Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

Absorption Related Abstracts

26 The Experimental Measurement of the LiBr Concentration of a Solar Absorption Machine

Authors: N. Hatraf, W. Taane, Z. Neffah, L. Merabti

Abstract:

The excessive consumption of fossil energies (electrical energy) during summer caused by the technological development involves more and more climate warming. In order to reduce the worst impact of gas emissions produced from classical air conditioning, heat driven solar absorption chiller is pretty promising; it consists on using solar as motive energy which is clean and environmentally friendly to provide cold. Solar absorption machine is composed by four components using Lithium Bromide /water as a refrigerating couple. LiBr- water is the most promising in chiller applications due to high safety, high volatility ratio, high affinity, high stability and its high latent heat. The lithium bromide solution is constitute by the salt lithium bromide which absorbs water under certain conditions of pressure and temperature however if the concentration of the solution is high in the absorption chillers; which exceed 70%, the solution will crystallize. The main aim of this article is to study the phenomena of the crystallization and to evaluate how the dependence between the electric conductivity and the concentration which should be controlled.

Keywords: Crystallization, Absorption, experimental results, lithium bromide solution

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25 Modelling and Simulation of Diffusion Effect on the Glycol Dehydration Unit of a Natural Gas Plant

Authors: M. Wigwe, J. G Akpa, E. N Wami

Abstract:

Mathematical models of the absorber of a glycol dehydration facility was developed using the principles of conservation of mass and energy. Models which predict variation of the water content of gas in mole fraction, variation of gas and liquid temperatures across the parking height were developed. These models contain contributions from bulk and diffusion flows. The effect of diffusion on the process occurring in the absorber was studied in this work. The models were validated using the initial conditions in the plant data from Company W TEG unit in Nigeria. The results obtained showed that the effect of diffusion was noticed between z=0 and z=0.004 m. A deviation from plant data of 0% was observed for the gas water content at a residence time of 20 seconds, at z=0.004 m. Similarly, deviations of 1.584% and 2.844% were observed for the gas and TEG temperatures.

Keywords: Simulation, Separations, Absorption, Water Content, dehydration, triethylene glycol

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24 Improving the Dissolution Rate of Folic Acid via the Antisolvent Vapour Precipitation

Authors: X. D. Chen, J. Y. Tan, L. C. Lum, M. G. Lee, S. Mansouri, K. Hapgood, M. W. Woo

Abstract:

Folic acid (FA) is known to be an important supplement to prevent neural tube defect (NTD) in pregnant women. Similar to some commercial formulations, sodium bicarbonate solution is used as a solvent for FA. This work uses the antisolvent vapor precipitation (AVP), incorporating ethanol vapor as the convective drying medium in place of air to produce branch-like micro-structure FA particles. Interestingly, the dissolution rate of the resultant particle is 2-3 times better than the particle produce from conventional air drying due to the higher surface area of particles produced. The higher dissolution rate could possibly improve the delivery and absorption of FA in human body. This application could potentially be extended to other commercial products, particularly in less soluble drugs to improve its solubility.

Keywords: Absorption, antisolvent vapor precipitation, dissolution rate, folic acid

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23 Effect of Chlorophyll Concentration Variations from Extract of Papaya Leaves on Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

Authors: Eka Maulana, Sholeh Hadi Pramono, Dody Fanditya, M. Julius

Abstract:

In this paper, extract of papaya leaves are used as a natural dye and combined by variations of solvent concentration applied on DSSC (Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell). Indonesian geographic located on the equator line occasions the magnitude of the potential to develop organic solar cells made from extracts of chlorophyll as a substitute for inorganic materials or synthetic dye on DSSC material. Dye serves as absorbing photons which are then converted into electrical energy. A conductive coated glass layer called TCO (Transparent Conductive Oxide) is used as a substrate of electrode. TiO2 nanoparticles as binding dye molecules, redox couple iodide/ tri-iodide as the electrolyte and carbon as the counter electrode in the DSSC are used. TiO2 nanoparticles, organic dyes, electrolytes and counter electrode are arranged and combined with the layered structure of the photo-catalyst absorption layer. Dye absorption measurements using a spectrophotometer at 200-800 nm light spectrum produces a total amount of chlorophyll 80.076 mg/l. The test cell at 7 watt LED light with 5000 lux luminescence were obtained Voc and Isc of 235.5 mV and 14 μA, respectively.

