topics among educational researchers for last decades. We educators want to utilize it both as an instructional tool or an assessment tool in classes. For that reason, this study aimed to determine the effect of concept mapping as a learning strategy in science classes on students’ academic achievement and attitude. The research employed a randomized pre-test post-test control group design. Data collected from 60 sixth grade students participated in the study from a randomly selected primary school in Turkey. Sixth-grade classes of the school were analyzed according to students’ academic achievement, science attitude, gender, mathematics, science courses grades, and their GPAs before the implementation. Two of the classes found to be equivalent (t=0,983, p>0,05) and one of them was defined as experimental and the other one control group randomly. During a 5-weeks period, the experimental group students (N=30) used the paper-based concept mapping method while the control group students (N=30) were taught with the traditional approach according to the science and technology education curriculum for light and sound subject. Both groups were taught by the same teacher who is experienced using concept mapping in science classes. Before the implementation, the teacher explained the theory of the concept maps and showed how to create paper-based concept mapping individually to the experimental group students for two hours. Then for two following hours she asked them to create some concept maps related to their former science subjects and gave them feedback by reviewing their concept maps to be sure that they can create during the implementation. The data were collected by science achievement test, science attitude scale and personal information form. Science achievement test and science attitude scale were implemented as pre-test and post-test while personal information form was implemented just as once. The reliability coefficient of the achievement test was KR20=0,76 and Cronbach’s Alpha of the attitude scale was 0,89. SPSS statistical software was used to analyze the data. According to the results, there was a statistically significant difference between the experimental and control group for academic achievement but not for attitude. The experimental group had significantly greater gains from academic achievement test than the control group (t=0,02, p<0,05). The findings showed that the paper-and-pencil concept mapping can be used as an effective method for students’ academic achievement in science classes. The results have implications for further researches.

Keywords: Science Education, Academic Achievement, constructivism, Concept Mapping, science attitude

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
32 The Interplay of Locus of Control, Academic Achievement and Biological Variables among Iranian Online EFL Learners

Authors: Azizeh Chalak, Niloufar Nasri

Abstract:

Students' academic achievement, along with the effects of different variables, has been a serious concern of educators since long ago. This study was an attempt to investigate the interplay of Locus of Control (LOC), academic achievement and biological variables among Iranian online EFL Learners. The participants of the study included 100 students of different age groups and genders studying English online at Iran Language Institute (ILI), Isfahan, Iran. The instrument used was Trice Academic LOC questionnaire which identifies orientations of internality or externality. The participants' Grade Point Averages (GPAs) were used as the measure of their academic achievement. A series of independent samples t-tests were performed on the data. The results of the study showed that (a) there were no significant differences between male and female participants in LOC orientation, (b) there was no relationship between LOC and academic achievement among internal males and females, (c) external females were better achievers than external males, (d) and the age had no significant relationship with LOC and academic achievement. It can be concluded that the social, cultural patterns of genders have changed. This study might help sociologists and psychologists as well as applied linguists in that they reflect the recent social changes and their effects on the LOC and their consequent implications in teaching languages.

Keywords: Academic Achievement, Biological variables, Iranian online EFL learners, locus of control

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
31 The Effect of Multimedia Use on Students’ Academic Achievement and Course-Oriented Self-Efficacy

Authors: Hasan Coruk, Recep Cakir

Abstract:

This study aimed at investigating the effect of multimedia containing ‘the structure and properties of matter’ unit on students’ academic achievement level and self-efficacy relating to science and technology course. The study used an experimental design with pre-test and post-test groups. The data collection tools were ‘Science and Technology Course Achievement Test’ and ‘Science and Technology Self-Efficacy Scale’. The sample of the study consisted of 8th grade students at a primary school in Tokat Province. The study was carried out with 42 students from two classes, 21 (8 males, 13 females) from experimental group and 21 (13 males and 8 females) from control group. The data were analyzed in SPSS.18 software. The findings of the study indicated that the use of multimedia increased the students’ academic achievement in science and technology course in comparison with traditional teaching methods. It was also determined that there was not a significant difference in students’ course-oriented self-efficacy levels regarding the two methods. Necessary and feasible suggestions were put forward for whom it concerns.

Keywords: Science and Technology, Academic Achievement, Self-efficacy, multimedia learning, the structure-properties of matter

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
30 Teacher-Student Relationship and Achievement in Chinese: Potential Mediating Effects of Motivation

Authors: Yuan Liu, Hongyun Liu

Abstract:

Teacher-student relationship plays an important role on facilitating students’ learning behavior, school engagement, and academic outcomes. It is believed that good relationship will enhance the human agency—the intrinsic motivation—mainly through the strengthening of autonomic support, feeling of relatedness, and the individual’s competence to increase the academic outcomes. This is in line with self-determination theory (SDT), which generally views that the intrinsic motivation imbedded with human basic needs is one of the most important factors that would lead to better school engagement, academic outcomes, and well-being. Based on SDT, the present study explored the relation of among teacher-student relationship (teacher’s encouragement, respect), students’ motivation (extrinsic and intrinsic), and achievement outcomes. The study was based on a large scale academic assessment and questionnaire survey conducted by the Center for Assessment and Improvement of Basic Education Quality in Mainland China (2013) on Grade 8 students. The results indicated that intrinsic motivation mediated the relation between teacher-student relationship and academic achievement outcomes.

