Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

AAS Related Abstracts

8 Scenario of Some Minerals and Impact of Promoter Hypermethylation of DAP-K Gene in Gastric Carcinoma Patients of Kashmir Valley

Authors: Showkat Ahmad Bhat, Iqra Reyaz, Falaque ul Afshan, Ahmad Arif Reshi, Muneeb U. Rehman, Manzoor R. Mir, Sabhiya Majid, Sonallah, Sheikh Bilal, Ishraq Hussain


Background: Gastric cancer is the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of worldwide cancer-related deaths, with a wide variation in incidence rates across different geographical areas. The current view of cancer is that a malignancy arises from a transformation of the genetic material of a normal cell, followed by successive mutations and by chain of alterations in genes such as DNA repair genes, oncogenes, Tumor suppressor genes. Minerals are necessary for the functioning of several transcriptional factors, proteins that recognize certain DNA sequences and have been found to play a role in gastric cancer. Material Methods:The present work was a case control study and its aim was to ascertain the role of minerals and promoter hypermethylation of CpG islands of DAP-K gene in Gastric cancer patients among the Kashmiri population. Serum was extracted from all the samples and mineral estimation was done by AAS from serum, DNA was also extracted and was modified using bisulphite modification kit. Methylation-specific PCR was used for the analysis of the promoter hypermethylation status of DAP-K gene. The epigenetic analysis revealed that unlike other high risk regions, Kashmiri population has a different promoter hypermethylation profile of DAP-K gene and has different mineral profile. Results: In our study mean serum copper levels were significantly different for the two genders (p<0.05), while as no significant differences were observed for iron and zinc levels. In Methylation-specific PCR the methylation status of the promoter region of DAP-K gene was as 67.50% (27/40) of the gastric cancer tissues showed methylated DAP-K promoter and 32.50% (13/40) of the cases however showed unmethylated DAP-K promoter. Almost all 85% (17/20) of the histopathologically confirmed normal tissues showed unmethylated DAP-K promoter except only in 3 cases where DAP-K promoter was found to be methylated. The association of promoter hypermethylation with gastric cancer was evaluated by χ2 (Chi square) test and was found to be significant (P=0.0006). Occurrence of DAP-K methylation was found to be unequally distributed in males and females with more frequency in males than in females but the difference was not statistically significant (P =0.7635, Odds ratio=1.368 and 95% C.I=0.4197 to 4.456). When the frequency of DAP-K promoter methylation was compared with clinical staging of the disease, DAP-K promoter methylation was found to be certainly higher in Stage III/IV (85.71%) compared to Stage I/ II (57.69%) but the difference was not statistically significant (P =0.0673). These results suggest that DAP-K aberrant promoter hypermethylation in Kashmiri population contributes to the process of carcinogenesis in Gastric cancer and is reportedly one of the commonest epigenetic changes in the development of Gastric cancer.

Keywords: Minerals, gastric cancer, AAS, hypermethylation, CpG islands, DAP-K gene

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7 Design of Low-Cost Water Purification System Using Activated Carbon

Authors: Ramakar Jha, Nayan Kishore Giri


Water is a major element for the life of all the mankind in the earth. India’s surface water flows through fourteen major streams. Indian rivers are the main source of potable water in India. In the eastern part of India many toxic hazardous metals discharged into the river from mining industries, which leads many deadly diseases to human being. So the potable water quality is very significant and vital concern at present as it is related with the present and future health perspective of the human race. Consciousness of health risks linked with unsafe water is still very low among the many rural and urban areas in India. Only about 7% of total Indian people using water purifier. This unhealthy situation of water is not only present in India but also present in many underdeveloped countries. The major reason behind this is the high cost of water purifier. This current study geared towards development of economical and efficient technology for the removal of maximum possible toxic metals and pathogen bacteria. The work involves the design of portable purification system and purifying material. In this design Coconut shell granular activated carbon(GAC) and polypropylene filter cloths were used in this system. The activated carbon is impregnated with Iron(Fe). Iron is used because it enhances the adsorption capacity of activated carbon. The thorough analysis of iron impregnated activated carbon(Fe-AC) is done by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) , BET surface area test were done. Then 10 ppm of each toxic metal were infiltrated through the designed purification system and they were analysed in Atomic absorption spectrum (AAS). The results are very promising and it is low cost. This work will help many people who are in need of potable water. They can be benefited for its affordability. It could be helpful in industries and other domestic usage.