Keywords: Absorption, chlorophyll, DSSC (Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell), natural dye

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22 Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization Using a New O-Element Design Which Replaces the Venturi Scrubber

Authors: P. Lestinsky, D. Jecha, V. Brummer, P. Stehlik

Abstract:

Scrubbing by a liquid spraying is one of the most effective processes used for removal of fine particles and soluble gas pollutants (such as SO2, HCl, HF) from the flue gas. There are many configurations of scrubbers designed to provide contact between the liquid and gas stream for effectively capturing particles or soluble gas pollutants, such as spray plates, packed bed towers, jet scrubbers, cyclones, vortex and venturi scrubbers. The primary function of venturi scrubber is the capture of fine particles as well as HCl, HF or SO2 removal with effect of the flue gas temperature decrease before input to the absorption column. In this paper, sulfur dioxide (SO2) from flue gas was captured using new design replacing venturi scrubber (1st degree of wet scrubbing). The flue gas was prepared by the combustion of the carbon disulfide solution in toluene (1:1 vol.) in the flame in the reactor. Such prepared flue gas with temperature around 150 °C was processed in designed laboratory O-element scrubber. Water was used as absorbent liquid. The efficiency of SO2 removal, pressure drop and temperature drop were measured on our experimental device. The dependence of these variables on liquid-gas ratio was observed. The average temperature drop was in the range from 150 °C to 40 °C. The pressure drop was increased with increasing of a liquid-gas ratio, but not as much as for the common venturi scrubber designs. The efficiency of SO2 removal was up to 70 %. The pressure drop of our new designed wet scrubber is similar to commonly used venturi scrubbers; nevertheless the influence of amount of the liquid on pressure drop is not so significant.

Keywords: Modeling, Absorption, desulphurization, flue gas

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21 The Engineering Properties of Jordanian Marble

Authors: Raed Abendeh, Mousa Bani Baker, Hesham Ahmad, Zaidoon Abu Salem

Abstract:

This research paper was commissioned to discuss the Jordanian marble, which is a non-foliated metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite. Geologists use the term "marble" to refer to metamorphosed limestone; however, stonemasons use the term more broadly to encompass unmetamorphised limestone. Marble is commonly used for sculpture and as a building material. The marble has many uses; one of them is using the white marble that has been prized for its use in sculptures since classical times. This preference has to do with its softness, relative isotropy and homogeneity, and a relative resistance to shattering. Another use of it is the construction marble which is “a stone which is composed of calcite, dolomite or serpentine which is capable of taking a polish” Marble Institute of America. This report focuses most about the marble in Jordan and its properties: rock definition, physical properties, the marble occurrences in Jordan, types of Jordanian marble and their prices and test done on this marble.

Keywords: Absorption, compressive strength, modulus of rupture, porosity, abrasion, marble, metamorphic, non-foliated, recrystallized, Moh’s hardness

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20 Green, Yellow, Orange and Red Emission of Sm3+ Doped Borotellurite Glass under the 480nm Excitation Wavelength

Authors: M. R. S. Nasuha, K. Azman, H. Azhan, S. A. Senawi, A . Mardhiah

Abstract:

Sm3+ doped borotellurite glasses of the system (70-x) TeO2-20B2O3-10ZnO-xSm2O3 (where x = 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 mol%) have been prepared using melt-quenching method. Their physical properties such as density, molar volume and oxygen packing density as well as the optical measurements by mean of their absorption and emission characteristic have been carried out at room temperature using UV/VIS and photoluminescence spectrophotometer. The result of physical properties is found to vary with respect to Sm3+ ions content. Meanwhile, three strong absorption peaks are observed and are well resolved in the ultraviolet and visible regions due to transitions between the ground state and various excited state of Sm3+ ions. Thus, the photoluminescence spectra exhibit four emission bands from the initial state, which correspond to the 4G5/2 → 6H5/2, 4G5/2 → 6H7/2, 4G5/2 → 6H9/2 and 4G5/2 → 6H11/2 fluorescence transitions at 562 nm, 599 nm, 645 nm, and 706 nm, respectively.

Keywords: Optical, Physical, Absorption, Emission, borotellurite

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19 Absorption Capability Examination of Heavy Metals by Spirogyra Alga in Ahvaz Water Treatment Plant

Authors: F. Fakheri Raof, F. Zobeidizadeh

Abstract:

The present study examined the potential capability of Spirogyra algae remove heavy metals Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cr from the water. For this purpose, the water treatment No. 3 of Ahvaz County in Khuzestan Province of Iran was selected as a case study. From 8 sampling stations, 4 stations were dedicated to the water samples and 4 stations to the algae samples. According to the obtained results, the concentration of the heavy metals Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn in water samples were within the ranges of 1.98-19.53, 0.67-13.45, 1-23.18, and 2.12-83.04 µg/L. Besides, the concentration of heavy metal Cr, Pb, Cu, and Zn in spirogyra algae samples varied between the ranges 2.30-3.61, 2.06-3.43, 2.29-2.56, and 9.88-10.84 µg/L. The highest amount of metal absorption in spirogyra algae samples was related to the zinc. The obtained results also indicated that the last spirogyra algae sample which was at the inlet of Tank 4 absorbed the lowest concentration of metals. This would be due to the treatment process along the course of ponds resulted in completely pure water at the outlet without the existence of algae on the sides. The paper also provides some useful recommendations on this issue.

