Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

α-glucosidase Related Abstracts

7 Evaluation of the Inhibitory Activity of Natural Extracts From Spontaneous Plant on the Α-Amylase and Α–Glucosidase and Their Antioxidant Activities

Authors: Ihcen Khacheba, Amar Djeridane, Abdelkarim Kamli, Mohamed Yousfi


Plant materials constitute an important source of natural bioactive molecules. Thus plants have been used from antiquity as sources of medicament against various diseases. These properties are usually attributed to secondary metabolites that are the subject of a lot of research in this field. This is particularly the case of phenolic compounds plants that are widely renowned in therapeutics as anti-inflammatories, enzyme inhibitors, and antioxidants, particularly flavonoïds. With the aim of acquiring a better knowledge of the secondary metabolism of the vegetable kingdom in the region of Laghouat and of the discovering of new natural therapeutics, 10 extracts from 5 Saharan plant species were submitted to chemical screening.The analysis of the preceding biological targets led to the evaluation of the biological activity of the extracts of the species Genista Corsica. The first step, consists in extracting and quantifying phenolic compounds. The second step has been devoted to stugying the effects of phenolic compounds on the kinetics catalyzed by two enzymes belonging to the class of hydrolase (the α-amylase and α-glucosidase) responsible for the digestion of sugars and finally we evaluate the antiantioxidant potential. The analysis results of phenolic extracts show clearly a low content of phenolic compounds in investigated plants. Average total phenolics ranged from 0.0017 to 11.35 mg equivalent gallic acid/g of the crude extract. Whereas the total flavonoids content lie between 0.0015 and 10.,96 mg/g equivalent of rutin. The results of the kinetic study of enzymatic reactions show that the extracts have inhibitory effects on both enzymes, with IC50 values ranging from 95.03 µg/ml to 1033.53 µg/ml for the α-amylase and 279.99 µg/ml to 1215.43 µg/ml for α-glucosidase whose greatest inhibition was found for the acetone extract of June (IC50 = 95.03 µg/ml). The results the antioxidant activity determined by ABTS, DPPH, and phosphomolybdenum tests clearly showed a good antioxidant capacity comparatively to antioxidants taken as reference the biological potential of these plants and could find their use in medicine to replace synthetic products.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, α-amylase, phenolic extracts, inhibition effect, α-glucosidase

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6 Fatty Acid Composition, Total Sugar Content and Anti-Diabetic Activity of Methanol and Water Extracts of Nine Different Fruit Tree Leaves Collected from Mediterranean Region of Turkey

Authors: Sengul Uysal, Gokhan Zengin, Abdurrahman Aktumsek, Sukru Karatas


In this research, we determined the total sugar content, fatty acid compositions and α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of methanolic and water extracts of nine different fruit tree leaves. α-amylase and α-glycosidase inhibitory activity were determined by using Caraway-Somogyi–iodine/potassium iodide (IKI) and 4-nitrophenyl-α-D-glucopyranoside (PNPG) as substrate, respectively. Total sugar content of the nine different fruit tree leaves varies from 281.02 mg GE/g (glucose equivalents) to 643.96 mg GE/g. Methanolic extract from avocado leaves had the strongest in α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, 69.21% and 96.26 %, respectively. Fatty acid composition of nine fruit tree leaves was characterized by GC (gas chromatography) and twenty-four components were identified. Among the tested fruit tree leaves, the main component was linolenic acid (49.09%). The level of essential fatty acids are over 50% in mulberry, grape and loquat leaves. PUFAs (polyunsaturated fatty acids) were major group of fatty acids present in oils of mulberry, fig, pomegranate, grape, and loquat leaves. Therefore, these oils can be considered as a good source of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Furthermore, avocado can be regarded as a new source for diabetic therapies.

Keywords: Turkey, α-amylase, α-glucosidase, fatty acid compositions, total sugar contents, fruit tree leaves

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5 Antioxidant, Hypoglycemic and Hypotensive Effects Affected by Various Molecular Weights of Cold Water Extract from Pleurotus Citrinopileatus