Keywords: Mediation, Academic Achievement, intrinsic motivation, teacher-student relationship

Procedia PDF Downloads 310
29 Science and Mathematics Instructional Strategies, Teaching Performance and Academic Achievement in Selected Secondary Schools in Upland

Authors: Liza C. Costa, Maria Belen C. Costa

Abstract:

Teachers have an important influence on students’ academic achievement. Teachers play a crucial role in educational attainment because they stand in the interface of the transmission of knowledge, values, and skills in the learning process through the instructional strategies they employ in the classroom. The level of achievement of students in school depends on the degree of effectiveness of instructional strategies used by the teacher. Thus, this study was conceptualized and conducted to examine the instructional strategies preferred and used by the Science and Mathematics teachers and the impact of those strategies in their teaching performance and students’ academic achievement in Science and Mathematics. The participants of the study comprised a total enumeration of 61 teachers who were chosen through total enumeration and 610 students who were selected using two-stage random sampling technique. The descriptive correlation design was used in this study with a self-made questionnaire as the main tool in the data gathering procedure. Relationship among variables was tested and analyzed using Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient and Wilcoxon Signed Rank statistics. The teacher participants under study mainly belonged to the age group of ‘young’ (35 years and below) and most were females having ‘very much experienced’ (16 years and above) in teaching. Teaching performance was found to be ‘very satisfactory’ while academic achievement in Science and Mathematics was found to be ‘satisfactory’. Demographic profile and teaching performance of teacher participants were found to be ‘not significant’ to their instructional strategy preferences. Results implied that age, sex, level of education and length of service of the teachers does not affect their preference on a particular instructional strategy. However, the teacher participants’ extent of use of the different instructional strategies was found to be ‘significant’ to their teaching performance. The instructional strategies being used by the teachers were found to have a direct effect on their teaching performance. Academic achievement of student participants was found to be ‘significant’ to the teacher participants’ instructional strategy preferences. The preference of the teachers on instructional strategies had a significant effect on the students’ academic performance. On the other hand, teacher participants’ extent of use of instructional strategies was showed to be ‘not significant’ to the academic achievement of students in Science and Mathematics. The instructional strategy being used by the teachers did not affect the level of performance of students in Science and Mathematics. The results of the study revealed that there was a significant difference between the teacher participants’ preference of instructional strategy and the student participants’ instructional strategy preference as well as between teacher participants’ extent of use and student participants’ perceived level of use of the different instructional strategies. Findings found a discrepancy between the teaching strategy preferences of students and strategies implemented by teachers.

Keywords: Academic Achievement, Preferences, extent of use, instructional strategy

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
28 Analysis of Scientific Attitude, Computer Anxiety, Educational Internet Use, Problematic Internet Use, and Academic Achievement of Middle School Students According to Demographic Variables

Authors: Ismail Sahin, Ismail Celik, A. Oguz Akturk, Mehmet Bekmezci, Ahmet Kiray

Abstract:

In this research, students’ scientific attitude, computer anxiety, educational use of the Internet, academic achievement, and problematic use of the Internet are analyzed based on different variables (gender, parents’ educational level and daily access to the Internet). The research group involves 361 students from two middle schools which are located in the center of Konya. The “general survey method” is adopted in the research. In accordance with the purpose of the study, percentage, mean, standard deviation, independent samples t--‐test, ANOVA (variance) are employed in the study. A total of four scales are implemented. These four scales include a total of 13 sub-dimensions. The scores from these scales and their subscales are studied in terms of various variables. In the research, students’ scientific attitude, computer anxiety, educational use of the Internet, the problematic Internet use and academic achievement (gender, parent educational level, and daily access to the Internet) are investigated based on various variables and some significant relations are found.

Keywords: Academic Achievement, scientific attitude, educational use of the internet, computer anxiety, problematic use of the internet

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
27 Impact of Four Reading and Library Factors on the Grade Average of Ugandan Secondary School Students: A Quantitative Study

Authors: Valeda Dent

Abstract:

This study explores reading and library factors related to secondary school student academic outcomes in rural areas in Uganda. This mixed methods study utilized quantitative data collected as part of a more extensive project to explore six student factors in relation to students’ school, library, and home environments. The Kitengesa Community Library in Uganda (www.kitengesalibrary.org) served as the site for this study. The factors explored for this study include reading frequency, library use frequency, library access, overall grade average (OGA), and presence and type of reading materials in the home. Results indicated that both reading frequency and certain types of reading materials read for recreational purposes are correlated with higher OGA. Reading frequency was positively correlated with student OGA for all students.