Keywords: Absorption, heavy metal, water treatment plants, Ahvaz, spirogyra algae

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18 Investigation about Structural and Optical Properties of Bulk and Thin Film of 1H-CaAlSi by Density Functional Method

Authors: M. Babaeipour, M. Vejdanihemmat

Abstract:

Optical properties of bulk and thin film of 1H-CaAlSi for two directions (1,0,0) and (0,0,1) were studied. The calculations are carried out by Density Functional Theory (DFT) method using full potential. GGA approximation was used to calculate exchange-correlation energy. The calculations are performed by WIEN2k package. The results showed that the absorption edge is shifted backward 0.82eV in the thin film than the bulk for both directions. The static values of the real part of dielectric function for four cases were obtained. The static values of the refractive index for four cases are calculated too. The reflectivity graphs have shown an intensive difference between the reflectivity of the thin film and the bulk in the ultraviolet region.

Keywords: Optical, Absorption, thin film, bulk

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17 The Study of the Absorption and Translocation of Chromium by Lygeum spartum in the Mining Region of Djebel Hamimat and Soil-Plant Interaction

Authors: H. Khomri, A. Bentellis

Abstract:

Since century of the Development Activities extraction and a dispersed mineral processing Toxic metals and much more contaminated vast areas occupied by what they natural outcrops. New types of metalliferous habitats are so appeared. A species that is Lygeum spartum attracted our curiosity because apart from its valuable role in desertification, it is apparently able to exclude antimony and other metals can be. This species, green leaf blades which are provided as cattle feed, would be a good subject for phytoremediation of mineral soils. The study of absorption and translocation of chromium by the Lygeum spartum in the mining region of Djebel Hamimat and the interaction soil-plant, revealed that soils of this species living in this region are alkaline, calcareous majority in their fine texture medium and saline in their minority. They have normal levels of organic matter. They are moderately rich in nitrogen. They contain total chromium content reaches a maximum of 66,80 mg Kg^(-1) and a total absence of soluble chromium. The results of the analysis of variance of the difference between bare soils and soils appear Lygeum spartum made a significant difference only for the silt and organic matter. But for the other variables analyzed this difference is not significant. Thus, this plant has only one action on the amendment, only the levels of silt and organic matter in soils. The results of the multiple regression of the chromium content of the roots according to all soil variables studied did appear that among the studied variables included in the model, only the electrical conductivity and clay occur in the explanation of contents chromium in roots. The chromium content of the aerial parts analyzed by regression based on all studied soil variables allows us to see only the variables: electrical conductivity and content of chromium in the root portion involved in the explanation of the content chromium in the aerial part.

Keywords: Absorption, Translocation, multiple regression, analysis of variance, chrome, Lygeum spartum, the soil variables

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16 Strong Down-Conversion Emission of Sm3+ Doped Borotellurite Glass under the 480nm Excitation Wavelength

Authors: M. R. S. Nasuha, K. Azman, H. Azhan, S. A. Senawi, A. Mardhiah

Abstract:

Studies on Samarium doped glasses possess lot of interest due to their potential applications for high-density optical memory, optical communication device, the design of laser and color display etc. Sm3+ doped borotellurite glasses of the system (70-x) TeO2-20B2O3-10ZnO-xSm2O3 (where x = 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 mol%) have been prepared using melt-quenching method. Their physical properties such as density, molar volume and oxygen packing density as well as the optical measurements by mean of their absorption and emission characteristic have been carried out at room temperature using UV/VIS and photoluminescence spectrophotometer. The results of physical properties are found to vary with respect to Sm3+ ions content. Meanwhile, three strong absorption peaks are observed and are well resolved in the ultra violet and visible regions due to transitions between the ground state and various excited state of Sm3+ ions. Thus, the photoluminescence spectra exhibit four emission bands from the initial state, which correspond to the 4G5/2 → 6H5/2, 4G5/2 → 6H7/2, 4G5/2 → 6H9/2 and 4G5/2 → 6H11/2 fluorescence transitions at 562 nm, 599 nm, 645 nm and 706 nm respectively.

Keywords: Absorption, Emission, borotellurite, down-conversion

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15 Spectral Responses of the Laser Generated Coal Aerosol

Authors: Tibor Ajtai, Noémi Utry, Máté Pintér, Tomi Smausz, Zoltán Kónya, Béla Hopp, Gábor Szabó, Zoltán Bozóki

Abstract:

Characterization of spectral responses of light absorbing carbonaceous particulate matter (LAC) is of great importance in both modelling its climate effect and interpreting remote sensing measurement data. The residential or domestic combustion of coal is one of the dominant LAC constituent. According to some related assessments the residential coal burning account for roughly half of anthropogenic BC emitted from fossil fuel burning. Despite of its significance in climate the comprehensive investigation of optical properties of residential coal aerosol is really limited in the literature. There are many reason of that starting from the difficulties associated with the controlled burning conditions of the fuel, through the lack of detailed supplementary proximate and ultimate chemical analysis enforced, the interpretation of the measured optical data, ending with many analytical and methodological difficulties regarding the in-situ measurement of coal aerosol spectral responses. Since the gas matrix of ambient can significantly mask the physicochemical characteristics of the generated coal aerosol the accurate and controlled generation of residential coal particulates is one of the most actual issues in this research area. Most of the laboratory imitation of residential coal combustion is simply based on coal burning in stove with ambient air support allowing one to measure only the apparent spectral feature of the particulates. However, the recently introduced methodology based on a laser ablation of solid coal target opens up novel possibilities to model the real combustion procedure under well controlled laboratory conditions and makes the investigation of the inherent optical properties also possible. Most of the methodology for spectral characterization of LAC is based on transmission measurement made of filter accumulated aerosol or deduced indirectly from parallel measurements of scattering and extinction coefficient using free floating sampling. In the former one the accuracy while in the latter one the sensitivity are liming the applicability of this approaches. Although the scientific community are at the common platform that aerosol-phase PhotoAcoustic Spectroscopy (PAS) is the only method for precise and accurate determination of light absorption by LAC, the PAS based instrumentation for spectral characterization of absorption has only been recently introduced. In this study, the investigation of the inherent, spectral features of laser generated and chemically characterized residential coal aerosols are demonstrated. The experimental set-up and its characteristic for residential coal aerosol generation are introduced here. The optical absorption and the scattering coefficients as well as their wavelength dependency are determined by our state-of-the-art multi wavelength PAS instrument (4λ-PAS) and multi wavelength cosinus sensor (Aurora 3000). The quantified wavelength dependency (AAE and SAE) are deduced from the measured data. Finally, some correlation between the proximate and ultimate chemical as well as the measured or deduced optical parameters are also revealed.

Keywords: Absorption, Scattering, residential coal, aerosol generation by laser ablation

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14 Two Component Source Apportionment Based on Absorption and Size Distribution Measurement

Authors: Tibor Ajtai, Noémi Utry, Máté Pintér, Gábor Szabó, Zoltán Bozóki

Abstract:

Beyond its climate and health related issues ambient light absorbing carbonaceous particulate matter (LAC) has also become a great scientific interest in terms of its regulations recently. It has been experimentally demonstrated in recent studies, that LAC is dominantly composed of traffic and wood burning aerosol particularly under wintertime urban conditions, when the photochemical and biological activities are negligible. Several methods have been introduced to quantitatively apportion aerosol fractions emitted by wood burning and traffic but most of them require costly and time consuming off-line chemical analysis. As opposed to chemical features, the microphysical properties of airborne particles such as optical absorption and size distribution can be easily measured on-line, with high accuracy and sensitivity, especially under highly polluted urban conditions. Recently a new method has been proposed for the apportionment of wood burning and traffic aerosols based on the spectral dependence of their absorption quantified by the Aerosol Angström Exponent (AAE). In this approach the absorption coefficient is deduced from transmission measurement on a filter accumulated aerosol sample and the conversion factor between the measured optical absorption and the corresponding mass concentration (the specific absorption cross section) are determined by on-site chemical analysis. The recently developed multi-wavelength photoacoustic instruments provide novel, in-situ approach towards the reliable and quantitative characterization of carbonaceous particulate matter. Therefore, it also opens up novel possibilities on the source apportionment through the measurement of light absorption. In this study, we demonstrate an in-situ spectral characterization method of the ambient carbon fraction based on light absorption and size distribution measurements using our state-of-the-art multi-wavelength photoacoustic instrument (4λ-PAS) and Single Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) The carbonaceous particulate selective source apportionment study was performed for ambient particulate matter in the city center of Szeged, Hungary where the dominance of traffic and wood burning aerosol has been experimentally demonstrated earlier. The proposed model is based on the parallel, in-situ measurement of optical absorption and size distribution. AAEff and AAEwb were deduced from the measured data using the defined correlation between the AOC(1064nm)/AOC(266nm) and N100/N20 ratios. σff(λ) and σwb(λ) were determined with the help of the independently measured temporal mass concentrations in the PM1 mode. Furthermore, the proposed optical source apportionment is based on the assumption that the light absorbing fraction of PM is exclusively related to traffic and wood burning. This assumption is indirectly confirmed here by the fact that the measured size distribution is composed of two unimodal size distributions identified to correspond to traffic and wood burning aerosols. The method offers the possibility of replacing laborious chemical analysis with simple in-situ measurement of aerosol size distribution data. The results by the proposed novel optical absorption based source apportionment method prove its applicability whenever measurements are performed at an urban site where traffic and wood burning are the dominant carbonaceous sources of emission.

Keywords: Absorption, size distribution, source apportionment, wood burning, traffic aerosol

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13 Absorption of Ultrashort Electromagnetic Pulses on Gold Nanospheres in Various Dielectric Media

Authors: Sergey Svita, Valeriy Astapenko

Abstract:

The study is devoted to theoretical analysis of ultrashort electromagnetic pulses (USP) absorption on gold nanospheres. Dependencies of USP energy absorption on nanospheres placed in various matrix are compared. The results of calculation of absorbed energy on gold nanospheres as a function of ultrashort electromagnetic pulse carrier frequency and number of pulse cycles of carrier frequency show strong non-linear dependence of absorbed energy on number of cycles of carrier frequency, but for relatively large number of cycles on USP carrier frequency it goes to linear dependence.

