Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

α-amylase Related Abstracts

7 α-Amylase Inhibitory Activity of Some Tunisian Aromatic and Medicinal Plants

Authors: Hamdi Belfeki, Belgacem Chandoul, Mnasser Hassouna, Mondher Mejri


Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of eight Tunisian aromatic and medicinal plants (TAMP) were characterized by studying their composition in polyphenols and also their antiradical and antioxidant capacities. In absence and in the presence of the various extracts, α-amylase from Bacillus subtlis activity, was measured in order to detect a potential inhibition. The total contents of polyphenols and flavonoid vary in function of TAMP and the mobile phase used for the extraction (distilled water or ethanol). The ethanolic extracts showed the most significant antiradical and antioxidant activities. Only the extracts from Coriandrum sativum showed a significant inhibiting effect on the α-amylase activity. This inhibiting capacity could be correlated with the chemical profile of the two extracts, due to the fact that they have the greatest amount of total flavonoid. The ethanolic extract has the most important antioxidant and anti-radicalizing activities among the sixteen extracts studied. The inhibition kinetics of the two coriander extracts were evaluated by pre-incubation method, using Lineweaver-Burk’s equation, obtained by linearization of Michaeilis-Menten’s expression. The results showed that both extracts exercised a competitive inhibition mechanism.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, inhibition, α-amylase, aromatic and medicinal plants

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6 Evaluation of the Inhibitory Activity of Natural Extracts From Spontaneous Plant on the Α-Amylase and Α–Glucosidase and Their Antioxidant Activities

Authors: Ihcen Khacheba, Amar Djeridane, Abdelkarim Kamli, Mohamed Yousfi


Plant materials constitute an important source of natural bioactive molecules. Thus plants have been used from antiquity as sources of medicament against various diseases. These properties are usually attributed to secondary metabolites that are the subject of a lot of research in this field. This is particularly the case of phenolic compounds plants that are widely renowned in therapeutics as anti-inflammatories, enzyme inhibitors, and antioxidants, particularly flavonoïds. With the aim of acquiring a better knowledge of the secondary metabolism of the vegetable kingdom in the region of Laghouat and of the discovering of new natural therapeutics, 10 extracts from 5 Saharan plant species were submitted to chemical screening.The analysis of the preceding biological targets led to the evaluation of the biological activity of the extracts of the species Genista Corsica. The first step, consists in extracting and quantifying phenolic compounds. The second step has been devoted to stugying the effects of phenolic compounds on the kinetics catalyzed by two enzymes belonging to the class of hydrolase (the α-amylase and α-glucosidase) responsible for the digestion of sugars and finally we evaluate the antiantioxidant potential. The analysis results of phenolic extracts show clearly a low content of phenolic compounds in investigated plants. Average total phenolics ranged from 0.0017 to 11.35 mg equivalent gallic acid/g of the crude extract. Whereas the total flavonoids content lie between 0.0015 and 10.,96 mg/g equivalent of rutin. The results of the kinetic study of enzymatic reactions show that the extracts have inhibitory effects on both enzymes, with IC50 values ranging from 95.03 µg/ml to 1033.53 µg/ml for the α-amylase and 279.99 µg/ml to 1215.43 µg/ml for α-glucosidase whose greatest inhibition was found for the acetone extract of June (IC50 = 95.03 µg/ml). The results the antioxidant activity determined by ABTS, DPPH, and phosphomolybdenum tests clearly showed a good antioxidant capacity comparatively to antioxidants taken as reference the biological potential of these plants and could find their use in medicine to replace synthetic products.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, α-amylase, phenolic extracts, inhibition effect, α-glucosidase

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5 Fatty Acid Composition, Total Sugar Content and Anti-Diabetic Activity of Methanol and Water Extracts of Nine Different Fruit Tree Leaves Collected from Mediterranean Region of Turkey

Authors: Sengul Uysal, Gokhan Zengin, Abdurrahman Aktumsek, Sukru Karatas


In this research, we determined the total sugar content, fatty acid compositions and α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of methanolic and water extracts of nine different fruit tree leaves. α-amylase and α-glycosidase inhibitory activity were determined by using Caraway-Somogyi–iodine/potassium iodide (IKI) and 4-nitrophenyl-α-D-glucopyranoside (PNPG) as substrate, respectively. Total sugar content of the nine different fruit tree leaves varies from 281.02 mg GE/g (glucose equivalents) to 643.96 mg GE/g. Methanolic extract from avocado leaves had the strongest in α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, 69.21% and 96.26 %, respectively. Fatty acid composition of nine fruit tree leaves was characterized by GC (gas chromatography) and twenty-four components were identified. Among the tested fruit tree leaves, the main component was linolenic acid (49.09%). The level of essential fatty acids are over 50% in mulberry, grape and loquat leaves. PUFAs (polyunsaturated fatty acids) were major group of fatty acids present in oils of mulberry, fig, pomegranate, grape, and loquat leaves. Therefore, these oils can be considered as a good source of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Furthermore, avocado can be regarded as a new source for diabetic therapies.