Keywords: Academic Achievement, Reading, secondary school students, rural village libraries

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
26 Correlation between Sleeping Disturbance and Academic Achievement in University Female Students

Authors: Amel Fayed, Shaden AlSubaih, Nouf Al-Qahtani, Asmaa Gosty, Asma Aljuhaimi

Abstract:

Introduction: Sleep difficulties are vastly predominant among adults and affect different aspects of their life. Many literatures found out that females are more liable to suffer from sleeping problems. College students are typical example of people dealing with daily pressure and stress to fulfill the daily tasks and responsibilities. In addition to their ultimate goal of achieving excellent academic records which require their full concentration and effort. Consequently, many of them start complaining of sleep deprivations which can undesirably affect their academic achievements. This study was aiming to investigate how prevalent is sleeping disorders among different colleges in the university and its relation their academic achievements. Methods: A cross-sectional study of female university students at Princess Norah Bint Abdulrahman University using self-administered questionnaire was conducted. Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) was used to assess different grades of insomnia. Students were requested to answer the questions evaluating their sleeping habits over the last two weeks. Participants reported their latest Grade Point Average (GPA). According to ISI, insomnia severity is reported as ‘No clinically significant’, ‘Subthreshold ‘,’ Clinical moderate insomnia’ and ‘Clinical severe’. Results: In the current study, 228 students participated; 172(75.4%) from medical colleges and 56 (24.6%) from non-medical colleges. About 80% of them claimed to have never taken any medications to help them sleep while only three students confirmed their regular use of sleep-inducing medications. About 16% of the students drink milk or other hot drinks to help them fall asleep. None of the students was suspected of having obstructive sleep apnea or apparent psychiatric disorder. According to ISI, 182 (79.8%) students suffered from subthreshold insomnia, 37 (16.2%) had clinical insomnia (moderate severity) and 9 (3.9%) of students had sleeping problems of non-clinically significance level. However, none of students was found to have severe clinical insomnia. Clinical moderate insomnia was reported in 15.1% of medical students and 19.6% of non-medical students. Moreover, about 82% of medical students suffered from subthreshold insomnia compared to 73.2% of non-medical students. This difference was not statistically significant (P=0.24). About 63% of medical students and 48% of non-medical students believed that high percentage of their colleagues are suffering from insomnias (p-value 0.08) The association between GPA and insomnia revealed that; 19.5% of low GPA group compared to 9.3% of high GPA group had clinical moderate insomnia. This association was not statistically significant (p=0.15). The correlation between the GPA and the ISI score was negative but not conclusive (r=-0.08, p-value = 0.29). More than 92% of all students agreed that sleeping problems affect their academic achievement to varying degrees. Conclusion: our results suggest that insomnia is commonly prevalent among female university students and might affect the students’ achievement. This study provides preliminary data about the quality of sleep among medical and non-medical university students which may be used to promote the healthy sleeping habits among female students.

Keywords: Academic Achievement, insomnia, females, university student

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
25 Self-Efficacy and Attitude of the Graduating Pre-Service Teachers as Influenced in Their Student Teaching Performance

Authors: Sonia Arradaza-Pajaron, Maria Aida Manila

Abstract:

Teaching is considered the noblest yet believed to be one of the most complicated and challenging professions. Along this view, every teacher-producing institution should look into producing quality pre-service graduates who are efficacious enough with the right attitude and to deal with the task accorded to them. This study investigated the association between self-efficacy and attitude of graduating pre-service teachers with their actual student teaching performance. Survey questionnaires on self-efficacy and attitude toward practice teaching were fielded to the 90 actual respondents while their practice teaching grade was extracted to serve as the other main variable. Data were analyzed and treated statistically utilizing weighted mean and Pearson r to determine the relationship of variables of the study. Findings revealed that attitude of respondents of the three curricular programs was favorable, and they are self-efficacious. Their practice teaching performance was interpreted as very good. Results further showed a significant positive relationship between their self-efficacy and practice teaching performance. It showed that their rating was a manifestation of self- efficacious group. Although they exude positive attitude towards practice teaching, yet no significant relationship was seen with their attitude and performance. Moreover, data manifested that most of them can pay attention during their conduct of lessons in the class, as well as, listen attentively to their cooperating teachers during post conferences. They can perform student teaching tasks better even when there were other interesting things to do. Most of all, they can regulate or suppress not so pleasant thoughts or feelings and take things lightly even in most challenging situations. As gleaned from the results, it can be concluded that there was an association between self-efficacy and practice teaching performance of the respondents.