Keywords: Potable water, SEM, XRD, AAS, coconut shell GAC, polypropylene filter cloths, BET

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6 Gradations in Concentration of Heavy and Mineral Elements with Distance and Depth of Soil in the Vicinity of Auto Mechanic Workshops in Sabon Gari, Kaduna State, Nigeria

Authors: E. D. Paul, H. Otanwa, O. F. Paul, A. J. Salifu, J. E. Toryila, C. E. Gimba


The concentration levels of six heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and two mineral elements (Ca and Mg) were determined in soil samples collected from the vicinity of two auto mechanic workshops in Sabon-Gari, Kaduna state, Nigeria, using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS), in order to compare the gradation of their concentrations with distance and depth of soil from the workshop sites. At site 1, concentrations of lead, chromium, iron, and zinc were generally found to be above the World Health Organization limits, while those of Nickel and Cadmium fell within the limits. Iron had the highest concentration with a range of 176.274 ppm to 489.127 ppm at depths of 5 cm to 15 cm and a distance range of 5 m to 15 m, while the concentration of cadmium was least with a range of 0.001 ppm to 0.008 ppm at similar depth and distance ranges. In addition, there was more of calcium (11.521 ppm to 121.709 ppm), in all the samples, than magnesium (11.293 ppm to 21.635 ppm). Similar results were obtained for site II. The concentrations of all the metals analyzed showed a downward gradient with an increase in depth and distance from both workshop sites except for iron and zinc at site 2. The immediate and remote implications of these findings on the biota are discussed.

Keywords: Soil, Heavy Metals, Variation, AAS, mechanic workshops

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5 Assessment of Chemical and Physical Properties of Surface Water Resources in Flood Affected Area

Authors: Siti Hajar Ya’acob, Nor Sayzwani Sukri, Farah Khaliz Kedri, Rozidaini Mohd Ghazi, Nik Raihan Nik Yusoff, Aweng A/L Eh Rak


Flood event that occurred in mid-December 2014 in East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia has driven attention from the public nationwide. Apart from loss and damage of properties and belongings, the massive flood event has introduced environmental disturbances on surface water resources in such flood affected area. A study has been conducted to measure the physical and chemical composition of Galas River and Pergau River prior to identification the flood impact towards environmental deterioration in surrounding area. Samples that have been collected were analyzed in-situ using YSI portable instrument and also in the laboratory for acid digestion and heavy metals analysis using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). Results showed that range of temperature (0C), DO (mg/L), Ec (µs/cm), TDS (mg/L), turbidity (NTU), pH, and salinity were 25.05-26.65, 1.51-5.85, 0.032-0.054, 0.022-0.035, 23.2-76.4, 3.46-7.31, and 0.01-0.02 respectively. The results from this study could be used as a primary database to evaluate the status of water quality of the respective river after the massive flood.

Keywords: Flood, Heavy Metals, AAS, river

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4 Determination of Heavy Metal Concentration in Soil from Flood Affected Area

Authors: Siti Hajar Ya’acob, Nor Sayzwani Sukri, Farah Khaliz Kedri, Musfiroh Jani, Noor Syuhadah Subki, Zulhazman Hamzah


In mid-December 2014, the biggest flood event occurred in East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia especially at Dabong area, Kelantan. As a consequent of flood disaster, the heavy metals concentration in soil may changes and become harmful to the environment due to the pollution that deposited in soil. This study was carried out to determine the heavy metal concentration from flood affected area. Sample have been collected and analysed by using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Mercury (Hg), and Arsenic (As) were chosen for the heavy metals concentration. The result indicated that the heavy metal concentration did not exceed the limit. In-situ parameters also were carried out, were the results showed the range of soil pH (6.5-6.8), temperature (25°C – 26.5°C), and moisture content (1-2), respectively. The results from this study can be used as a base data to improve the soil quality and for consideration of future land use activities.