Keywords: Turkey, α-amylase, α-glucosidase, fatty acid compositions, total sugar contents, fruit tree leaves

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4 Antioxidant, Hypoglycemic and Hypotensive Effects Affected by Various Molecular Weights of Cold Water Extract from Pleurotus Citrinopileatus

Authors: Pao-Huei Chen, Shu-Mei Lin, Yih-Ming Weng, Zer-Ran Yu, Be-Jen Wang


Pancreatic α-amylase and intestinal α-glucosidase are the critical enzymes for the breakdown of complex carbohydrates into di- or mono-saccharide, which play an important role in modulating postprandial blood sugars. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) converts inactive angiotensin-I into active angiotensin-II, which subsequently increase blood pressure through triggering vasoconstriction and aldosterone secretion. Thus, inhibition of carbohydrate-digestion enzymes and ACE will help the management of blood glucose and blood pressure, respectively. Studies showed Pleurotus citrinopileatus (PC), an edible mushroom and commonly cultured in oriental countries, exerted anticancer, immune improving, antioxidative, hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects. Previous studies also showed various molecular weights (MW) fractioned from extracts may affect biological activities due to varying contents of bioactive components. Thus, the objective of this study is to investigate the in vitro antioxidant, hypoglycemic and hypotenstive effects and distribution of active compounds of various MWs of cold water extract from P. citrinopileatus (CWEPC). CWEPC was fractioned into four various MW fractions, PC-I (<1 kDa), PC-II (1-3.5 kDa), PC-III (3.5-10 kDa), and PC-IV (>10 kDa), using an ultrafiltration system. The physiological activities, including antioxidant activities, the inhibition capabilities of pancreatic α-amylase, intestinal α-glucosidase, and hypertension-linked ACE, and the active components, including polysaccharides, protein, and phenolic contents, of CWEPC and four fractions were determined. The results showed that fractions with lower MW exerted a higher antioxidant activity (p<0.05), which was positively correlated to the levels of total phenols. In contrast, the inhibition effects on the activities of α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and ACE of PC-IV fraction were significantly higher than CWEPC and the other three low MW fractions (< 10 kDa), which was more related to protein contents. The inhibition capability of CWEPC and PC-IV on α-amylase activity was 1/13.4 to 1/2.7 relative to that of acarbose (positive control), respectively. However, the inhibitory ability of PC-IV on α-glucosidase (IC50 = 0.5 mg/mL) was significantly higher than acarbose (IC50 = 1.7 mg/mL). Kinetic data revealed that PC-IV fraction followed a non-competitive inhibition on α-glucosidase activity. In conclusion, the distribution of various bioactive components contribute to the functions of different MW fractions on oxidative stress prevention, and blood pressure and glucose modulation.

Keywords: angiotensin converting enzyme, α-amylase, α-glucosidase, Pleurotus citrinopileatus

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3 Physical Properties and Resistant Starch Content of Rice Flour Residues Hydrolyzed by α-Amylase

Authors: Waranya Pongpaiboon, Warangkana Srichamnong, Supat Chaiyakul


Enzymatic modification of rice flour can produce highly functional derivatives use in food industries. This study aimed to evaluate the physical properties and resistant starch content of rice flour residues hydrolyzed by α-amylase. Rice flour hydrolyzed by α-amylase (60 and 300 u/g) for 1, 24 and 48 hours were investigated. Increasing enzyme concentration and hydrolysis time resulted in decreased rice flour residue’s lightness (L*) but increased redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) of rice flour residues. The resistant starch content and peak viscosity increased when hydrolysis time increased. Pasting temperature, trough viscosity, breakdown, final viscosity, setback and peak time of the hydrolyzed flours were not significantly different (p>0.05). The morphology of native flour was smooth without observable pores and polygonal with sharp angles and edges. However, after hydrolysis, granules with a slightly rough and porous surface were observed and a rough and porous surface was increased with increasing hydrolyzed time. The X-ray diffraction patterns of native flour showed A-type configuration, which hydrolyzed flour showed almost 0% crystallinity indicated that both amorphous and crystalline structures of starch were simultaneously hydrolyzed by α-amylase.