Keywords: Academic Achievement, Self-efficacy, attitude, student teaching performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
24 The Relationships among Learning Emotion, Major Satisfaction, Learning Flow, and Academic Achievement in Medical School Students

Authors: S. J. Yune, S. Y. Lee, S. J. Im, B. S. Kam, S. Y. Baek

Abstract:

This study explored whether academic emotion, major satisfaction, and learning flow are associated with academic achievement in medical school. We know that emotion and affective factors are important factors in students' learning and performance. Emotion has taken the stage in much of contemporary educational psychology literature, no longer relegated to secondary status behind traditionally studied cognitive constructs. Medical school students (n=164) completed academic emotion, major satisfaction, and learning flow online survey. Academic performance was operationalized as students' average grade on two semester exams. For data analysis, correlation analysis, multiple regression analysis, hierarchical multiple regression analyses and ANOVA were conducted. The results largely confirmed the hypothesized relations among academic emotion, major satisfaction, learning flow and academic achievement. Positive academic emotion had a correlation with academic achievement (β=.191). Positive emotion had 8.5% explanatory power for academic achievement. Especially, sense of accomplishment had a significant impact on learning performance (β=.265). On the other hand, negative emotion, major satisfaction, and learning flow did not affect academic performance. Also, there were differences in sense of great (F=5.446, p=.001) and interest (F=2.78, p=.043) among positive emotion, boredom (F=3.55, p=.016), anger (F=4.346, p=.006), and petulance (F=3.779, p=.012) among negative emotion by grade. This study suggested that medical students' positive emotion was an important contributor to their academic achievement. At the same time, it is important to consider that some negative emotions can act to increase one’s motivation. Of particular importance is the notion that instructors can and should create learning environment that foster positive emotion for students. In doing so, instructors improve their chances of positively impacting students’ achievement emotions, as well as their subsequent motivation, learning, and performance. This result had an implication for medical educators striving to understand the personal emotional factors that influence learning and performance in medical training.

Keywords: Academic Achievement, learning emotion, learning flow, major satisfaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
23 Dishonesty and Achievement: An Experiment of Self-Revealing Individual Cheating

Authors: Gideon Yaniv, Erez Siniver, Yossef Tobol

Abstract:

The extensive body of economic and psychological research correlating between students' cheating and their grade point average (GPA) consistently finds a significant negative relationship between cheating and the GPA. However, this literature is entirely based on students' responses to direct question surveys that inquire whether they have ever cheated on their academic assignments. The present paper reports the results of a two-round experiment designed to expose student cheating at the individual level and correlate it with their GPAs. The experiment involved two classes of third-year economics students incentivized by a competitive reward to answer a multiple-choice trivia quiz without consulting their electronic devices. While this forbiddance was deliberately overlooked in the first round, providing an opportunity to cheat, it was strictly enforced in the second, conducted two months later in the same classes with the same quiz. A comparison of subjects' performance in the two rounds, self-revealed a considerable extent of cheating in the first one. Regressing the individual cheating levels on subjects' gender and GPA exhibited no significant differences in cheating between males and females. However, cheating of both genders was found to significantly increase with their GPA, implying, in sharp contrast with the direct question surveys, that higher achievers are bigger cheaters. A second experiment, which allowed subjects to answer the quiz in the privacy of their own cars, reveals that when really feeling safe to cheat, many subjects would cheat maximally, challenging the literature's claim that people generally cheat modestly.

Keywords: Academic Achievement, cheating behavior, experimental data, grade-point average

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
22 The Role of Hemoglobin in Psychological Well Being and Academic Achievement of College Female Students

Authors: Ramesh Adsul, Vikas Minchekar

Abstract:

The present study attempts to explore the differences in academic achievement and psychological well being and its components – satisfaction, efficiency, sociability, mental health, interpersonal relations in low and moderate level of hemoglobin of college female students. It also tries to find out how hemoglobin, psychological well –being and academic achievement correlate to each other. For this study 200 (100 low hemoglobin level and 100 moderate hemoglobin level) college female students were selected by random sampling method. This sample is collected from the project ‘Health awareness and hemoglobin improvement programme’, which is being collaboratively conducted by ‘Akshyabhasha, MESA, U.S.A. and Smt. M.G. Kanya Mahavidyalaya, Sangli, Maharashtra, India. Psychological Well-Being Scale was used to collect the data. Students’ academic achievement was collected through college record, and hemoglobin level of female students was collected from project record. Data was analyzed by using independent ‘t’ test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. The finding of the study revealed significant differences between low hemoglobin and moderate hemoglobin groups regarding efficiency and mental health. No significant difference was observed on satisfaction, sociability and interpersonal relations. It is also found that there is significant difference between low hemoglobin and moderate hemoglobin groups on academic achievement. The study revealed positive correlation between hemoglobin and academic achievement and psychological well-being and academic achievement. Moderate hemoglobin level create more efficiency, better mental health and good academic achievement in female students. One could say that there is significant role hemoglobin plays in psychological well being and academic achievement of college female students. Anemia is widely prevalent in all the states if India among all age groups. In India, college girls contribute major portion of population. It has been reported that 80% female population has hemoglobin deficiency, due to illiteracy of female, family structure, status of women, diet habits, gender discrimination and various superstitions. The deficiency of hemoglobin affects physical and mental health, general behavior and academic performance of students. This study is useful to educational managements, counselors, parents, students and Government also. In the development of personality physical as well as psychological health is essential. This research findings will create awareness about physical and mental health among people and society.