Authors: Pao-Huei Chen, Shu-Mei Lin, Yih-Ming Weng, Zer-Ran Yu, Be-Jen Wang


Pancreatic α-amylase and intestinal α-glucosidase are the critical enzymes for the breakdown of complex carbohydrates into di- or mono-saccharide, which play an important role in modulating postprandial blood sugars. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) converts inactive angiotensin-I into active angiotensin-II, which subsequently increase blood pressure through triggering vasoconstriction and aldosterone secretion. Thus, inhibition of carbohydrate-digestion enzymes and ACE will help the management of blood glucose and blood pressure, respectively. Studies showed Pleurotus citrinopileatus (PC), an edible mushroom and commonly cultured in oriental countries, exerted anticancer, immune improving, antioxidative, hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects. Previous studies also showed various molecular weights (MW) fractioned from extracts may affect biological activities due to varying contents of bioactive components. Thus, the objective of this study is to investigate the in vitro antioxidant, hypoglycemic and hypotenstive effects and distribution of active compounds of various MWs of cold water extract from P. citrinopileatus (CWEPC). CWEPC was fractioned into four various MW fractions, PC-I (<1 kDa), PC-II (1-3.5 kDa), PC-III (3.5-10 kDa), and PC-IV (>10 kDa), using an ultrafiltration system. The physiological activities, including antioxidant activities, the inhibition capabilities of pancreatic α-amylase, intestinal α-glucosidase, and hypertension-linked ACE, and the active components, including polysaccharides, protein, and phenolic contents, of CWEPC and four fractions were determined. The results showed that fractions with lower MW exerted a higher antioxidant activity (p<0.05), which was positively correlated to the levels of total phenols. In contrast, the inhibition effects on the activities of α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and ACE of PC-IV fraction were significantly higher than CWEPC and the other three low MW fractions (< 10 kDa), which was more related to protein contents. The inhibition capability of CWEPC and PC-IV on α-amylase activity was 1/13.4 to 1/2.7 relative to that of acarbose (positive control), respectively. However, the inhibitory ability of PC-IV on α-glucosidase (IC50 = 0.5 mg/mL) was significantly higher than acarbose (IC50 = 1.7 mg/mL). Kinetic data revealed that PC-IV fraction followed a non-competitive inhibition on α-glucosidase activity. In conclusion, the distribution of various bioactive components contribute to the functions of different MW fractions on oxidative stress prevention, and blood pressure and glucose modulation.

Keywords: angiotensin converting enzyme, α-amylase, α-glucosidase, Pleurotus citrinopileatus

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4 Effects of Opuntia ficus-indica var. Saboten on Glucose Uptake and Insulin Sensitivity in Pancreatic β Cell

Authors: Kang-Hyun Leem, Myung-Gyou Kim, Hye Kyung Kim


The prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) has a global distribution and have been used for medicinal benefits such as artherosclerosis, diabetes, gastritis, and hyperglycemia. However, very little information is currently available for their mechanism. The prikly pear variety Opuntia ficus-indica var. Saboten (OFS) is widely cultivated in Cheju Island, southwestern region of Korea, and used as a functional food. Present study investigated the effects of OFS on pancreatic β-cell function using pancreatic islet β cells (HIT cell). Alpha-glucosidase inhibition, glucose uptake, insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, and pancreatic β cell proliferation were determined. The inhibitory effect of ethanol extract of OFS stem on α-glucosidase enzyme was measured in a cell free system. Glucose uptake was determined using fluorescent glucose analogue, 2-NBDG. Insulin secretion was measured by ELISA assay. Cell proliferation was measured by MTT assay. Ethanol extracts of OFS dose-dependently inhibited α-glucosidase activity as well as glucose uptake. Insulinotrophic effect of OFS extract was observed at high glucose media in pancreatic β-islet cells. Furthermore, pancreatic β cell regeneration was also observed.These results suggest that OFS mediates the antidiabetic activity mainly via α-glucosidase inhibition, glucose uptake, and improved insulin sensitivity.

Keywords: glucose uptake, α-glucosidase, Opuntia ficus-indica var. Saboten, prickly pear cactus, pancreatic islet HIT cells, insulinotrophic

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3 Qualitative and Quantitative Screening of Biochemical Compositions for Six Selected Marine Macroalgae from Mediterranean Coast of Egypt

Authors: Madelyn N. Moawad, Hermine R. Z. Tadros, Mary G. Ghobrial, Ahmad R. Bassiouny, Kamal M. Kandeel, Athar Ata