Keywords: Enzymatic Hydrolysis, pasting properties, α-amylase, resistant starch

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2 Assessing Digestive Enzymes Inhibitory Properties of Anthocyanins and Procyanidins from Apple, Red Grape, Cinnamon

Authors: Pinar Ercan, Sedef N. El


The goals of this study were to determine the total anthocyanin and procyanidin contents and their in vitro bioaccessibilities of apple, red grape and cinnamon by a static in vitro digestion method reported by the COST FA1005 Action INFOGEST, as well as in vitro inhibitory effects of these food samples on starch and lipid digestive enzymes. While the highest total anthocyanin content was found in red grape (164.76 ± 2.51 mg/100 g), the highest procyanidin content was found in cinnamon (6432.54±177.31 mg/100 g) among the selected food samples (p<0.05). The anthocyanin bioaccessibilities were found as 10.23±1 %, 8.23±0.64 %, and 8.73±0.70 % in apple, red grape, and cinnamon, respectively. The procyanidin bioaccessibilities of apple, red grape, and cinnamon were found as 17.57±0.71 %, 14.08±0.74 % and 18.75±1.49 %, respectively. The analyzed apple, red grape and cinnamon showed the inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase (IC50 544.27±21.94, 445.63±15.67, 1592±17.58 μg/mL, respectively), α-amylase (IC50 38.41±7.26, 56.12±3.60, 3.54±0.86 μg/mL, respectively), and lipase (IC50 52.65±2.05, 581.70±54.14, 49.63±2.72 μg/mL, respectively). Red grape sample showed the highest inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase, cinnamon showed the highest inhibitory activity against α-amylase and lipase according to IC50 (concentration of inhibitor required to produce a 50% inhibition of the initial rate of reaction) and Catechin equivalent inhibition capacity (CEIC50) values. This study reported that apple, grape and cinnamon samples can inhibit the activity of digestive enzymes in vitro. The consumption of these samples would be used in conjunction with a low-calorie diet for body weight management.

Keywords: lipase, α-amylase, α-glucosidase, anthocyanin, procyanidin

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1 A Preliminary in vitro Investigation of the Acetylcholinesterase and α-Amylase Inhibition Potential of Pomegranate Peel Extracts

Authors: Zoi Konsoula


The increasing prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and diabetes mellitus (DM) constitutes them major global health problems. Recently, the inhibition of key enzyme activity is considered a potential treatment of both diseases. Specifically, inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the key enzyme involved in the breakdown of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, is a promising approach for the treatment of AD, while inhibition of α-amylase retards the hydrolysis of carbohydrates and, thus, reduces hyperglycemia. Unfortunately, commercially available AChE and α-amylase inhibitors are reported to possess side effects. Consequently, there is a need to develop safe and effective treatments for both diseases. In the present study, pomegranate peel (PP) was extracted using various solvents of increasing polarity, while two extraction methods were employed, the conventional maceration and the ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE). The concentration of bioactive phytoconstituents, such as total phenolics (TPC) and total flavonoids (TFC) in the prepared extracts was evaluated by the Folin-Ciocalteu and the aluminum-flavonoid complex method, respectively. Furthermore, the anti-neurodegenerative and anti-hyperglycemic activity of all extracts was determined using AChE and α-amylase inhibitory activity assays, respectively. The inhibitory activity of the extracts against AChE and α-amylase was characterized by estimating their IC₅₀ value using a dose-response curve, while galanthamine and acarbose were used as positive controls, respectively. Finally, the kinetics of AChE and α-amylase in the presence of the most inhibitory potent extracts was determined by the Lineweaver-Burk plot. The methanolic extract prepared using the UAE contained the highest amount of phytoconstituents, followed by the respective ethanolic extract. All extracts inhibited acetylcholinesterase in a dose-dependent manner, while the increased anticholinesterase activity of the methanolic (IC₅₀ = 32 μg/mL) and ethanolic (IC₅₀ = 42 μg/mL) extract was positively correlated with their TPC content. Furthermore, the activity of the aforementioned extracts was comparable to galanthamine. Similar results were obtained in the case of α-amylase, however, all extracts showed lower inhibitory effect on the carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme than on AChE, since the IC₅₀ value ranged from 84 to 100 μg/mL. Also, the α-amylase inhibitory effect of the extracts was lower than acarbose. Finally, the methanolic and ethanolic extracts prepared by UAE inhibited both enzymes in a mixed (competitive/noncompetitive) manner since the Kₘ value of both enzymes increased in the presence of extracts, while the Vmax value decreased. The results of the present study indicate that PP may be a useful source of active compounds for the management of AD and DM. Moreover, taking into consideration that PP is an agro-industrial waste product, its valorization could not only result in economic efficiency but also reduce the environmental pollution.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, alzheimer’s disease, α-amylase, acetylcholinesterase, pomegranate

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