Keywords: Academic Achievement, psychological well-being, hemoglobin, college female students

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
21 The Effect of Cooperative Learning on Academic Achievement of Grade Nine Students in Mathematics: The Case of Mettu Secondary and Preparatory School

Authors: Diriba Gemechu, Lamessa Abebe

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to examine the effect of cooperative learning method on student’s academic achievement and on the achievement level over a usual method in teaching different topics of mathematics. The study also examines the perceptions of students towards cooperative learning. Cooperative learning is the instructional strategy in which pairs or small groups of students with different levels of ability work together to accomplish a shared goal. The aim of this cooperation is for students to maximize their own and each other learning, with members striving for joint benefit. The teacher’s role changes from wise on the wise to guide on the side. Cooperative learning due to its influential aspects is the most prevalent teaching-learning technique in the modern world. Therefore the study was conducted in order to examine the effect of cooperative learning on the academic achievement of grade 9 students in Mathematics in case of Mettu secondary school. Two sample sections are randomly selected by which one section served randomly as an experimental and the other as a comparison group. Data gathering instruments are achievement tests and questionnaires. A treatment of STAD method of cooperative learning was provided to the experimental group while the usual method is used in the comparison group. The experiment lasted for one semester. To determine the effect of cooperative learning on the student’s academic achievement, the significance of difference between the scores of groups at 0.05 levels was tested by applying t test. The effect size was calculated to see the strength of the treatment. The student’s perceptions about the method were tested by percentiles of the questionnaires. During data analysis, each group was divided into high and low achievers on basis of their previous Mathematics result. Data analysis revealed that both the experimental and comparison groups were almost equal in Mathematics at the beginning of the experiment. The experimental group out scored significantly than comparison group on posttest. Additionally, the comparison of mean posttest scores of high achievers indicates significant difference between the two groups. The same is true for low achiever students of both groups on posttest. Hence, the result of the study indicates the effectiveness of the method for Mathematics topics as compared to usual method of teaching.

Keywords: Cooperative Learning, Academic Achievement, experimental group, comparison group

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
20 Combating Corruption to Enhance Learner Academic Achievement: A Qualitative Study of Zimbabwean Public Secondary Schools

Authors: Onesmus Nyaude

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to investigate participants’ views on how corruption can be combated to enhance learner academic achievement. The study was undertaken on three select public secondary institutions in Zimbabwe. This study also focuses on exploring the various views of educators; parents and the learners on the role played by corruption in perpetuating the seemingly existing learner academic achievement disparities in various educational institutions. The study further interrogates and examines the nexus between the prevalence of corruption in schools and the subsequent influence on the academic achievement of learners. Corruption is considered a form of social injustice; hence in Zimbabwe, the general consensus is that it is perceived rife to the extent that it is overtaking the traditional factors that contributed to the poor academic achievement of learners. Coupled to this, have been the issue of gross abuse of power and some malpractices emanating from concealment of essential and official transactions in the conduct of business. Through proposing robust anti-corruption mechanisms, teaching and learning resources poured in schools would be put into good use. This would prevent the unlawful diversion and misappropriation of the resources in question which has always been the culture. This study is of paramount significance to curriculum planners, teachers, parents, and learners. The study was informed by the interpretive paradigm; thus qualitative research approaches were used. Both probability and non-probability sampling techniques were adopted in ‘site and participants’ selection. A representative sample of (150) participants was used. The study found that the majority of the participants perceived corruption as a social problem and a human right threat affecting the quality of teaching and learning processes in the education sector. It was established that corruption prevalence within institutions is as a result of the perpetual weakening of ethical values and other variables linked to upholding of ‘Ubuntu’ among general citizenry. It was further established that greediness and weak systems are major causes of rampant corruption within institutions of higher learning and are manifesting through abuse of power, bribery, misappropriation and embezzlement of material and financial resources. Therefore, there is great need to collectively address the problem of corruption in educational institutions and society at large. The study additionally concludes that successful combating of corruption will promote successful moral development of students as well as safeguarding their human rights entitlements. The study recommends the adoption of principles of good corporate governance within educational institutions in order to successfully curb corruption. The study further recommends the intensification of interventionist strategies and strengthening of systems in educational institutions as well as regular audits to overcome the problem associated with rampant corruption cases.

Keywords: Corruption, Academic Achievement, good corporate governance, qualitative study, combating

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
19 Development of Flipped Classroom in Chemistry on 'Acid-Base' for Enrichment Science Classroom Students

Authors: Waratthaya Maneerattana, Piyarat Dornbundit

Abstract:

The study aimed to develop flipped classroom in Chemistry on ‘acid-base’ for high school students and study efficiency of students on academic achievement and problem-solving skills. The evaluating result from the experts showed that developed flipped classroom was ranked in high score level. The flipped classroom efficiency E1/E2 was higher than the criteria of 70/70. The flipped classroom was used by 24 students in grade 11 in the second semester of the academic year 2016 at Bodindecha (Sing Singhaseni) School. Sampling group was chosen using a purposive sampling approach. The results revealed that academic achievement and problem solving skills of students after studying flipped classroom was significantly higher at .05 level.

