Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

abiotic factors Related Abstracts

4 Insects and Meteorological Inventories in a Mango-Based Agroforestry System in Bangladesh

Authors: Md. Ruhul Amin, Shakura Namni, Md. Ramiz Uddin Miah, Md. Giashuddin Miah, Mohammad Zakaria, Sang Jae Suh, Yong Jung Kwon

Abstract:

Insect species abundance and diversity associated with meteorological factors during January to June 2013 at a mango-based agroforestry research field in Bangladesh, and the effects of pests and pollinator species on mango are presented in this study. Among the collected and identified insects, nine species belong to 3 orders were found as pollinator, 11 species in 5 orders as pest, and 13 species in 6 orders as predator. The mango hopper, fruit fly and stone weevil appeared as major pest because of their high levels of abundance and infestation. The hoppers caused 100% inflorescence damage followed by fruit fly (51.7% fruit) and stone weevil (31.0% mature fruit). The major pests exerted significantly higher abundance compared to pollinator, predator and minor pests. Hemipteroid insects were most abundant (60%) followed by Diptera (21%), Hymenoptera (10%), Lepidoptera (5%), and Coleoptera (4%). Insect population increased with increasing trend of temperature and humidity, and revealed peak abundance during April-May. The flower visiting insects differed in their landing duration and showed preference to forage with time of a day. Their foraging activity was found to be peaked between 11.00 am to 01.00 pm. The activity of the pollinators led to higher level of fruit set. This study provides baseline information about the phenological patterns of insect abundance in an agroforestry research field which could be an indication to incorporate some aspects of pest management.

Keywords: Insects, Agroforestry, abundance, abiotic factors, mango

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3 A Preliminary Study of the Effects of Abiotic Environmental Variables on Early Diptera Carrion Colonizers in Algiers, Algeria

Authors: M. Taleb, G. Tail, F. Z. Kara, B. Djedouani T. Moussa

Abstract:

Necrophagous insects usually colonize cadavers within a short time after death. However, they are influenced by weather conditions, and their distribution and activity vary according to different time scales, which can affect the post-mortem interval (PMI) estimation. As no data have been published in Algeria on necrophagous insects visiting corpses, two field surveys were conducted in July 2012 and March 2013 at the National Institute for Criminalistics and Criminology (INCC) using rabbit carcasses (Oryctolagus cuniculus L.). The trials were designed to identify the necrophagous Diptera fauna of Algiers, Algeria and examine their variations according to environmental variables. Four hundred and eighteen Diptera adults belonging to five families were captured during this study. The species which were identified on human corpses in different regions of Algeria were also observed on the rabbit carcasses. Although seasonal variations of the species were observed, their abundance did not significantly vary between the two seasons. In addition to seasonal effects, the ambient temperature, the wind speed, and precipitation affect the number of trapped flies. These conclusions highlight the necessity of considering the environmental factors at a scene to estimate the post-mortem interval accurately. It is hoped that these findings provide basic information regarding the necrophagous Diptera fauna of Algeria.

Keywords: Forensic Entomology, Algeria, abiotic factors, necrophagous diptera, post-mortem interval

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2 Different Response of Pure Arctic Char Salvelinus alpinus and Hybrid (Salvelinus alpinus vs. Salvelinus fontinalis Mitchill) to Various Hyperoxic Regimes

Authors: V. Stejskal, K. Lundova, R. Sebesta, T. Vanina, S. Roje

Abstract:

Pure strain of Arctic char (AC) Salvelinus alpinus and hybrid (HB) Salvelinus alpinus vs. Salvelinus fontinalis Mitchill belong to fish, which with great potential for culture in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). Aquaculture of these fish currently use flow-through systems (FTS), especially in Nordic countries such as Iceland (biggest producer), Norway, Sweden, and Canada. Four different water saturation regimes included normoxia (NOR), permanent hyperoxia (HYP), intermittent hyperoxia (HYP ± ) and regimes where one day of normoxia was followed by one day of hyperoxia (HYP1/1) were tested during 63 days of experiment in both species in two parallel experiments. Fish were reared in two identical RAS system consisted of 24 plastic round tanks (300 L each), drum filter, biological filter with moving beads and submerged biofilter. The temperature was maintained using flow-through cooler during at level of 13.6 ± 0.8 °C. Different water saturation regimes were achieved by mixing of pure oxygen (O₂) with water in three (one for each hyperoxic regime) mixing tower equipped with flowmeter for regulation of gas inflow. The water in groups HYP, HYP1/1 and HYP± was enriched with oxygen up to saturation of 120-130%. In HYP group was this level kept during whole day. In HYP ± group was hyperoxia kept for daylight phase (08:00-20:00) only and during night time was applied normoxia in this group. The oxygen saturation of 80-90% in NOR group was created using intensive aeration in header tank. The fish were fed with commercial feed to slight excess at 2 h intervals within the light phase of the day. Water quality parameters like pH, temperature and level of oxygen was monitoring three times (7 am, 10 am and 6 pm) per day using handy multimeter. Ammonium, nitrite and nitrate were measured in two day interval using spectrophotometry. Initial body weight (BW) was 40.9 ± 8.7 g and 70.6 ± 14.8 in AC and HB group, respectively. Final survival of AC ranged from 96.3 ± 4.6 (HYP) to 100 ± 0.0% in all other groups without significant differences among these groups. Similarly very high survival was reached in trial with HB with levels from 99.2 ± 1.3 (HYP, HYP1/1 and NOR) to 100 ± 0.0% (HYP ± ). HB fish showed best growth performance in NOR group reached final body weight (BW) 180.4 ± 2.3 g. Fish growth under different hyperoxic regimes was significantly reduced and final BW was 164.4 ± 7.6, 162.1 ± 12.2 and 151.7 ± 6.8 g in groups HY1/1, HYP ± and HYP, respectively. AC showed different preference for hyperoxic regimes as there were no significant difference in BW among NOR, HY1/1 and HYP± group with final values of 72.3 ± 11.3, 68.3 ± 8.4 and 77.1 ± 6.1g. Significantly reduced growth (BW 61.8 ± 6.8 g) was observed in HYP group. It is evident from present study that there are differences between pure bred Arctic char and hybrid in relation to hyperoxic regimes. The study was supported by projects 'CENAKVA' (No. CZ.1.05/2.1.00/01.0024), 'CENAKVA II' (No. LO1205 under the NPU I program), NAZV (QJ1510077) and GAJU (No. 060/2016/Z).

Keywords: abiotic factors, recirculating aquaculture systems, Salmonidae, hyperoxia

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1 Climate Impact on Spider Mite (Tetranychus Sp. Koch) Infesting Som Plant Leaves (Machilus Bombycina King) and Their Sustainable Management

Authors: Sunil Kumar Ghosh

Abstract:

Som plant (Machilus bombycina King) is an important plant in agroforestry system. It is cultivated in north -east part of India. It is cultivated in agricultural land by the marginal farmers for multi-storeyed cultivation with intercropping. Localized cottage industries are involved with this plant like sericulture industry (muga silk worm cultivation). Clothes are produced from this sericulture industry. Leaves of som plants are major food of muga silk worm ( Antherea assama ). Nutritional value of leaves plays an important role in the larval growth and silk productivity. The plant also has timber value. The plant is susceptible to mite pest (Tetranychus sp.) causes heavy damage to tender leaves. Lower population was recorded during 7th to 38th standard week, during 3rd week of February to 4th week of September and higher population was during 46th to 51st standard week, during 3rd week of November to 3rd week of December and peak population (6.06/3 leaves) was recorded on 46th standard week that is on 3rd week of November. Correlation studies revealed that mite population had a significant negative correlation with temperature and non-significant positive correlation with relative humidity. This indicates that activity of mites population increase with the rise of relative humidity and decrease with the rise of temperature. Tobacco leaf extracts was found most effective against mite providing 40.51% suppression, closely followed by extracts of Spilanthes (39.06% suppression). Extracts of Garlic and extracts of Polygonum plant gave moderate results, recording about 38.10% and 37.78% mite suppression respectively. The polygonum (Polygonum hydropiper) plant (floral parts), pongamia (Pongamia pinnata) leaves, garlic (Allium sativum), spilanthes (Spilanthes paniculata) (floral parts) were extracted in methanol. Synthetic insecticides contaminate plant leaves with the toxic chemicals. Plant extracts are of biological origin having low or no hazardous effect on health and environment and so can be incorporated in organic cultivation.

Keywords: Organic Cultivation, incidence, abiotic factors, botanical extracts, silk industry

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