Keywords: Absorption, ultrashort electromagnetic pulses, nanospheres, theoretical research

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12 A Comparative Study of the Modeling and Quality Control of the Propylene-Propane Classical Distillation and Distillation Column with Heat Pump

Authors: C. Patrascioiu, Cao Minh Ahn

Abstract:

The paper presents the research evolution in the propylene – propane distillation process, especially for the distillation columns equipped with heat pump. The paper is structured in three parts: separation of the propylene-propane mixture, steady state process modeling, and quality control systems. The first part is dedicated to state of art of the two distillation processes. The second part continues the author’s researches of the steady state process modeling. There has been elaborated a software simulation instrument that may be used to dynamic simulation of the process and to design the quality control systems. The last part presents the research of the control systems, especially for quality control systems.

Keywords: Distillation, Absorption, Heat pump, unisim design

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11 Vapour Liquid Equilibrium Measurement of CO₂ Absorption in Aqueous 2-Aminoethylpiperazine (AEP)

Authors: Anirban Dey, Sukanta Kumar Dash, Bishnupada Mandal

Abstract:

Carbondioxide (CO2) is a major greenhouse gas responsible for global warming and fossil fuel power plants are the main emitting sources. Therefore the capture of CO2 is essential to maintain the emission levels according to the standards. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is considered as an important option for stabilization of atmospheric greenhouse gases and minimizing global warming effects. There are three approaches towards CCS: Pre combustion capture where carbon is removed from the fuel prior to combustion, Oxy-fuel combustion, where coal is combusted with oxygen instead of air and Post combustion capture where the fossil fuel is combusted to produce energy and CO2 is removed from the flue gases left after the combustion process. Post combustion technology offers some advantage as existing combustion technologies can still be used without adopting major changes on them. A number of separation processes could be utilized part of post –combustion capture technology. These include (a) Physical absorption (b) Chemical absorption (c) Membrane separation (d) Adsorption. Chemical absorption is one of the most extensively used technologies for large scale CO2 capture systems. The industrially important solvents used are primary amines like Monoethanolamine (MEA) and Diglycolamine (DGA), secondary amines like diethanolamine (DEA) and Diisopropanolamine (DIPA) and tertiary amines like methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and Triethanolamine (TEA). Primary and secondary amines react fast and directly with CO2 to form stable carbamates while Tertiary amines do not react directly with CO2 as in aqueous solution they catalyzes the hydrolysis of CO2 to form a bicarbonate ion and a protonated amine. Concentrated Piperazine (PZ) has been proposed as a better solvent as well as activator for CO2 capture from flue gas with a 10 % energy benefit compared to conventional amines such as MEA. However, the application of concentrated PZ is limited due to its low solubility in water at low temperature and lean CO2 loading. So following the performance of PZ its derivative 2-Aminoethyl piperazine (AEP) which is a cyclic amine can be explored as an activator towards the absorption of CO2. Vapour liquid equilibrium (VLE) in CO2 capture systems is an important factor for the design of separation equipment and gas treating processes. For proper thermodynamic modeling accurate equilibrium data for the solvent system over a wide range of temperatures, pressure and composition is essential. The present work focuses on the determination of VLE data for (AEP + H2O) system at 40 °C for various composition range.

Keywords: Absorption, carbondioxide, aminoethyl piperazine, vapour liquid equilibrium

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10 Feasibility Study of the Binary Fluid Mixtures C3H6/C4H10 and C3H6/C5H12 Used in Diffusion-Absorption Refrigeration Cycles

Authors: N. Soli, B. Chaouachi, M. Bourouis

Abstract:

We propose in this work the thermodynamic feasibility study of the operation of a refrigerating machine with absorption-diffusion with mixtures of hydrocarbons. It is for a refrigerating machine of low power (300 W) functioning on a level of temperature of the generator lower than 150 °C (fossil energy or solar energy) and operative with non-harmful fluids for the environment. According to this study, we determined to start from the digraphs of Oldham of the different binary of hydrocarbons, the minimal and maximum temperature of operation of the generator, as well as possible enrichment. The cooling medium in the condenser and absorber is done by the ambient air with a temperature at 35 °C. Helium is used as inert gas. The total pressure in the cycle is about 17.5 bars. We used suitable software to modulate for the two binary following the system propylene /butane and propylene/pentane. Our model is validated by comparison with the literature’s resultants.

