%0 Journal Article
	%A Ahmad Kayvani Fard and  Yehia Manawi
	%D 2014
	%J International Journal of Energy and Power Engineering
	%B World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology
	%I Open Science Index 90, 2014
	%T Seawater Desalination for Production of Highly Pure Water Using a Hydrophobic PTFE Membrane and Direct Contact Membrane Distillation (DCMD)
	%U https://publications.waset.org/pdf/9998440
	%V 90
	%X Qatar’s primary source of fresh water is through
seawater desalination. Amongst the major processes that are
commercially available on the market, the most common large scale
techniques are Multi-Stage Flash distillation (MSF), Multi Effect
distillation (MED), and Reverse Osmosis (RO). Although commonly
used, these three processes are highly expensive down to high energy
input requirements and high operating costs allied with maintenance
and stress induced on the systems in harsh alkaline media. Beside that
cost, environmental footprint of these desalination techniques are
significant; from damaging marine eco-system, to huge land use, to
discharge of tons of GHG and huge carbon footprint.
Other less energy consuming techniques based on membrane
separation are being sought to reduce both the carbon footprint and
operating costs is membrane distillation (MD).
Emerged in 1960s, MD is an alternative technology for water
desalination attracting more attention since 1980s. MD process
involves the evaporation of a hot feed, typically below boiling point
of brine at standard conditions, by creating a water vapor pressure
difference across the porous, hydrophobic membrane. Main
advantages of MD compared to other commercially available
technologies (MSF and MED) and specially RO are reduction of
membrane and module stress due to absence of trans-membrane
pressure, less impact of contaminant fouling on distillate due to
transfer of only water vapor, utilization of low grade or waste heat
from oil and gas industries to heat up the feed up to required
temperature difference across the membrane, superior water quality,
and relatively lower capital and operating cost.
To achieve the objective of this study, state of the art flat-sheet
cross-flow DCMD bench scale unit was designed, commissioned, and
tested. The objective of this study is to analyze the characteristics and
morphology of the membrane suitable for DCMD through SEM
imaging and contact angle measurement and to study the water
quality of distillate produced by DCMD bench scale unit.
Comparison with available literature data is undertaken where
appropriate and laboratory data is used to compare a DCMD distillate
quality with that of other desalination techniques and standards.
Membrane SEM analysis showed that the PTFE membrane used
for the study has contact angle of 127º with highly porous surface
supported with less porous and bigger pore size PP membrane. Study
on the effect of feed solution (salinity) and temperature on water
quality of distillate produced from ICP and IC analysis showed that
with any salinity and different feed temperature (up to 70ºC) the
electric conductivity of distillate is less than 5 μS/cm with 99.99%
salt rejection and proved to be feasible and effective process capable
of consistently producing high quality distillate from very high feed
salinity solution (i.e. 100000 mg/L TDS) even with substantial
quality difference compared to other desalination methods such as
RO and MSF.

	%P 398 - 406