Keywords: Flood, Soil, heavy metal, AAS

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3 Determination of Heavy Metals in Canned Dry-Milk and Fish from Supermarkets in Addis Ababa

Authors: Kefyalew Muleta, Tetemke Mehari


Background: Human being require metallic elements such as copper and zinc up to certain limits that could cause problems if found in excess. Other metallic elements like cadmium and lead can be harmful to health if foodstuffs containing them are consumed regularly. Canned dry-milk and fish contain these metals in the journey from farm to fork. Objective: This study was designed to determine the concentration of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in four brands of canned dry-milk and fish from supermarkets in Addis Ababa. Methods: Laboratory based cross-sectional study design was used to determine the concentration of the heavy metals in four different brands of canned dry-milk and fish imported from different country from February to March 2013. The foods brands were sampled by simple random sampling method from eight supermarkets in Addis Ababa and coded. Wet oxidation using HNO3 and H2O2 was used to extract the heavy metals from the foods samples and analyzed by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Conclusions: From this study, it can be concluded that the level of Cadmium and Copper residues in canned dry-milk significantly vary among brands; and the levels of copper residue significantly vary among brands of canned fish at 95 % level. The AM milk brand from Ethiopia was safe in cadmium level. The cadmium and lead level in the NF fish brands from Indonesia packed in vegetables oil, and the lead level in DF brand packed in brine are safe.

Keywords: AAS, canned fish, canned dry milk

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2 Bioremediation Potentials of Some Indigenous Microorganisms Isolated from Auto Mechanic Workshops on Irrigation Water Used in Lokoja Kogi State of Nigeria

Authors: Emmanuel Ekpa, Adaji Andrew, Queen Opaluwa, Isreal Daraobong


Three (3) indigenous bacteria species (Bacillus spp, Acinectobacter spp and Moraxella spp) previously isolated from contaminated soil of some auto mechanic workshops were used for bioremediation studies on some irrigation water used at Sarkin-noma Fadama farms located in Lokoja Kogi State, Nigeria. This was done in order to investigate their bioremediation potentials using a simple pour plate method. The physicochemical parameters and heavy metal analysis (using AAS iCE 3000) of the irrigation water were performed before and after inoculation of the isolated organisms. Nitrate and phosphate concentration were found to be 10.56mg/L and 12.63mg/L prior to inoculation while iron and zinc were 0.9569mg/L and 0.2245mg/L respectively. Other physicochemical parameters were also observed to be high prior to inoculation. After the bioremediation test (inoculation with the isolated organisms), a nitrate and phosphate content of 2.53mg/L and 2.61mg/L were recorded respectively, iron and zinc gave 0.1694mg/L and 0.0174mg/L concentrations while other physicochemical parameters measured were also found to be lower in their respective values. The implication of this present study is that a number of carefully isolated indigenous bacteria species are capable of reducing the amount of heavy metal concentrations in water. Also, non-metallic contaminants like nitrate and phosphate are susceptible to bioremediation in the presence of such efficient system.

Keywords: Bioremediation, Heavy Metals, Bacillus spp, AAS, physicochemical parameters, Acinectobacter spp and Moraxella spp, spectrometer 3000

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1 Application of Enzyme-Mediated Calcite Precipitation for Surface Control of Gold Mining Tailing Waste

Authors: Heriansyah Putra, Yogi Priyo Pradana, Regina Aprilia Zulfikar, Maulana Rafiq Ramadhan, Devyan Meisnnehr, Zalfa Maulida Insani


This paper studied the effects and mechanisms of fine-grained tailing by Enzyme-Mediated Calcite Precipitation (EMCP). Grouting solution used consists of reagents (CaCl₂ and (CO(NH₂)₂) and urease enzymes which react to produce CaCO₃. In sample preparation, the test tube is used to investigate the precipitation rate of calcite. The grouting solution added is 75 mL for one mold sample. The solution was poured into a mold sample up to as high as 5 mm from the top surface of the tailing to ensure the entire surface is submerged. The sample is left open in a cylinder for up to 3 days for curing. The direct mixing method is conducted so that the cementation process occurs by evenly distributed. The relationship between the results of the UCS test and the calcite precipitation rate likely indicates that the amount of calcite deposited in treated tailing could control the strength of the tailing. The sample results are analyzed using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) to evaluate metal and metalloid content. Calcium carbonate deposited in the tailing is expected to strengthen the bond between tailing granules, which are easily slipped on the banks of the tailing dam. The EMCP method is expected to strengthen tailing in erosion-control surfaces.

Keywords: AAS, tailing, EMCP, UCS

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