Keywords: Absorption, propylene, diffusion, DAR cycle

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9 Experimental and Theoretical Mass Transfer Studies of Pure Carbondioxide Absorption in Sodium Hydroxide in Millichannels

Authors: S. Pushpavanam, A. Durgadevi

Abstract:

For the past several decades, CO2 levels have been dramatically increasing in the atmosphere due to the man-made emissions such as fossil fuel-fired power plants. With the increase in CO2 emissions, CO2 concentration in the atmosphere has increased resulting in global warming. This shows the need to study different ways to capture the emitted CO2 directly from the exhausts of power plants or atmosphere. There are several ways to remove CO2, such as absorption into a liquid solvent, adsorption into a solid, cryogenic separation, permeation through membranes and photochemical conversion. In most industries, the absorption of CO2 in chemical solvents (in absorption towers) is used for CO2 capture. In these towers, the mass transfer along with chemical reactions take place between the gas and liquid phase. This helps in the separation of CO2 from other gases. It is important to understand these processes in detail. These flow patterns are difficult to maintain in large scale industrial absorbers. So to get accurate information controlled gas-liquid absorption experiments are carried out in milli-channels in this work under controlled atmosphere. The absorption experiments of CO2 in varying concentrations of sodium hydroxide solution are carried out in T-junction glass milli-channels with a circular cross section (inner diameter of 2mm). The gas and liquid flow rates are controlled by a mass flow controller (MFC) and a Harvard syringe pump respectively. The slug flow in the channel is recorded using a camera and the videos are analysed. The gas slug of pure CO2 is found to decrease in size along the length of the channel due to absorption of gas in the liquid. This is also captured with the model developed and the mass transfer characteristics are studied. The pressure drop across the channel is determined by sum of the pressure drops from the gas slugs and the liquid plugs. A dimensionless correlation for the mass transfer coefficient is developed in terms of Sherwood number and compared with the existing correlations in the literature. They are found to be in close agreement with each other. In this case, due to the presence of chemical reaction, the enhancement of mass transfer is obtained. This is quantified with the help of an enhancement factor.

Keywords: Absorption, enhancement factor, mass transfer coefficient, Sherwood number

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8 Mass Transfer Studies of Carbon Dioxide Absorption in Sodium Hydroxide in Millichannels

Authors: S. Pushpavanam, A. Durgadevi

Abstract:

In this work, absorption studies are done by conducting experiments of 99.9 (v/v%) pure CO₂ with various concentrations of sodium hydroxide solutions in a T-junction glass circular milli-channel. The gas gets absorbed in the aqueous phase resulting in the shrinking of slugs. This phenomenon is used to develop a lumped parameter model. Using this model, the chemical dissolution dynamics and the mass transfer characteristics of the CO₂-NaOH system is analysed. The liquid side mass transfer coefficient is determined with the help of the experimental data.

Keywords: Absorption, mass transfer coefficient, dissolution dynamics, lumped parameter model, milli-channel

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7 An Improved Visible Range Absorption Spectroscopy on Soil Macronutrient

Authors: Yusmeeraz Yusof, Suhaila Isaak, Khairunnisa Mohd Yusof, Ahmad Safuan Abdul Rashid

Abstract:

Soil fertility is commonly evaluated by soil macronutrients such as nitrate, potassium, and phosphorus contents. Optical spectroscopy is an emerging technology which is rapid and simple has been widely used in agriculture to measure soil fertility. For visible and near infrared absorption spectroscopy, the absorbed light level in is useful for soil macro-nutrient measurement. This is because the absorption of light in a soil sample influences sensitivity of the measurement. This paper reports the performance of visible and near infrared absorption spectroscopy in the 400–1400 nm wavelength range using light-emitting diode as the excitation light source to predict the soil macronutrient content of nitrate, potassium, and phosphorus. The experimental results show an improved linear regression analysis of various soil specimens based on the Beer–Lambert law to determine sensitivity of soil spectroscopy by evaluating the absorption of characteristic peaks emitted from a light-emitting diode and detected by high sensitivity optical spectrometer. This would denote in developing a simple and low-cost soil spectroscopy with light-emitting diode for future implementation.

Keywords: Soil, Absorption, Optical spectroscopy, macronutrients absorption

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6 Establishing a Drug Discovery Platform to Progress Compounds into the Clinic

Authors: Sheraz Gul

Abstract:

The requirements for progressing a compound to clinical trials is well established and relies on the results from in-vitro and in-vivo animal tests to indicate that it is likely to be safe and efficacious when testing in humans. The typical data package required will include demonstrating compound safety, toxicity, bioavailability, pharmacodynamics (potential effects of the compound on body systems) and pharmacokinetics (how the compound is potentially absorbed, distributed, metabolised and eliminated after dosing in humans). If the desired criteria are met and the compound meets the clinical Candidate criteria and is deemed worthy of further development, a submission to regulatory bodies such as the US Food & Drug Administration for an exploratory Investigational New Drug Study can be made. The purpose of this study is to collect data to establish that the compound will not expose humans to unreasonable risks when used in limited, early-stage clinical studies in patients or normal volunteer subjects (Phase I). These studies are also designed to determine the metabolism and pharmacologic actions of the drug in humans, the side effects associated with increasing doses, and, if possible, to gain early evidence on their effectiveness. In order to reach the above goals, we have developed a pre-clinical high throughput Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion–Toxicity (ADME–Toxicity) panel of assays to identify compounds that are likely to meet the Lead and Candidate compound acceptance criteria. This panel includes solubility studies in a range of biological fluids, cell viability studies in cancer and primary cell-lines, mitochondrial toxicity, off-target effects (across the kinase, protease, histone deacetylase, phosphodiesterase and GPCR protein families), CYP450 inhibition (5 different CYP450 enzymes), CYP450 induction, cardio-toxicity (hERG) and gene-toxicity. This panel of assays has been applied to multiple compound series developed in a number of projects delivering Lead and clinical Candidates and examples from these will be presented.