Keywords: Academic Achievement, Flipped Classroom, acid-base, problem solving skill

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
18 Classroom Interaction Patterns as Correlates of Senior Secondary School Achievement in Chemistry in Awka Education Zone

Authors: Emmanuel Nkemakolam Okwuduba, Fransica Chinelo Offiah

Abstract:

The technique of teaching chemistry to students is one of the determining factors towards their achievement. Thus, the study investigated the relationship between classroom interaction patterns and students’ achievement in Chemistry. The purpose of this study was to identify patterns of interaction in an observed chemistry classroom, determine the amount of teacher talk, student talk and period of silence and to find out the relationship between them and the mean achievement scores of students. Five research questions and three hypotheses guided the study. The study was a correlational survey. The sample consisted of 450 (212males and 238 females) senior secondary one students and 12 (5males and 7 females) chemistry teachers drawn from 12 selected secondary schools in Awka Education Zone of Anambra state. In each of the 12 selected schools, an intact class was used. Science Interaction Category (SIC) and Chemistry Achievement Test (CAT) were developed, validated and used for data collection. Each teacher was observed three times and the interaction patterns coded using a coding sheet containing the Science Interaction Category. At the end of the observational period, the Chemistry Achievement Test (for collection of data on students’ achievement in chemistry) was administered on the students. Frequencies, percentage, mean, standard deviation and Pearson product moment correlation were used for data analysis. The result showed that the percentages of teacher talk, student talk and silence were 59.6%, 37.6% and 2.8% respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficient(r) for teacher talk, student talk and silence were -0.61, 0.76 and-0.18 respectively. The result showed negative and significant relationship between teacher talk and mean achievement scores of students; positive and significant relationship between student talk and mean achievement scores of students but there is no relationship between period of silence and mean achievement scores of students at 0.05 significant levels. The following recommendations were made based on the findings: teachers should establish high level of student talk through initiation and response as it promotes involvement and enhances achievement.

Keywords: Chemistry, Academic Achievement, classroom, interactions patterns

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
17 Relationship between the Level of Perceived Self-Efficacy of Children with Learning Disability and Their Mother’s Perception about the Efficacy of Their Child, and Children’s Academic Achievement

Authors: Payal Maheshwari, Maheaswari Brindavan

Abstract:

The present study aimed at studying the level of perceived self-efficacy of children with learning disability and their mother’s perception about the efficacy of the child and the relationship between the two. The study further aimed at finding out the relationship between the level of perceived self-efficacy of children with learning disability and their academic achievement and their mother’s perception about the Efficacy of the child and child’s Academic Achievement. The sample comprised of 80 respondents (40 children with learning disability and their mothers). Children with learning disability as their primary condition, belonging to middle or upper middle class, living with both the parents, residing in Mumbai and their mothers were selected. Purposive or judgmental and snowball sampling technique was used to select the sample for the present study. Proformas in the form of questionnaires were used to obtain the background information of the children with learning disability and their mother’s. A self-constructed Mother’s Perceived Efficacy of their Child Assessment Scale was used to measure mothers perceived level of efficacy of their child with learning disability. Self-constructed Child’s Perceived Self-Efficacy Assessment Scale was used to measure the level of child’s perceived self-efficacy. Academic scores of the child were collected from the child’s parents or teachers and were converted into percentage. The data were analyzed quantitatively using frequencies, mean and standard deviation. Correlations were computed to ascertain the relationships between the different variables. The findings revealed that majority of the mother’s perceived efficacy about their child with learning disability was above average as well as majority of the children with learning disability also perceived themselves as having above average level of self-efficacy. Further in the domains of self-regulated learning and emotional self-efficacy majority of the mothers perceived their child as having average or below average efficacy, 50% of the children also perceived their self-efficacy in the two domains at average or below average level. A significant (r=.322, p < .05) weak correlation (Spearman’s rho) was found between mother’s perceived efficacy about their child, and child’s perceived self-efficacy and a significant (r=.377, p < .01) weak correlation (Pearson Correlation) was also found between mother’s perceived efficacy about their child and child’s academic achievement. Significant weak positive correlation was found between child’s perceived self-efficacy and academic achievement (r=.332, p < .05). Based on the findings, the study discussed the need for intervention program for children in non-academic skills like self-regulation and emotional competence.