Seaweeds are potential renewable resources in marine environment. They provide an excellent source of bioactive substances such as dietary fibers and various functional polysaccharides that could potentially be used as ingredients for both human and animal health applications. The observations suggested that these bioactive compounds have strong antioxidant properties, which have beneficial effects on human health. The present research aimed at finding new chemical products from local marine macroalgae for natural medicinal uses and consumption for their nutritional values. Macroalgae samples were collected manually mainly from the Mediterranean Sea at shallow subtidal zone of Abu Qir Bay, Alexandria, Egypt. The chemical compositions of lyophilized materials of six selected macroalgal species; Colpomenia sinuosa, Sargassum linifolium, Padina pavonia, Pterocladiella capillacea, Laurencia pinnatifidia, and Caulerpa racemosa, were investigated for proteins using bovine serum albumin, and carbohydrates were assayed by phenol-sulfuric acid reaction. The macroalgae lipid was extracted with chloroform, methanol and phosphate buffer. Vitamins were extracted using trichloroacetic acid. Chlorophylls and total carotenoids were determined spectrophotometrically and total phenols were extracted with methanol. In addition, lipid-soluble, and water-soluble antioxidant, and anti α-glucosidase activities were measured spectrophotometrically. The antioxidant activity of hexane extracts was investigated using phosphomolybdenum reagent. The anti-α-glucosidase effect measurement was initiated by mixing α-glucosidase solution with p-nitrophenyl α-D-glucopyranoside. The results showed that the ash contents varied from 11.2 to 35.4 % on dry weight basis for P. capillacea and Laurencia pinnatifidia, respectively. The protein contents ranged from 5.63 % in brown macroalgae C. sinuosa to 8.73 % in P. pavonia. A relative wide range in carbohydrate contents was observed (20.06–46.75 %) for the test algal species. The highest lipid percentage was found in green alga C. racemosa (5.91%) followed by brown algae P. pavonia (3.57%) and C. sinuosa (2.64%). The phenolic contents varied from 1.32 mg GAE/g for C. sinuosa to 4.00 mg GAE/g in P. pavonia. The lipid-soluble compounds exhibited higher antioxidant capacity (73.18-145.95 µM/g) than that of the water-soluble ones ranging from 24.83 µM/g in C. racemosa to 74.07 µM/g in S. linifolium. The most potent anti-α-glucosidase activity was observed for P. pavonia with IC50 of 17.12 μg/ml followed by S. linifolium (IC50 = 71.75 μg/ml), C. racemosa (IC50 = 84.73 μg/ml), P. capillacea (IC50 = 92.16 μg/ml), C. sinuosa (IC50 = 112.44 μg/ml), and L. pinnatifida (IC50 = 115.11 μg/ml).

Keywords: macroalgae, α-glucosidase, lyophilized, spectrophotometrically

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2 Inhibition of α-Glucosidase and Xanthine Oxidase by Curcumin and Its Analogs

Authors: Jung-Feng Hsieh, Chu Ze Chen


Curcumin is the main active compound of turmeric that can inhibit the activities of α-glucosidase and xanthine oxidase (XO). α-Glucosidase and XO inhibitors are widely used to treat patients with diabetes mellitus and gout, respectively; therefore, the objective of this research was to evaluate the inhibitory activities of curcumin and its analogs against α-glucosidase and XO. Our results demonstrated that CM-F had the strongest antioxidant activity with a half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) of 9.39 ± 0.16 μM, which was superior to vitamin E (EC50=17.03 ± 0.09 μM). CM-F also exhibited potent inhibitory activity against XO with an IC50 value of 6.14 ± 0.38 μM and enzyme kinetic results revealed competitive inhibition of XO. We also found that CM-1 and CM-2 inhibited α-glucosidase with IC50 values of 21.06 ± 0.92 μM and 5.95 ± 0.09 μM, respectively, and kinetic studies indicated that both CM-1 and CM-2 are mixed competitive inhibitors of α-glucosidase. Furthermore, docking simulation identified five hydrogen bonds between XO and CM-F; however, only one and two hydrogen bonds are involved in CM-1 and CM-2 binding to α-glucosidase, respectively. Accordingly, curcumin and its analogs have the potential to be used in the treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus and gout.

Keywords: Curcumin, α-glucosidase, inhibitor, xanthine oxidase

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1 Assessing Digestive Enzymes Inhibitory Properties of Anthocyanins and Procyanidins from Apple, Red Grape, Cinnamon

Authors: Pinar Ercan, Sedef N. El


The goals of this study were to determine the total anthocyanin and procyanidin contents and their in vitro bioaccessibilities of apple, red grape and cinnamon by a static in vitro digestion method reported by the COST FA1005 Action INFOGEST, as well as in vitro inhibitory effects of these food samples on starch and lipid digestive enzymes. While the highest total anthocyanin content was found in red grape (164.76 ± 2.51 mg/100 g), the highest procyanidin content was found in cinnamon (6432.54±177.31 mg/100 g) among the selected food samples (p<0.05). The anthocyanin bioaccessibilities were found as 10.23±1 %, 8.23±0.64 %, and 8.73±0.70 % in apple, red grape, and cinnamon, respectively. The procyanidin bioaccessibilities of apple, red grape, and cinnamon were found as 17.57±0.71 %, 14.08±0.74 % and 18.75±1.49 %, respectively. The analyzed apple, red grape and cinnamon showed the inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase (IC50 544.27±21.94, 445.63±15.67, 1592±17.58 μg/mL, respectively), α-amylase (IC50 38.41±7.26, 56.12±3.60, 3.54±0.86 μg/mL, respectively), and lipase (IC50 52.65±2.05, 581.70±54.14, 49.63±2.72 μg/mL, respectively). Red grape sample showed the highest inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase, cinnamon showed the highest inhibitory activity against α-amylase and lipase according to IC50 (concentration of inhibitor required to produce a 50% inhibition of the initial rate of reaction) and Catechin equivalent inhibition capacity (CEIC50) values. This study reported that apple, grape and cinnamon samples can inhibit the activity of digestive enzymes in vitro. The consumption of these samples would be used in conjunction with a low-calorie diet for body weight management.

Keywords: lipase, α-amylase, α-glucosidase, anthocyanin, procyanidin

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