Keywords: Drug discovery, Distribution, Pharmacodynamics, Absorption, metabolism and excretion–toxicity, food and drug administration

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5 Examining the Role of Tree Species in Absorption of Heavy Metals; Case Study: Abidar Forest Park

Authors: Jahede Tekeykhah, Seyed Mohsen Hossini, Gholamali Jalali

Abstract:

Industrial and traffic activities cause large amounts of heavy metals enter into the atmosphere and the use of plant species can be effective in assessing and reducing air pollution by metals. This study aimed to investigate the adsorption level of heavy metals in leaves of Fraxinus rotundifolia, Robinia, Platanus orientalis, Platycladus orientalis and Pinus eldarica trees in Abidar forest park. For this purpose, samples leaves of the trees were prepared from the contaminated and control areas in each region in 3 stations with 3 replicates in mid-August and finally 90 samples were sent to the laboratory. Then, the concentrations of heavy metals were measured by graphite furnace. To do this, factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design with two factors of location on two levels (contaminated area and control area) and the factor of species on five levels (Fraxinus rotundifolia, Robinia, Platanus orientalis, Platycladus orientalis and Pinus eldarica) with three replications was used. The analysis of collected data was performed by SPSS software and Duncan's multiple range test was used to compare the means. The results showed that the accumulation of all metals in the leaves of most species in the infected area with a significant difference at 95% level was higher than the control area. In the contaminated area, with a significant difference at 5% level, the highest accumulations of metals were observed as the following: lead, cadmium, zinc and manganese in Platanus orientalis, nickel in Fraxinus rotundifolia and copper in Platycladus orientalis.

Keywords: Heavy Metals, Absorption, airborne, Tree Species, Abidar Forest Park

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4 Optical Fiber Data Throughput in a Quantum Communication System

Authors: Arash Kosari, Ali Araghi

Abstract:

A mathematical model for an optical-fiber communication channel is developed which results in an expression that calculates the throughput and loss of the corresponding link. The data are assumed to be transmitted by using of separate photons with different polarizations. The derived model also shows the dependency of data throughput with length of the channel and depolarization factor. It is observed that absorption of photons affects the throughput in a more intensive way in comparison with that of depolarization. Apart from that, the probability of depolarization and the absorption of radiated photons are obtained.

Keywords: Optical Fiber, Absorption, data throughput, depolarization

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3 Kinetic Evaluation of Sterically Hindered Amines under Partial Oxy-Combustion Conditions

Authors: Sara Camino, Fernando Vega, Mercedes Cano, Benito Navarrete, José A. Camino

Abstract:

Carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies should play a relevant role towards low-carbon systems in the European Union by 2030. Partial oxy-combustion emerges as a promising CCS approach to mitigate anthropogenic CO₂ emissions. Its advantages respect to other CCS technologies rely on the production of a higher CO₂ concentrated flue gas than these provided by conventional air-firing processes. The presence of more CO₂ in the flue gas increases the driving force in the separation process and hence it might lead to further reductions of the energy requirements of the overall CO₂ capture process. A higher CO₂ concentrated flue gas should enhance the CO₂ capture by chemical absorption in solvent kinetic and CO₂ cyclic capacity. They have impact on the performance of the overall CO₂ absorption process by reducing the solvent flow-rate required for a specific CO₂ removal efficiency. Lower solvent flow-rates decreases the reboiler duty during the regeneration stage and also reduces the equipment size and pumping costs. Moreover, R&D activities in this field are focused on novel solvents and blends that provide lower CO₂ absorption enthalpies and therefore lower energy penalties associated to the solvent regeneration. In this respect, sterically hindered amines are considered potential solvents for CO₂ capture. They provide a low energy requirement during the regeneration process due to its molecular structure. However, its absorption kinetics are slow and they must be promoted by blending with faster solvents such as monoethanolamine (MEA) and piperazine (PZ). In this work, the kinetic behavior of two sterically hindered amines were studied under partial oxy-combustion conditions and compared with MEA. A lab-scale semi-batch reactor was used. The CO₂ composition of the synthetic flue gas varied from 15%v/v – conventional coal combustion – to 60%v/v – maximum CO₂ concentration allowable for an optimal partial oxy-combustion operation. Firstly, 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP) showed a hybrid behavior with fast kinetics and a low enthalpy of CO₂ absorption. The second solvent was Isophrondiamine (IF), which has a steric hindrance in one of the amino groups. Its free amino group increases its cyclic capacity. In general, the presence of higher CO₂ concentration in the flue gas accelerated the CO₂ absorption phenomena, producing higher CO₂ absorption rates. In addition, the evolution of the CO2 loading also exhibited higher values in the experiments using higher CO₂ concentrated flue gas. The steric hindrance causes a hybrid behavior in this solvent, between both fast and slow kinetic solvents. The kinetics rates observed in all the experiments carried out using AMP were higher than MEA, but lower than the IF. The kinetic enhancement experienced by AMP at a high CO2 concentration is slightly over 60%, instead of 70% – 80% for IF. AMP also improved its CO₂ absorption capacity by 24.7%, from 15%v/v to 60%v/v, almost double the improvements achieved by MEA. In IF experiments, the CO₂ loading increased around 10% from 15%v/v to 60%v/v CO₂ and it changed from 1.10 to 1.34 mole CO₂ per mole solvent, more than 20% of increase. This hybrid kinetic behavior makes AMP and IF promising solvents for partial oxy–combustion applications.