Keywords: Children, Academic Achievement, Learning disability, Mothers, perceived self efficacy

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
16 Socio-Emotional Skills of Children with Learning Disability, Their Perceived Self-Efficacy and Academic Achievement

Authors: P. Maheshwari, M. Brindavan

Abstract:

The present research aimed to study the level of socio-emotional skills and perceived self-efficacy of children with learning disability. The study further investigated the relationship between the levels of socio-emotional skills, perceived self-efficacy and academic achievement of children with learning disability. The sample comprised of 40 children with learning disability as their primary condition, belonging to middle or upper middle class, living with both the parents, residing in Mumbai. Purposive or Judgmental and snowball sampling technique was used to select the sample for the study. Proformas in the form of questionnaires were used to obtain the background information of the children with learning disability. A self-constructed Child’s Perceived Self-Efficacy Assessment Scale and Child’s Social and Emotional Skills Assessment Scale was used to measure the level of child’s perceived self-efficacy and their level of social and emotional skill respectively. Academic scores of the child were collected from the child’s parents or teachers and were converted into a percentage. The data was analyzed quantitatively using SPSS. Spearman rho or Pearson Product Moment correlation was used to ascertain the multiple relationships between child’s perceived self-efficacy, child’s social and emotional skills and child’s academic achievement. The findings revealed majority (27) of the children with learning disability perceived themselves having above average level of social and emotional skills while 13 out of 40 perceived their level of social and emotional skills at an average level. Domain wise analyses revealed that, in the domain of self- management (26) and relationship skills (22) more number of the children perceived themselves as having average or below average level of social and emotional skills indicating that they perceived themselves as having average or below average skills in regulating their emotions, thoughts, and behaviors effectively in different situations, establishing and maintaining healthy and rewarding relationships with diverse groups and individuals. With regard to perceived self-efficacy, the majority of the children with learning disability perceived themselves as having above average level of self-efficacy. Looking at the data domain wise it was found that, in the domains of self-regulated learning and emotional self-efficacy, 50% of the children perceived themselves at average or below average level, indicating that they perceived themselves as average on competencies like organizing academic activities, structuring environment to make it conducive for learning, expressing emotions in a socially acceptable manner. Further, the correlations were computed, and significant positive correlations were found between children’s social and emotional skills and academic achievement (r=.378, p < .01), and between children’s social and emotional skills and child’s perceived self-efficacy (r = .724, p < .01) and a positive significant correlation was also found between children’s perceived self-efficacy and academic achievement (r=.332, p < .05). Results of the study emphasize on planning intervention for children with learning disability focusing on improving self-management and relationship skills, self-regulated learning and emotional self-efficacy.

Keywords: Academic Achievement, Learning disability, perceived self-efficacy, social and emotional skills

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
15 The Efficacy of Motivation Management Training for Students’ Academic Achievement and Self-Concept

Authors: Ramazan Hasanzadeh, Leyla Vatandoust

Abstract:

This study examined the efficacy of motivation management training for students’ academic achievement and self-concept. The pretest–posttest quasi-experimental study used a cluster random sampling method to select subjects for the experimental (20 subjects) and control (20 subjects) groups. posttest was conducted with both groups to determine the effect of the training. An academic achievement and academic self-concept questionnaire (grade point average requirement) was used for the pretest and posttest. The results showed that the motivation management training increased academic self-concept and academic achievement.

Keywords: Academic Achievement, students, motivation management, academic self-concept

Procedia PDF Downloads 112
14 Increasing Student Engagement through Culturally-Responsive Classroom Management

Authors: Catherine P. Bradshaw, Elise T. Pas, Katrina J. Debnam, Jessika H. Bottiani, Michael Rosenberg

Abstract:

Worldwide, ethnically and culturally diverse students are at increased risk for school failure, discipline problems, and dropout. Despite decades of concern about this issue of disparities in education and other fields (e.g., 'school to prison pipeline'), there has been limited empirical examination of models that can actually reduce these gaps in schools. Moreover, few studies have examined the effectiveness of in-service teacher interventions and supports specifically designed to reduce discipline disparities and improve student engagement. This session provides an overview of the evidence-based Double Check model which serves as a framework for teachers to use culturally-responsive strategies to engage ethnically and culturally diverse students in the classroom and reduce discipline problems. Specifically, Double Check is a school-based prevention program which includes three core components: (a) enhancements to the school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) tier-1 level of support; (b) five one-hour professional development training sessions, each of which addresses five domains of cultural competence (i.e., connection to the curriculum, authentic relationships, reflective thinking, effective communication, and sensitivity to students’ culture); and (c) coaching of classroom teachers using an adapted version of the Classroom Check-Up, which intends to increase teachers’ use of effective classroom management and culturally-responsive strategies using research-based motivational interviewing and data-informed problem-solving approaches. This paper presents findings from a randomized controlled trial (RCT) testing the impact of Double Check, on office discipline referrals (disaggregated by race) and independently observed and self-reported culturally-responsive practices and classroom behavior management. The RCT included 12 elementary and middle schools; 159 classroom teachers were randomized either to receive coaching or serve as comparisons. Specifically, multilevel analyses indicated that teacher self-reported culturally responsive behavior management improved over the course of the school year for teachers who received the coaching and professional development. However, the average annual office discipline referrals issued to black students were reduced among teachers who were randomly assigned to receive coaching relative to comparison teachers. Similarly, observations conducted by trained external raters indicated significantly more teacher proactive behavior management and anticipation of student problems, higher student compliance, less student non-compliance, and less socially disruptive behaviors in classrooms led by coached teachers than classrooms led teachers randomly assigned to the non-coached condition. These findings indicated promising effects of the Double Check model on a range of teacher and student outcomes, including disproportionality in office discipline referrals among Black students. These results also suggest that the Double Check model is one of only a few systematic approaches to promoting culturally-responsive behavior management which has been rigorously tested and shown to be associated with improvements in either student or staff outcomes indicated significant reductions in discipline problems and improvements in behavior management. Implications of these findings are considered within the broader context of globalization and demographic shifts, and their impacts on schools. These issues are particularly timely, given growing concerns about immigration policies in the U.S. and abroad.

Keywords: Academic Achievement, Student Engagement, ethnically and culturally diverse students, school-based prevention

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
13 Comparing the Contribution of General Vocabulary Knowledge and Academic Vocabulary Knowledge to Learners' Academic Achievement

Authors: Reem Alsager, James Milton

Abstract:

Coxhead’s (2000) Academic Word List (AWL) believed to be essential for students pursuing higher education and helps differentiate English for Academic Purposes (EAP) from General English as a course of study, and it is thought to be important for comprehending English academic texts. It has been described that AWL is an infrequent, discrete set of vocabulary items unreachable from general language. On the other hand, it has been known for a period of time that general vocabulary knowledge is a good predictor of academic achievement. This study, however, is an attempt to measure and compare the contribution of academic knowledge and general vocabulary knowledge to learners’ GPA and examine what knowledge is a better predictor of academic achievement and investigate whether AWL as a specialised list of infrequent words relates to the frequency effect. The participants were comprised of 44 international postgraduate students in Swansea University, all from the School of Management, following the taught MSc (Master of Science). The study employed the Academic Vocabulary Size Test (AVST) and the XK_Lex vocabulary size test. The findings indicate that AWL is a list based on word frequency rather than a discrete and unique word list and that the AWL performs the same function as general vocabulary, with tests of each found to measure largely the same quality of knowledge. The findings also suggest that the contribution that AWL knowledge provides for academic success is not sufficient and that general vocabulary knowledge is better in predicting academic achievement. Furthermore, the contribution that academic knowledge added above the contribution of general vocabulary knowledge when combined is really small and noteworthy. This study’s results are in line with the argument and suggest that it is the development of general vocabulary size is an essential quality for academic success and acquiring the words of the AWL will form part of this process. The AWL by itself does not provide sufficient coverage, and is probably not specialised enough, for knowledge of this list to influence this general process. It can be concluded that AWL as an academic word list epitomizes only a fraction of words that are actually needed for academic success in English and that knowledge of academic vocabulary combined with general vocabulary knowledge above the most frequent 3000 words is what matters most to ultimate academic success.

Keywords: Academic Achievement, vocabulary size, academic vocabulary, general vocabulary

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
12 A Qualitative Study on Metacognitive Patterns among High and Low Performance Problem Based on Learning Groups

Authors: Zuhairah Abdul Hadi, Mohd Nazir bin Md. Zabit, Zuriadah Ismail

Abstract:

Metacognitive has been empirically evidenced to be one important element influencing learning outcomes. Expert learners engage in metacognition by monitoring and controlling their thinking, and listing, considering and selecting the best strategies to achieve desired goals. Studies also found that good critical thinkers engage in more metacognition and people tend to activate more metacognition when solving complex problems. This study extends past studies by performing a qualitative analysis to understand metacognitive patterns among two high and two low performing groups by carefully examining video and audio records taken during Problem-based learning activities. High performing groups are groups with majority members scored well in Watson Glaser II Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA II) and academic achievement tests. Low performing groups are groups with majority members fail to perform in the two tests. Audio records are transcribed and analyzed using schemas adopted from past studies. Metacognitive statements are analyzed using three stages model and patterns of metacognitive are described by contexts, components, and levels for each high and low performing groups.

Keywords: Critical thinking, Academic Achievement, Problem-Based Learning, metacognitive

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
11 Longitudinal Study of the Phenomenon of Acting White in Hungarian Elementary Schools Analysed by Fixed and Random Effects Models

Authors: Lilla Dorina Habsz, Marta Rado

Abstract:

Popularity is affected by a variety of factors in the primary school such as academic achievement and ethnicity. The main goal of our study was to analyse whether acting white exists in Hungarian elementary schools. In other words, we observed whether Roma students penalize those in-group members who obtain the high academic achievement. Furthermore, to show how popularity is influenced by changes in academic achievement in inter-ethnic relations. The empirical basis of our research was the 'competition and negative networks' longitudinal dataset, which was collected by the MTA TK 'Lendület' RECENS research group. This research followed 11 and 12-year old students for a two-year period. The survey was analysed using fixed and random effect models. Overall, we found a positive correlation between grades and popularity, but no evidence for the acting white effect. However, better grades were more positively evaluated within the majority group than within the minority group, which may further increase inequalities.

Keywords: Ethnicity, Academic Achievement, Elementary school, popularity

Procedia PDF Downloads 76