Keywords: Solvent, Absorption, Carbon capture, partial oxy-combustion

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2 Performance of an Absorption Refrigerator Using a Solar Thermal Collector

Authors: Ammar Ben Brahim, Abir Hmida, Nihel Chekir

Abstract:

In the present paper, we investigate the feasibility of a thermal solar driven cold room in Gabes, southern region of Tunisia. The cold room of 109 m3 is refrigerated using an ammonia absorption machine. It is destined to preserve dates during the hot months of the year. A detailed study of the cold room leads previously to the estimation of the cooling load of the proposed storage room in the operating conditions of the region. The next step consists of the estimation of the required heat in the generator of the absorption machine to ensure the desired cold temperature. A thermodynamic analysis was accomplished and complete description of the system is determined. We propose, here, to provide the needed heat thermally from the sun by using vacuum tube collectors. We found that at least 21m² of solar collectors are necessary to accomplish the work of the solar cold room.

Keywords: Absorption, Solar Collector, Ammonia, vacuum tube, cold room

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1 Study of the Possibility of Adsorption of Heavy Metal Ions on the Surface of Engineered Nanoparticles

Authors: Antonina A. Shumakova, Sergey A. Khotimchenko

Abstract:

The relevance of research is associated, on the one hand, with an ever-increasing volume of production and the expansion of the scope of application of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), and on the other hand, with the lack of sufficient scientific information on the nature of the interactions of nanoparticles (NPs) with components of biogenic and abiogenic origin. In particular, studying the effect of ENMs (TiO2 NPs, SiO2 NPs, Al2O3 NPs, fullerenol) on the toxicometric characteristics of common contaminants such as lead and cadmium is an important hygienic task, given the high probability of their joint presence in food products. Data were obtained characterizing a multidirectional change in the toxicity of model toxicants when they are co-administered with various types of ENMs. One explanation for this fact is the difference in the adsorption capacity of ENMs, which was further studied in in vitro studies. For this, a method was proposed based on in vitro modeling of conditions simulating the environment of the small intestine. It should be noted that the obtained data are in good agreement with the results of in vivo experiments: - with the combined administration of lead and TiO2 NPs, there were no significant changes in the accumulation of lead in rat liver; in other organs (kidneys, spleen, testes and brain), the lead content was lower than in animals of the control group; - studying the combined effect of lead and Al2O3 NPs, a multiple and significant increase in the accumulation of lead in rat liver was observed with an increase in the dose of Al2O3 NPs. For other organs, the introduction of various doses of Al2O3 NPs did not significantly affect the bioaccumulation of lead; - with the combined administration of lead and SiO2 NPs in different doses, there was no increase in lead accumulation in all studied organs. Based on the data obtained, it can be assumed that at least three scenarios of the combined effects of ENMs and chemical contaminants on the body: - ENMs quite firmly bind contaminants in the gastrointestinal tract and such a complex becomes inaccessible (or inaccessible) for absorption; in this case, it can be expected that the toxicity of both ENMs and contaminants will decrease; - the complex formed in the gastrointestinal tract has partial solubility and can penetrate biological membranes and / or physiological barriers of the body; in this case, ENMs can play the role of a kind of conductor for contaminants and, thus, their penetration into the internal environment of the body increases, thereby increasing the toxicity of contaminants; - ENMs and contaminants do not interact with each other in any way, therefore the toxicity of each of them is determined only by its quantity and does not depend on the quantity of another component. Authors hypothesized that the degree of adsorption of various elements on the surface of ENMs may be a unique characteristic of their action, allowing a more accurate understanding of the processes occurring in a living organism.

Keywords: Absorption, Engineered Nanomaterials, cadmium, lead

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